Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 169 Willow (part 3)

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(Blog Masters Note:
I apologize to my readers for the delay in posting. I was a necessary delay for reasons of the heart. I have been dating, and will probably not post until after the holidays. This is a happy time for me. Happy Holidays!!!

Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
(Blog Masters Note: At the bottom I am going to cover Weeping Willow, it has no range listed on usda, but is familiar to us as a nursery plant and we grow it in our yards. I know this year, a drought year, the deer are eating the bottom leaves.
All past posts for Wild Edible And Medicinal Plants  are now located in a drop-down search below comments.)

Common Name: Willow
Latin Name:
Salix spp
Family: Salicaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=salix Main database for Willow, all of North America.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SANI All states east of the Mississippi R. and along the west bank, plus Nebraska to Texas and Colorado; In Canada; Manitoba to Quebec and New Brunswick. (Salix nigra)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAPE4 Pennsylavia New Jersey north through New England plus Maryland, Virginia, N. Carolina, all States north of the Ohio River, Minnesota, Iowa, N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Alaska; In Candada all lower providences except Labrador. (Salix pentandra)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAPU15 Alaska; In Canada; Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and British Columbia. (Salix pulchra)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SASC All States west of the Rocky Mountains, plus S. Dakota and Alaska; In Canada; British Columbia to Saskatchewan, Yukon and Northwest Territories (Salix scouleriana)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )

Warnings: No warnings except on Salix pentandra
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#169 (o)
Common Name: Black Willow, Gulf Black Willow ( Salix nigra )
Appearance and Habitat:
A fast-growing tree, 10-60 ft., with an open crown often with several trunks growing out at angles from one root. Found in wet soil along streams and at the margins of ponds and lakes. Leaf blades up to 5 inches long, narrow and tapering to an elongate tip, margins finely serrate. Bright yellow-green twigs bear yellow-green catkins. Flowers inconspicuous, arranged in elongate clusters which appear in March and April; male and female flowers on separate trees. Seeds wind-borne on silky hairs. The bark is deeply furrowed. This is the largest and most important New World willow, with one of the most extensive ranges across the country. In the lower Mississippi Valley it attains commercial timber size, reaching 100-140 (30-42 m) in height and 4 (1.2 m) in diameter. Large trees are valuable in binding soil banks, thus preventing soil erosion and flood damage. Mats and poles made from Black Willow trunks and branches provide further protection of riverbanks and levees. One of the lightest of all eatern hardwoods, it is extremely weak in a structural sense. Yet it has a strength of its own. When nails are driven into it, black willow does not split. Also a shade tree and honey plant.(1) Found on a large variety of soils, as long as they are wet, by steamsides, shores and rich low woods in eastern N. America – Maine to Minnesota, south to Texas. A deciduous tree growing to 12 m (39ft 4in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in May.(2) 
Edible Uses: Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable.(3) 
Medicinal Uses : The bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, sedative, tonic. It has been used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, ovarian pains and nocturnal emissions. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. The bark can be used as a poultice on cuts, wounds, sprains, bruises, swellings etc. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried. The fresh bark contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge and as an ingredient of spring tonics. (4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SANI
Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+nigra
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#169 (p)
Common Name: Laurel Willow, Bay Leaved Willow, Bay Willow ( Salix pentandra )
Appearance and Habitat:
Introduced and escaped. A perennial tree to 25 feet, when in bloom it has catkins similar to Salix Serissima, but longer. The leaf is lance-like to oblong, shiny dark green above, lighter green below. It’s habitat is swamps and bogs.(1) Streamsides, marshes, fens, and wet woods, ascending to 450 meteres. Native in N. Britain, planted elsewhere. Europe from Norway south and east to te Pyrennees, Siberia, Caucasus and W. Asia. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in June.(2)
Warnings: Gastrointestinal bleeding and Kidney damage possible. Avoid concurrent administration with other asprin like drugs. Avoid during pregnany. Drug interactions associated with salicylates applicable.(3)
Edible Uses: Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – cooked. Not very palatable.(4)
Medicinal Uses : The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Salix / Willow for diseases accompanied by fever, rheumatic ailments, headaches.(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=SALPEN
Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+pentandra
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#169 (q)
Common Name: Tealeaf Willow, ( Salix pulchra )
Appearance and Habitat:
Stream banks, lake sides, open woods etc in norther-western N. America. Found in N. Europe, N. Asia and Northern N. America. A deciduous shrub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender.
Edible Uses: Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups or can be added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots and leaves – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable. The leaves and shoots can be eaten with oil to make them more palatable. A good source of vitamin C, they are one of the first new leaves to be produced in the spring. The leaves can be added to soups or eaten in mixed salads. Catkins. No more details are given. The dried leaves have been used to make a tea.
Medicinal Uses : An infusion of the leaves and bark has been used as an anaesthetic.The bark and the leaves have been chewed to numb the mouth and throat. They have also been chewed as a treatment for mouth sores and are said to make the mouth smell good. The cottony seed floss has been used to dry moist eyes. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifugeThe fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+pulchra
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#169 (q)
Common Name: Scouler’s Willow, Western Pussy Willow ( Salix scouleriana)

Appearance and Habitat: Scoulers Willow or Western pussy willow is a tall shrub or tree, growing to 30 ft., with dark green, broadly lance-shaped leaves clustered at the ends of the twigs. Stems are slender with gray-green bark. Silvery-gray, furry catkins appear before leaf emergence. Freshly stripped bark of twigs usually has skunklike odor. This species is sometimes called Fire Willow because it rapidly occupies burned areas, forming blue-green thickets. A pussy willow and one of the earliest flowering species, it is an important browse plant for moose in Alaska and for sheep and cattle elsewhere. It is one of several species sometimes forming diamond willow; these stems with diamond-shaped patterns caused by fungi are in demand for canes, novelties, and furniture posts. It is named for its discoverer, John Scouler (1804-71), the Scottish naturalist and physician.(1) Found on both moist lowland and dry upland areas, growing in a range of habitats from upland bogs and riversides to meadows, roadsides and cleared areas in forests, from sea level to 3000 meters in western N. America – Alaska to California and New Mexico. It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. A deciduous tree growing to 10 m (32ft 10in) at a fast rate. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in May.(2)
Edible Uses: None(3)
Medicinal Uses : A poultice of the inner cambium has been used in the treatment of serious cuts. A poultice of the damp inner bark has been applied to the skin over a broken bone. The shredded inner bark has been used as sanitary napkins to ‘heal a woman’s insides’. A poultice of the bark and sap has been used in the treatment of bleeding wounds. A decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment of dysentery. A decoction of the branches has been taken by women for several months after giving birth in order to increase the blood flow. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SASC
Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+scouleriana
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#169 (r)
Common Name: Weeping Willow, ( Salix babylonica )
Appearance and Habitat:
Not known in a truly wild situation. The origins of this species is obscure. A deciduous tree growing to 12 m (39ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in May.
Edible Uses: Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots and flower buds – cooked. Not very palatable. Older leaves are used to adulterate tea. A source of a manna-like substance.
Medicinal Uses : The leaves and bark are antirheumatic, astringent and tonic. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of abscesses, carbuncle, fever, rheumatism, skin diseases, ulcers etc. An infusion of the bark has been used to treat diarrhoea and fevers. The bark can be used as a poultice. The stem bark is used in the treatment of skin eruptions due to parasites. The root bark is used in a bath for the treatment of parasitic skin diseases. A gum from the stems is used in the treatment of foul sores. The down of the seeds is used in the treatment of fevers, haemorrhages, jaundice, rheumatism etc. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+babylonica
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(Now for Michael Moore who covers all in the west.)
Appearance and Habitat: Willows close relative is Poplus and is used in primarily the same way. Willows seem to adapt and change throughout the west, mutating from stream to stream. Their bark is easy to peel than that of the Poplars. Willow trees can be found with yellow, gary, black bark, as small trees with brownish wringled bark. They all tend to have lace-shaped thin leaves, that are hairless, and have short stems. They bear catkins in the spring, either before, or after, the leaves appear. They can be mistaken for narrow leaf Cottonwood would if you live in Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico or Colorado. But seeing as how the uses are similar it makes no difference when it comes to using narrow leaf Cottonwood. One major difference is the catkins of the Willow are usually upright where the Cottonwoods tend to droop. The smaller stemmy Willows grow along creeks and streams though our the west, from sea level to 10,000 feet. They are abundant through out the west.
Warnings: Do not take internally with anticoagulant drugs, immunosupressant organ transplants or if allergic to asprin
Medicinal Uses : Collect the bark and twigs, take from the newer branches that they seem to be more potent. Remove the leaves and allow the branch to dry after being cut. Once dried small pieces of stem can be used. Uses are mainly for headache, neuralgia, fevers and hay fever as a tea. But foliage can also be used as a poultice for ulcerated, infected wounds or as an external wash for wounds along with eczema. To make a strong wash, boil the plant in twice it’s volume for at least a half hour. Add some boric acid, at a rate of a tablespoon per pint and use as often as needed. For the tea, for internal use of headaches, fevers, inflammated joints etc. use the bark and take 2 to 4 ounces of tea up to 4 times a day. For the internal tea, combine 32 part water with 1 part bark by weight, bring to a boil and continue to let boil for 10 minutes. Strain out the bark and return the water level to its original volume.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 257-259, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 169 – Willow (part 2)

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
(Blog Masters Note: All past posts for Wild Edible And Medicinal Plants  are now located in a drop-down search below comments.)
#169 (part 2)
Common Name: Willow
Latin Name:
Salix spp
Family: Salicaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=salix
Main database for Willow; all of North America.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAEX All States west of the Rocky Mountains, plus Indiana, Kansas and Texas; In Canada; British Columbia to Saskatchewan. (Salix exigua)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAFR All States, including these States, and northward; Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, New Mexico, Utah, Idaho and Washington; plus Mississippi; In Canada; Alberta, Manitoba to Quebec, Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Salix fragilis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAGO California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. (Salix gooddingii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAHA Alaska; In Canada; Yukon and Northwest Territories. (Salix hastata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAHO Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California; In Canada; British Columbia. (Salix hookeriana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALA6 Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. (Salix lasiolepis)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALU Ohio, W. Virginia and Virginia north to New England; plus all States north of the Ohio R.; plus all States west of the Rocky Mountains, plus N. and S. Dakota, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa and Alaska; In Canada; all except for Nunavut. (Salix lucida)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )
Warnings: Only on Salix fragilis
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#169 (h)
Common Name: Coyote Willow, Narrowleaf Willow, Sandbar Willow ( Salix exigua )
Appearance and Habitat:
A small clumping, deciduous shrub (A low growing, usually less than 15 feet, woody perennial plant without a central stem.) or tree, from 4-15 ft. tall. The bark is gray and furrowed; the leaves silky-gray. Catkins appear after the leaves. This hardy species has perhaps the greatest range of all tree willows: from the Yukon River in central Alaska to the Mississippi River in southern Louisiana. A common and characteristic shrub along streams throughout the interior, especially the Great Plains and Southwest, it is drought-resistant and suitable for planting on stream bottoms to prevent surface erosion. Livestock browse the foliage; Indians made baskets from the twigs and bark.(1)  Forms thickets in estuaries and swamps. Sandy gravelly or muck soils in and along watercourses, often invading fresh sandbars in rivers and streams. N. America – Alaska to New Brusnwick, south through central N. America to Texas. It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in June.(2)
Edible Uses:The leaves have been used to make a drink like orange juice.(3)
Medicinal Uses :The bark has been used in the treatment of sore throats, coughs and certain fevers. A decoction of the dried roots has been used in the treatment of venereal diseases. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.  (4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAEX
Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+exigua
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#169 (i)
Common Name: Brittle Willow, Crack Willow ( Salix fragilis )
Appearance and Habitat:
An introduced prennial tree to 65 feet, with a trunk diameter of up to 40 inches. The leaves are narrowly lance-like coarsely toothed, dark green above, with a lighten underside.
(1)  Streams, marshes fens and wet woods in Europe, including Britain,, from Sweden south and east to Spain, Serbia and Iran. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June. (2)
Warnings: Gastrointestinal bleeding and Kidney damage possible. Avoid concurrent administration with other asprin like drugs. Avoid during pregnany. Drug interactions associated with salicylates applicable.
(3)
Edible Uses:Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable. A saccharine exudation is obtained from the leaves and young branches. Used as a food.
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne, astringent and febrifuge. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. A poultice of the bark has been applied to sores as a styptic and healing agent. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Salix / Willow for diseases accompanied by fever, rheumatic ailments, headaches.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=SALFRA

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+fragilis
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#169 (j)
Common Name: Gooding’s Willow, San Joaquin Willow ( Salix gooddingii )
Appearance and Habitat:
A deciduous tree 15 – 40ft. with yellow stems and ligtht green leaves. The bark of this sometimes shrubby plant is rough and dark. Catkins appear on leafy, lateral stems.
(1)   Found in desert, desert grassland and oak woodland habitats, it is most abundant on nutrient rich floodplains. Found at elevations between 60 – 1200 meters in south western N. America – California to Texas, south to Mexico. A deciduous tree growing to 10 m (32ft 10in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in May.(2)
Edible Uses:A honeydew can be obtained from the cut branches. The young shoots can be made into a tea. Leaves and the bark of twigs can be steeped to make a tea. The catkins can be eaten raw. Bark – raw or cooked. This probably refers to the inner bark.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :A decoction of the leaves and bark have been used as a febrifuge. The following uses are for the closely related S. nigra. They probably also apply to this species. The bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, sedative, tonic. It has been used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, ovarian pains and nocturnal emissions. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried. The fresh bark contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge and as an ingredient of spring tonics.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAGO

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+gooddingii
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#169 (k)
Common Name: Halberd Willow, Halberd-Leaved Willow ( Salix hastata )
Appearance and Habitat:
Wet places ascending into mountains in the south of its range. In mountains of Europe – Norway south to Spain and eastward to E. Asia. A deciduous shrub growing to 2 m (6ft) by 2 m (6ft). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May.
Edible Uses: Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable
Medicinal Uses : The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+hastata
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#169 (l)
Common Name: Dune Willow, Hooker Willow ( Salix hookeriana )
Appearance and Habitat:
Shrub or small tree with many stems, broad, rounded crown, and leaves nearly half as wide as long. Hooker Willows relatively broad leaves aid in recognition. It is named after William Jackson Hooker (1785-1865), a British botanist, in whose book the original description of this species was published. He was Director of Kew Gardens from 1841-1865, wrote “Flora boreali-americana”, and many other works. He was founder and editor of “Journal of Botany”. The isolated Alaskan plants were formerly regarded as a different species, Yakutat Willow (S. amplifolia).
(1)  Borders of salt marshes and ponds, also on sandy coastal dunes. Streams, ponds and sloughs near the shore in western N. America – Alaska to California. It grows to 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in June.(2)
Edible Uses:Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable. The leaves have been used as a flavouring in cooked foods.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The leaves have been used as an antidote to shellfish poisoning. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAHO

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+hookeriana

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#169 (m)
Common Name: Arroyo Willow, Willow ( Salix lasiolepis )
Appearance and Habitat:
Usually a thicket forming shrub with clustered stems; sometimes a small tree with slender, erect branches forming narrow, irregular crown. The name White Willow may come from the light-colored bark and leaves with whitish lower surfaces. The scientific name, meaning shaggy scale, refers to the white hairs on the scales of the flowers.
(1)Well drained sandy loams to rich rocky or gravelly soils along streams at lower elevations, expecially in California where it becomes more tree like. Western N. America – Washington to California and Mexico. A deciduous tree growing to 12 m (39ft 4in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in May.(2)
Edible Uses: None
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The bark is antipruritic, astringent, diaphoretic and febrifuge. An infusion of the bark has been used in the treatment of colds, chills, fevers, measles and various diseases where sweating can be beneficial. A decoction of the bark has been used as a wash for itchy skin. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of colds and diarrhoea. A decoction of the catkins has been used in the treatment of colds. The fresh bark contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SALA6

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+lasiolepis
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#169 (n)
Common Name: Shinning Willow ( Salix lucida )
Appearance and Habitat:
A broad shrub, shining willow grows 12-20 ft. tall, with a pyramidal form. Upright, spreading, fine-textured branches occur from a short trunk. Bark is smooth and reddish-brown. Shining willow’s finest characteristic is its smooth, glossy leaves that simmer in the sun. Fall color is a fairly insignificant yellow. Spring branches are densely flowered with green catkins. Distribution: AK , AZ , CA , CO , CT , DE , IA , ID , IL , IN , KS , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MT , ND , NH , NJ , NM , NV , NY , OH , OR , PA , RI , SD , UT , VA , VT , WA , WI , WV , WY Canada: AB , MB , NB , NL , NS , NT , ON , PE , QC , SK , YT(1)   Wet soils, especially in and along swamps, also in marshes, peat bogs ad on sandy banks along creeks. Eastern and central N. America Newfoundland to the eastern base of the Rockies. A deciduous shrub growing to 8 m (26ft 3in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May.(2)
Edible Uses: None.(3)
Medicinal Uses :The bark is analgesic, antiasthmatic, astringent and haemostatic. It is used in the treatment of bleeding and asthma. A poultice of the bark has been applied to the head to allay the pain of headaches. The poultice has also been used to treat sores and bleeding cuts. An infusion of the leaves is used as an analgesic in the treatment of headaches. The fresh bark contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SALU
Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+lucida

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants # 169 Willow (Part 1)

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
(Blog Masters Note: All past posts for Wild Edible And Medicinal Plants  are now located in a drop-down search below comments.)
#169
Common Name: Willow
Latin Name:
Salix spp
Family: Salicaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=salix
Main data base on usda, all of North America.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAAL2 All States east of the Mississippi R., except Mississippi, Alabama, Florida and S. Carolina; On the west bank of the Mississippi all States except, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah and Oregon. (include found in Alaska); In Canada; Saskatchewan to Quebec, plus Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. (Salix alba)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAAM2 All States west of the Mississippi R., except Arkansas, Louisiana and California; plus all States north of the Ohio R., plus Kentucky, Pennsylvania and New York; In Canada; British Columbia to Quebec. (Salix amygdaloides)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SABE2> All states west of the Rocky Mountains (including Alaska); all States north of the Ohio R., plus Pennsylanvia / New Jersey north to Maine, plus Maryland, N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota and Iowa; In Canada; all of Canada. (Salix bebbiana)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SACA22 Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia, W. Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York and Connecticut; In Canada; British Columbia, Ontario and Nova Scotia. (Salix caprea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SACI All States east of the Mississippi R., except Mississippi, Florida, Delaware, New Jersey, Vermont and New Hampshire; plus Louisiana and Utah; In Canada; Ontario and Nova Scotia. (Salix cinerea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SACO2 Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana and Alaska; In Canada; British Columbia, Alberta, Yukon and Northwest Territories. (Salix commutata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAER All States east of the Mississippi R. and along the west bank, except Mississippi, N. and S. Carolina; plus North Dakota to Oklahoma including Colorado; In Canada; Saskatchewan to Quebec, plus Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Salix eriocephala)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )

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#169 (a)
Common Name: White Willow (Salix alba )
Appearance and Habitat:
Introduced perennial tree to 80′; widely spreading crown; yellowish-brown twigs; grayish-brown, irregularly furrowed bark. The flower is 1 1/2″-2″ long erect catkins. The leaf is lance-like to narrowly oval, 2″-4″ long, underside whitened, edges finely toothed, stalks with distinct glands near the blade. Found on moist ground, lake shores and stream beds.
(1)  By streams and rivers, marshes, woods and wet fens on richer soils in Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to N. Africa, Siberia, Himalayas and Israel. A deciduous tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a fast rate.It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in June.(2)
Warnings: Gastrointestinal bleeding and kidney damage possible. Avoid concurrent administration with other aspirin like drugs. Avoid during pregnany. Drug interactions associated with salicylates application.
(3)
Edible Uses:Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and added to cereal flour then used in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, especially when fresh, it is used as a famine food when all else fails. Leaves and young shoots – raw or cooked. Not very palatable. They are used only in times of scarcity. The leaves can be used as a tea substitute.
(4)
Medicinal Uses :Justly famous as the original source of salicylic acid (the precursor of aspirin), white willow and several closely related species have been used for thousands of years to relieve joint pain and manage fevers. The bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, sedative and tonic. It has been used internally in the treatment of dyspepsia connected with debility of the digestive organs, rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. Its tonic and astringent properties render it useful in convalescence from acute diseases, in treating worms, chronic dysentery and diarrhoea. The fresh bark is very bitter and astringent. It contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge. The bark is harvested in the spring or early autumn from 3 – 6 year old branches and is dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic. An infusion of the leaves has a calming effect and is helpful in the treatment of nervous insomnia. When added to the bath water, the infusion is of real benefit in relieving widespread rheumatism. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Salix / Willow for diseases accompanied by fever, rheumatic ailments, headaches.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=SALALB

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+alba
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#169 (b)
Common Name: Peach Leaved Willow, Almond Leaved Willow (Salix amygdaloides )
Appearance and Habitat:
Peach-leaf willow is a medium-sized, multi-trunked tree, 35-50 ft. tall, with fine-textured, slightly weeping branching and orange-yellow twigs. Catkins appear before leaf emergence. The narrow, yellow-green foliage has insignificant fall color. Tree with 1 or sometimes several straight trunks, upright branches, and spreading crown. This is the common willow across the northern plains, where it is important in protecting riverbanks from erosion. Both common and scientific names refer to the leaf shape, which suggests that of Peach.
(1)Along muddy streambanks and in low wet woods bordering rivers to 2100 meters in N. America – British Columbia to New York, south to Texas. A deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft 7in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in May.(2)
Warnings: None 
(3)
Edible Uses: None 
(4)
Medicinal Uses :An infusion of the bark shavings has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea and stomach ailments. A poultice of the bark has been applied to bleeding cuts. A decoction of the branch tips has been used as a soak for treating cramps in the legs and feet. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAAM2

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+amygdaloides
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#169 (c)
Common Name: Bebb Willow, Gray Willow, Long-Beaked Willow (Salix bebbiana )
Appearance and Habitat:
A narrow, somewhat columnar-shaped shrub or small tree, 20-30 ft. tall. The single or multiple trunks have maroonish bark. Catkins appear before the silvery-gray foliage emerges. Fall color is insignificant. Bebb Willow is the most important diamond willow, a term applied to several species which sometimes have diamond-shaped patterns on their trunks. These are caused by fungi, usually in shade or poor sites. The contrasting whitish and brownish stems are carved into canes, lamps, posts, furniture, and candleholders. Forms willow thickets as a weed on uplands after forest fires. Named for Michael Schuck Bebb (1833-95), U.S. specialist on willows.
(1)Moist rich soils along streams, lakes and swamps, but also forming dense thickets in open meadows. Found at elevations up to 3000 meters in North America – Newfoundland to Alaska, south to California. A deciduous shrub growing to 7 m (23ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in June.(2)
Warnings: None
(3)
Edible Uses: None
(4)
Medicinal Uses :A poultice of the chewed root inner bark has been applied to a deep cut. The shredded inner bark has been used as sanitary napkins to ‘heal a woman’s insides’. A poultice of the damp inner bark has been applied to the skin over a broken bone. A decoction of the branches has been taken by women for several months after childbirth to increase the blood flow. A poultice of the bark and sap has been applied as a wad to bleeding wounds. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SABE2

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+bebbiana
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#169 (d)
Common Name: Goat Willow (Salix caprea )
Appearance and Habitat:
Woods, scrub and hedges, usually on basic soils, to 840 meters in Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to Spain, temperate Aisa and Syria. A deciduous tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Mar to April, and the seeds ripen in May.
Warnings: None
Edible Uses: Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable. The source of an edible manna No further details.
Medicinal Uses : The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of fevers. A distilled water from the flowers is aphrodisiac, cordial and stimulant. It is used externally in the treatment of headaches and ophthalmia. The ashes of the wood are useful in the treatment of haemoptysis. The stems and the leaves are astringent. A gum and the juice of the trees are used to increase visual powers.

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+caprea
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#169 (e)
Common Name: Large Gray Willow (Salix cinerea )
Appearance and Habitat:
Introduced, rarely excaped, perennial shrub 7′-20′ tall, peeling bark with long, prominent ridges. The leaf is narrow, pointed at both ends, underside whitened.
(1)   Fens ect in E. England, it is often dominant in carr. Occasionally found in damp woods in other areas of England. Europe, inclucing Britain, from Scandanavia south nad east to France, Siberia and Iran. A deciduous shrub growing to 5 m (16ft 5in). It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Mar to April, and the seeds ripen from May to June.(2)
Warnings: None 
(3)
Edible Uses: None
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=SALCIN

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+cinerea
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#169 (f)
Common Name: Undergreen Willow (Salix commutata )
Appearance and Habitat:
A perrenial native shrub that blooms June to September. Chiefly in the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska and Yukon south to Oregon, occasionally east to idaho and Montana.
Found in moist areas, mid to high elevations in the mountains.
(1)Wet places at moderate to rather high elevations in western N. America – Alaska to California. A deciduous shrub growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender.(2)
Warnings: None 
(3)
Edible Uses:Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable.
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Salix&Species=commutata

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+commutata
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#169 (g)
Common Name: Missouri River Willow, Stiff Willow, Missouri Willow (Salix eriocephala )
Appearance and Habitat:
A narrow shrub or small tree to 20 ft. with multiple trunks and dark-gray, scaly bark. Lance-shaped leaves are thick and persistently pubescent beneath. Catkins, which appear before the leaves in early spring, are densely silky.
(1)Sandy to rocky soils, near rivers, creeks and swamps. Sand bars along rivers in eastern and central N. America – Newfoundland to Nebraska, south to Mississippi. A decicuous shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April. (2)
Warnings: None
(3)
Edible Uses: None
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAER

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+eriocephala

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants #167-168 Corydalis – Ocotilla

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
(Blog Masters Note: All past posts for Wild Edible And Medicinal Plants  are now located in a drop-down search below comments.)
#167
Common Name: Golden Smoke, Fumewort, Scrambled Eggs
Latin Name:
Corydalis aurea, C. solida
Family: Papaveraceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=COAU2
All States west of the Mississippi R., except Louisiana, plus Alaska, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, W. Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, New Hampshire and Vermont; In Canada, all except Nunavut, Labrador, Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Corydalis aurea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=COSO6 Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont; In Canada; Ontario.(Corydalis solida)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )

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#167(a)
Common Name: Golden Smoke, Scrambled Eggs, Golden Corydalis (Corydalis aurea )
Appearance and Habitat:
A soft plant, the stems weakly erect or supported by vegetation or rocks, with bilateral yellow flowers in racemes shorter than the leaves.
(1)Talus slopes, ledges, rocky hillsides, forest clearings, open shores, creek bottoms, gravel pits, road cuts, and burned-over areas, in loose often gravelly soil at elevations of 100 to 3400 meters in N. America. Mainly in the west adn central areas, from Alaska to California, also east to New York. An annual / biennial growing to .05 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Apr to May.(2)Corydalis is a rather clumpy plant with spreading stems which radiate from a small root. The leaves are disected in appearance, with a color of bluish-gray or bluish-green. The flowers are yellow and pea like. The flowers mature into bean like pods. Quiet typically the pods and flowers will be mixed on the same plant, as the plant matures. It is one of the first plants to bloom in the spring and the last to bloom, in the fall. It can forms stands, or solitary plants, over its range. It grows from Arizona and New Mexico north, from 2,000 to 10,500 feet in elevation, often in forested areas. Most plants are around a foot tall.(3)
Warnings: Corydalis species aer potentially toxic in moderate doses.
(4)Not to be used when pregnant, or with any organic disease or used with medications of a neurologic treatment. Avoid the species Corydalis Dicentra that goes in California in burned-out areas.(5)
Edible Uses:None
(6)
Medicinal Uses :A tea made from the plant is used in the treatment of painful or irregular menstruation, diarrhoea, bronchitis, heart diseases, sore throats and stomach aches. Externally, it is used as a lotion on backaches, hand sores etc and as a gargle for sore throats. Caution is advised in the use of this plant, see the note above on toxicity.
(7)Collect the entire plant, roots and all, drying them in small 1/2 bundles, hung in the shade. You might need to shorten the stems if they are long and place in separate bundles. The roots should be dried in cheesecloth, folded to make a pocket, and then hung to dry. Corydalis is not safe to use along, but should be combined with Skullcap or Valerian, where is works much better. In combination it works well for nervousness and hysteria that causes trembling, shaking and twitching. If you are taking blood-thinning supplements such as garlic, Vitamin E, Omega 3 Fish Oil, CoQ-10 or aspirin it might cause nose bleeds, as it tends to reduce blood platelet count. Whether used in tea or tincture, combine it with the other herbs listed, for instance 1/2 teaspoon of tincture with 1/2 teaspoon of tincture from either Valerian or Skullcap. For the fresh tincture, use 1 part fresh plant with 2 parts 50% vodka by weight. For the dried plant up the ratio to 1 part dried plant to 5 parts vodka by weight. For the tea use 1/2 teaspoon in combination with the other herbs and take frequent small doses. Over dosing will cause the same symptoms you are trying to reduce.( 8 )
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=COAU2

Foot Notes: ( 2, 4, 6, 7)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Corydalis+aurea
Foot Notes: ( 3, 5, 8 ) Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 96-97, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5
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#167(b)
Common Name: Fumewort (Corydalis solida )
Appearance and Habitat:
Woods, hedgerows, meadows, orchards and vineyards, usually on stony soils, avoiding calcareous soils in Europe, naturalized in Britain. A perennial growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 7-Mar It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June.
Warnings: The plant is poisonous.
Edible Uses: Root – boiled. Rich in starch. Some caution is advised, there is a report that the plant is toxic.
Medicinal Uses : Fumewort has been used as a painkiller in Chinese medicine for over 1,000 years. The tuber is anodyne, antibacterial, antispasmodic, hallucinogenic, nervine and sedative. It is used internally as a sedative for insomnia and as a stimulant and painkiller, especially in painful menstruation, traumatic injury and lumbago. It is also used for lowering the blood pressure. Research suggests that it also has an action in the thyroid and adrenal cortex. The tuber should not be prescribed for pregnant women. The tubers are harvested when the plant is dormant and are dried for later use.

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Corydalis+solida
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#168
Common Name: Ocotilla, Candlewood, Devil’s Couchwhip
Latin Name: Fouquieria splendens
Family: Papaveraceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=fosp2
California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas; south to Mexico.
Photos: here
Notes: Ocotilla is protected in Arizona, but cutting a six foot section of the plant does not cause permanent harm to the plant. Like Mesquite, which is protected in Southern Nevada, corporations are immune to the laws, and uproot whole plants for residential subdivisions, which might make another good source for a section of the plant.
Appearance and Habitat: Ocotilla is hard to mistake for any other plant, as most of the year it consists of a mass spiny stems that rise in height from 6 foot to 20 foot. The plant is leafless until after summer rains, when they sudden obtain small leaves along the spiny stem. In early spring they flower with hundreds of scarlet colored, tubular flowers. Ocotilla is found in all southwestern deserts, form sea level near the Imperial Valley of California to over 5,000 feet in central New Mexico. In areas where it grows, watch for it on mesa tops and rocky hillsides.
Edible Uses: Flowers collected in the spring make a delicious sweet and tart tea, whether fresh of dried. You can use them to make sun tea.
Medicinal Uses : Collect the plant using good gloves to prevent being stuck with the spines. Older plants (they seem to live forever) can have a center stem where the spines have disappeared under the bark. A six foot section will provide medicine for a year for a family. Once a section has been removed, cut it into 6 inch sections, remove the bark down to the center core. At this point you can make a fresh tincture using 1 part fresh plant to 2 parts 95% vodka or grain alcohol. Be sure and cover the plant with the alcohol and allow to sit in a closed bottle (canning bottle with lid) shaking it daily for 7 to 10 days. The tincture is taken every 3 to 4 hours, 25 to 35 drops in a little warm water, for hemorrhoids, benign prostrate enlargements and to help cure frequent urination with a dull ache of the urethra, but not from inflammation. The tincture will also helps the lymphatic system to remove excess fluids helping varicose veins. The tincture is absorbed by the small intestine and stimulates visceral lymph drainage, while improving dietary fat absorption into the lymph system. With fewer fats going to the liver it helps a condition called portal hypertension. Native Americans of California used a strong tea for moist, painful coughing in the elderly. Apaches took baths and drank the tea from the inner core of the plant for fatigued or swollen limbs.
Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West by Michael Moore, pages 81- 83, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 1989, ISBN 0-80913-182-1

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants # 165 -166 Hound’s Tongue/ Mistletoe

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
(Blog Masters Note: All past posts for Wild Edible And Medicinal Plants  are now located in a drop-down search below comments.)
#165
Common Name: Hound’s Tongue, Gypsy Flower 
Latin Name:
Cynoglossum grande, C. officinale
Family: Boraginaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CYGR
Washington, Oregon and California (Cynoglossum grande)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=cyof All of the lower 48 States except Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Florida; In Canada; British Columbia to Quebec, plus New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Cynoglossum officinale)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )

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#165 (a)
Common Name: Pacific Hound’s Tongue (Cynoglossum grande)
Appearance and Habitat:
Several smooth stems with large, ovate, long-stalked leaves mostly near base and loose clusters of purple or blue flowers on branches at top. The common name refers to the shape of the broad leaves. Native Americans used preparations from the root to treat burns and stomachaches. There are several species, all with blue to purple or maroon flowers and large rough nutlets that stick to clothing.
(1)   A perennial found West of the Cascades and east along the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to southern California in woods at low elevations.
Leaves alternate, entire, long-petiolate, confined to the lower half of the stem; leaf blade ovate to elliptic, 8-18 cm. long and 3-11 cm. wide, broadly rounded to shallowly cordate at the base, the lower surface with some short, stiff hairs. The flowers are inflorescence a mixed panicle, opening and elongating with age;calyx 5-lobed, deeply cleft; corolla blue or violet, with a slender tube and abrupt spreading limb, the limb 1-1.5 cm. wide; appendages in the throat of the corolla exerted, with a shallow notch. The fruits are nutlets 4, obovoid-globose, nearly 1 cm. long, spreading, free from the style, with prickles on the outer half.
(2)  Woods in western N. America – British Columbia to California. A perennial growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower from Apr to May.(3)
Warnings: None
(4)
Edible Uses:Root – cooked.
(5)
Medicinal Uses :The grated root has been used as a dressing on inflamed burns and scalds. The root has been used in the treatment of stomach aches and venereal diseases.
(6)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CYGR

Foot Notes: (2)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Cynoglossum&Species=grande
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cynoglossum+grande
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#165 (b)
Common Name: Hound’s Tongue, Gypsy Flower (Cynoglossum officinale)
Appearance and Habitat:
A biennial introduced from Eurasia. Distribution mucn of the United States. A noxious weed of roadsides and disturbed areas. Coarse, leafy biennial, the single stem 3-12 dm. tall, covered with long, soft hairs throughout. Lowermost leaves oblanceolate, tapering to the petiole, 1-3 dm. long and 2-5 cm. wide; other leaves sessile, oblong or lanceolate, numerous, gradually reduced upward. Flowers: Inflorescence of numerous false racemes in the upper leaf axils or terminating short axillary branches, the pedicels curved and spreading; sepals 5-lobed, deeply cleft, 5-8 mm. long, the lobes broad and blunt; corolla dull reddish-purple, with a slender tube and abrupt spreading limb, the limb about 1 cm. wide; appendages in the throat of the corolla exerted, broadly rounded. Fruits: Nutlets 4, ovoid, 5-7 mm. long, attached to the style.
(1)  Dry grassy areas and the edges of woods, often near the sea, on sand, gravel, chalk or limestone soils. Europe, including Britain, though absent from the extreme north and rare in south, east to Asia. A biennial / perennial growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.(2)
Warnings: Hound’s Tongue contains alkaloids that can cause cancer when the plant is consumed in large quantities. The plant is also said to be slightly poisonous, there are no reported cases of human poisoning but there are some cases of cattle being poisoned. The plant has a disagreeable odor and taste so seldom eaten by animals. Contact with the plant can cause dermatitis in sensitive people.
(3)
Edible Uses:Young leaves – raw or cooked. A disagreeable odour and taste.
(4)
Medicinal Uses :Hound’s tongue has a long history of use as a medicinal herb, though it is rarely used in modern herbalism. The leaves contain allantoin, a highly effective agent that speeds up the healing process in the body. Caution should be applied, however, since narcotic effects result from large doses taken internally and the plant is potentially carcinogenic (though it has also been used in the treatment of cancer). The leaves and roots are analgesic, antihaemorrhoidal, antispasmodic, astringent, digestive, emollient and slightly narcotic. The plant contains the alkaloids cynoglossine and consolidin, which are used medicinally to relieve pain. They depress the central nervous system and are also potentially carcinogenic. The plant has been used internally in the treatment of coughs and diarrhoea, though it is now mainly used externally as a poultice on piles, wounds, minor injuries, bites and ulcers. The root is harvested at the end of spring of the plants second year. Another report says that it is best harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. The leaves and flowering shoots are harvested as the plant comes into flower and are dried for later use. The plant has a wide antitumour reputation for cancers of various types. A homeopathic remedy is made from the roots. It is very effective in the treatment of insomnia.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Cynoglossum&Species=officinale

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cynoglossum+officinale
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Appearance and Habitat: This biennial, from Europe, can be mistaken for Mullein, which is much hairy in texture than Hound’s Tongue. In the first year it forms rosettes of leaves, in the second year it forms a stem densely packed with flowers. The flowers are lavender to purple and mature into little burred seeds that are oval-triangular in shape. The root is light in color. The plant is common in New Mexico and Colorado, especially near the border of New Mexico, then north to cover most of Wyoming and Montana. It also grows along the northern mountains in Arizona, southern and northern Idaho, along the coast in Washington and Oregon and the northern Sierra Nevada range in California. It prefers shaded areas above 6,000 feet, but sometimes can be encountered as high as 9,500 feet in the forests around campgrounds around grazing areas.
Medicinal Uses : Collect the plant and roots in the summer when in bloom. For the upper plant, ties in small bundles (1/2 inch) and place in a shady area that has a breeze to dry the herb. For the root, split it lengthwise into small sections and place it in a cheese cloth fold hung in the shade to dry. The root makes an excellent poultice for burns, or insect bites. A bath in a strong tea made from both the plant and root, helps with hemorrhoids, venereal warts, will diminish inflammation and help connective tissue repair below the skin.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 137-139, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5
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#166
Common Name: Mistletoe, American Mistletoe, False Mistletoe
Latin Name:
Phoradendron californicum, P. juniperinum, P. leucrapum, P. villosum
Family: Viscaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHCA8
California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. (Phoradendron californicum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHJU California, Nevada, Utah, Oregon, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Texas. (Phoradendron juniperinum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=phle14 All States east of the Mississippi R., except Wisconsin, Michigan and states north of New York; plus Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico. (Phoradendron leucarpum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHVI9 California and Oregon. (Phoradendron villosum)
Photos: Phoradendron californicum Mesquite Mistletoe, Phoradendron juniperinum, Juniper Mistletoe Phoradendron leucarpum Oak Mistletoe and Phoradendron villosum Pacific Mistletoe
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Common Name: False Mistletoe, Oak MIstletoe
Appearance and Habitat:
Semi-parasitic shrub with short, interrupted, axillary clusters of tiny yellow flowers on smooth, green, jointed stems. This is the common Mistletoe hung at Christmastime. The genus name derives from the Greek phor a thief, and dendron tree, and refers to their getting at least some nourishment from the trees on which they grow. The fruits are covered with a sticky substance poisonous to man, but relished by such birds as cedar waxwings and bluebirds. The birds spread the seeds through their droppings and by wiping their beaks on branches, where a new plant may become established. The small, northern Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum), has short yellow-green stems 1 (2.5 cm) long, with leaves reduced to thin brown scales. This plant occurs only on evergreens, especially spruce, and is found in northern bogs south to New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and west to Michigan.
(1)  A parasite growing on deciduous trees, especially Acer rubrum and Nyssa spp. In N. America – New Jersey to Florida, west to Illinois and Texas. An evergreen srub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 6. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Feb to April, and the seeds ripen from Nov to December.(2)
Warnings: There are recorded cases of the berries poisoning people. Contact with the plant can cause dermatitis in some people.
(3)
Edible Uses:None
(4)
Medicinal Uses :A tea made from the leaves is said to procure abortions and also to prevent conception. It causes an increase in uterine contractions and helps to stop bleeding after parturition. When injected into the blood it increases blood pressure.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=PHLE14

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Phoradendron+leucarpum
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(Now for Michael Moore who covers all.)
Appearance and Habitat: Mistletoe is a parasitic plant that grows on Oak, Juniper, Mesquite, Catclaw and most deciduous trees. They have opposing leaves or scales, small seeds inside a gluey outer cover. The foliage is either lighter or darker than the host plant, and either oval and succulent or scales . It grows as a large clump of branches, that usually droops at juncture of limbs. Unlike Dodder, it has chlorophyll, but used the host plant for water. In time, it will kill large sections or the entire host.
Warnings: Shouldn’t be used by people with hypertension, blood pressure irregularities, with High Blood Pressure medications, serotonin medications or during pregnany. Some folks don’t mix well with Mistletoe, especially if it isn’t dried.
Medicinal Uses : Collect the plant at anytime chopping into pieces and drying in the shade using a hanging pocket of cheese cloth. This is not the European Mistletoe, but shares some medical value, it relaxes nervous tension and minor spasms. It will also increase systolic blood pressure. It is a strong vasoconstrictor, meaning it will help reduce bleeding and help with clotting. It can be used as a first aid when bleeding by eating small pieces, fresh, until medical help arrives. It seems to help with migraine headaches. Pay attention to the warnings and start off slow with a 1/2 teaspoon in tea, if it helps, the dose can be upped to 1 teaspoon in tea.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 164-165, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants #163-164 Alfalfa-Figwort

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
(Blog Masters Note:   All past posts are now located in a drop-down under comments. )
#163
Common Name: Alfalfa, Lucerne
Latin Name:
Medicago sativa, Medicago sativa falcata 
Family: Fabaceae or Leguminosae 
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MESA
All of North America, except Nunavut, plus Hawaii (Medicago sativa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MESAF All states west of the Rocky Mountains, except Idaho, Colorado and New Mexico; plus North Dakota south to Kansas, Alaska, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinios, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts; All of Canada except Nunavut. ( Medicago sativa falcata)
Photos: Medicago sativa and Medicago sativa falcata
Appearance and Habitat:
Blooms in June to October, an introduced herb that is either an annual or perennial. Introduced as a forage crop in the temperate regions of the world.
Habitat: Near cultivated fields, roadsides, often on dry ground. General discription: Usually glabrous perennial from a long taproot, the stems more or less erect, 3-10 dm. tall. Leaves: Leaves trifoliate, the leaflets elliptic-oblanceolate, finely dentate on the outer end, 2-4 cm. long. stipules entire. Flowers: Inflorescence of dense racemes on peduncles 1-3 cm, long arising in the leaf axils; flowers 20-100, usually bluish-purple, but often whitish, yellow, or even pink; calyx 5-toothed, nearly as long as the corolla; corolla pea-like, 4-5 mm. long, the banner erect, much longer than the wings and keel. Fruits: Pod many-seeded, coiled in 2-3 spirals, not armed.
(1)   Waste ground, avioding acid soils in Europe – Mediterranean and more or less naturalized in Britain. A perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September.(2)  Alfalfa is a tall clover with three part leaves and many stems. At maturity, if not cut, it can reach 2 or 3 feet in height. The flowers are similar to clover with tuffs of lavender or blue blossoms at the ends of the stems. In the west look for it between 3,000 and 9,000 feet in elevation. Commonly found in foothills and mountains. The plant prefers moist soils in dry areas, but drier soils in very moist areas. It likes rich soils that are high in minerals.(3)
Warnings: The plant contains saponin-like substances. Eating large quantities of the leaves may cause the break down of red blood cells. However, although the are potentially harmful, saponins are poorly absorded by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as beans. Through cooking, and perhaps changing the water once, will normally remove mos of them from the food. Saponins ae much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes traditionally put large quanitities of them in streams, lakes ect. in order to stupefy or kill fish. Alfalfa sprouts ( and especially the seeds) contain canavanine. Recent reports suggest that ingestion of this substance can cause recurrence of sytemic lupus erythematosus (an ulcerous disease of the skin) in patients where the dease had become dormant. The FDA advises that children, the elderly and people with compromised immune systems should avoid eating alfalfa sprouts due to bacterial contamination. Avoid during pregnany and lactation. Avoid for people with hormone sensitive cancer. Avoid for people with gout (due to purines). Possible antagonize the anticoagulant effect of warfarin (due to vit. K) and interfere with the immunosuppressant effect of corticosteriods.(4)   Some individual constituents can have side effects when tested in high concentrations, the tea is absolutely safe.(5)  Blog Master’s note: I personally don’t agree with all of these Warnings on PFAF, but do as you, or your doctor suggest. I just report. The FDA was started by the Rockefeller family for a purpose to sell drugs, some mammals eat an awful lot of alfalfa, such as horses and cows; even while pregnant. I would be more concerned with which ones are GMO’s. Agreed on gout, it is one of the legume family. Eat everything in moderation, that’s why we try to serve our families a balanced diet.
Edible Uses:Leaves and young shoots – raw or cooked. The leaves can also be dried for later use. Very rich in vitamins, especially A, B and C, they are also a good source of protein. The leaves are a rich source of vitamin K. A very nutritious food in moderation, though it can trigger attacks in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and large quantities can affect liver function and cause photosensitization. A nutritional analysis is available. The seed is commonly used as a sprouted seed which is added to salads, used in sandwiches etc or cooked in soups. The seed is soaked in warm water for 12 hours, then kept moist in a container in a warm place to sprout. It is ready in about 4 – 6 days. The seeds can also be ground into a powder and used as a mush, or mixed with cereal flours for making a nutritionally improved bread etc. Seed yields average around 186 – 280 kilos per hectare. An appetite-stimulating tea is made from the leaves, it has a flavour somewhat reminiscent of boiled socks and is slightly laxative. Break-down Protein: 6g; Fat: 0.4g; Carbohydrate: 9.5g; Fibre: 3.1g; Ash: 1.4g; Minerals – Calcium: 12mg; Phosphorus: 51mg; Iron: 5.4mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg; Vitamins – A: 3410mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.13mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.14mg; Niacin: 0.5mg; B6: 0mg; C: 162mg; per 100 grams of plant.(6)
Medicinal Uses :Alfalfa leaves, either fresh or dried, have traditionally been used as a nutritive tonic to stimulate the appetite and promote weight gain. The plant has an oestrogenic action and could prove useful in treating problems related to menstruation and the menopause. Some caution is advised in the use of this plant, however. It should not be prescribed to people with auto-immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. See also the notes above on toxicity. The plant is antiscorbutic, aperient, diuretic, oxytocic, haemostatic, nutritive, stimulant and tonic. The expressed juice is emetic and is also anodyne in the treatment of gravel. The plant is taken internally for debility in convalescence or anaemia, haemorrhage, menopausal complaints, pre-menstrual tension, fibroids etc. A poultice of the heated leaves has been applied to the ear in the treatment of earache. The leaves can be used fresh or dried. The leaves are rich in vitamin K which is used medicinally to encourage the clotting of blood. This is valuable in the treatment of jaundice. The plant is grown commercially as a source of chlorophyll and carotene, both of which have proven health benefits. The leaves also contain the anti-oxidant tricin. The root is febrifuge and is also prescribed in cases of highly coloured urine. Extracts of the plant are antibacterial. Used for asthma, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders (anti-ulcer).(7)   Collect the upper half of the plant when just in bloom, even better after a rain. Dry the plant after bundling it in 1/2 bundles, dry by hanging in an airy shady spot. The lower leaves have sharp edges so wearing gloves is advised. When dried, remove the leaves and flowers. Alfalfa tea is more of a dietary supplient or food, rather than for medical use. Purchased alfalfa tea has very little flavor, but wild alfalfa tea has flavor. It contains high mineral content, such as calcium and other trace minerals and makes an excellent recuperative aid. It can be mixed with Red Clover and Nettle and drunk on a constant basis when recuperating from surgery or other inflammatory illness. The tea does work well for illnesses like arthritis, rhematism, colitis, ulcers and anemia. It is the mineral content that helps. The calcium in the freshly made tea is in a free form and is absorbed in the small intestine, meaning it helps treat osteoporosis. The calcium content is not as high as Mormon Tea, but still usable. Some German clinics use the tea as a dietary aid to help with celiace disease. The tea is good during pregnany along with Rasberry, and is also good after taking anti-biotics. To make the tea, use 32 parts water to one part dried leaves and flowers (by weight). Boil the water, remove from the heat source, place the herb in the water, and after 20 – 30 minutes, strain out the herb, return the water level to 32 parts, and drink.( 8 )
Foot Notes: (1)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Medicago&Species=sativa

Foot Notes: (2, 4, 6, 7) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Medicago+sativa
Foot Notes: ( 3, 5, 8 ) Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 23-24, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5
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#164
Common Name: Figwort, Carpenters Square, Water Figwort, Pineland Figwort, Oregon Figwort, Woodland Figwort, Lanceleaf Figwort
Latin Name:
Scrophularia californica, S. lanceolata, S. marilandica , S. nodosa, S. oregona, S. parviflora, S. umbrosa.
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SCROP Main database, all of the lower 48 States; In Canada; British Columbia to Saskatchewan, Ontario to Newfoundland and south.

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SCCA2 California (Scrophularia californica)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SCLA All of the lower 48 States, except Arizona, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida and South Carolina; In Canada same as main database, except not Newfoundland.(Scrophularia lanceolata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SCMA2 All States east of the Mississippi R. and along the west bank, plus South Dakota to Texas; In Canada; Ontario and Quebec. (Scrophularia marilandica)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SCNO2 Washington, Minnesota, Georgia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhone Island and Massachusetts; In Canada; Quebec, Newfoundland and New Brunswick.(Scrophularia nodosa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SCOR Oregon and Washington; In Canada; British Columbia. (Scrophularia oregana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SCPA6 Arizona and New Mexico. (Scrophularia parviflora)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SCUM Pennslyvania and New Jersey. (Scrophularia umbrosa)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )

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#164 (a)
Common Name: Carpenters Square, Maryland Figwort (Scrophularia marilandica)
Appearance and Habitat:
A 4-sided, grooved stem bearing a banching, somewhat pyramidal, terminal clusters of small, erect, sac-shaped, greenish-brown flowers with magenta – brown interiors. Figworts are tall plants with brownish or greenish flowers in a large branched panicle. The common name figwort refers to the early use of the plants in treating hemorrhoids, an ailment once known as figs. The plants were also used as a tonic; in the 1800s an infusion of the roots was given as a treatment for insomnia and anxiety. Hare Figwort (S. lanceolata), similar to Maryland Figwort, has shiny flowers and a greenish-yellow fifth stamen; it is found from Alberta east to Nova Scotia, south to North Carolina, northwest to Ohio and Illinois, southwest to Oklahoma, and north to North Dakota. Figwort (S. nodosa), a very similar European species, has become established in New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey; it has a brownish-purple sterile stamen and usually finishes flowering in June.
(1)
   Rich woods and thickets in eastern N. America from Quebec to Alabama. A perennial growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen in September.(2)
Warnings: None
(3)

Edible Uses: None
(4)

Medicinal Uses :Alterative, appetizer, diaphoretic, vermifuge and vulnerary. A tea made from the roots is diuretic, emmenagogue and tonic. It has been used in the treatment of irregular menses, fevers and piles. A poultice made from the roots is a folk remedy for cancer. Carpenter’s square is said to have similar properties to the knotted figwort, S. nodosa. These properties are:- Knotted figwort is a plant that supports detoxification of the body and it may be used as a treatment for various kinds of skin disorders. The whole plant is alterative, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, mildly purgative and stimulant. It is harvested as the plant comes into flower in the summer and can be dried for later use. A decoction is applied externally to sprains, swellings, burns, inflammations etc, and is said to be useful in treating chronic skin diseases, scrofulous sores and gangrene. The leaves can also be applied fresh or be made into an ointment. Internally, the plant is used in the treatment of chronic skin diseases (such as eczema, psoriasis and pruritis), mastitis, swollen lymph nodes and poor circulation. It should not be prescribed for patients with heart conditions. The root is anthelmintic.
(5)

Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SCMA2

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Scrophularia+marilandica

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#164 (b)
Common Name: Knotted Figwort, Woodland Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa)
Appearance and Habitat:
Damp ground in woods, hedgebanks, by streams etc. An occasional garden weed in Europe, including Britain, south and east to Norway Spain and temperate Asia to the Yensei region. A perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September.
Warnings: Avoid in patients with ventricular tachycardia (increased heart rate). Lack of toxicological data excludes use during pregnany.
Edible Uses: Root cooked. It smells and tastes unpleasant, but has been used in times of famine. There must be some doubts about the edibility of this root.
Medicinal Uses : Knotted figwort is a plant that supports detoxification of the body and it may be used as a treatment for various kinds of skin disorders. The whole plant is alterative, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, mildly purgative and stimulant. It is harvested as the plant comes into flower in the summer and can be dried for later use. A decoction is applied externally to sprains, swellings, burns, inflammations etc, and is said to be useful in treating chronic skin diseases, scrofulous sores and gangrene. The leaves can also be applied fresh or be made into an ointment. Internally, the plant is used in the treatment of chronic skin diseases (such as eczema, psoriasis and pruritis), mastitis, swollen lymph nodes and poor circulation. It should not be prescribed for patients with heart conditions. The root is anthelmintic.

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Scrophularia+nodosa
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#164 (c)
Common Name: Water Figwort, Water Betony, (Scrophularia umbrosa)
Appearance and Habitat:
Damp shady ground, usually near water. An occasional garden weed in Europe, including Britain, south and east to S. Sweden to France Palestine and Asia to Tibet. A perennial growing to 1.5 m (5ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September.
Warnings: The plant is probably poisonous to cows.
Edible Uses: Root cooked. It smells and tastes unpleasant, but has been used in times of famine. There must be some doubts about the edibility of this root.
Medicinal Uses : The leaves are detergent and vulnerary. They are harvested as the plant comes into flower and can be used fresh or dried for later use. The plant has a good reputation as a wound herb, either applied externally as a poultice or taken as a decoction. Water betony is said to have similar medicinal properties to the knotted figwort, S. nodosa. These properties are as follows:- Knotted figwort is a plant that supports detoxification of the body and it may be used as a treatment for various kinds of skin disorders. The whole plant is alterative, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, mildly purgative and stimulant. It is harvested as the plant comes into flower in the summer and can be dried for later use. A decoction is applied externally to sprains, swellings, burns, inflammations etc, and is said to be useful in treating chronic skin diseases, scrofulous sores and gangrene. The leaves can also be applied fresh or be made into an ointment. Internally, the plant is used in the treatment of chronic skin diseases (such as eczema, psoriasis and pruritis), mastitis, swollen lymph nodes and poor circulation. It should not be prescribed for patients with heart conditions. The root is anthelmintic.

 http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Scrophularia+umbrosa
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(Now for Michael Moore who covers the rest.)
Additional Photos: Scrophularia californica , Scrophularia lanceolata , Scrophularia oregana and Scrophularia parviflora
Appearance and Habitat:
Figworts are tall, slender, with stems that are brittle. They range in height from 3 to 5 feet and lots of times spreading by falling over. S. californica can reach 6 feet or more. It can be found in Nevada and Arizona as well, but is abundant in the coastal ranges and inland mountains to 6, 500 feet. It has smaller leaves than S. lanceolata which are oval-triangular in shape, and opposite along the branches. S. lanceolata is throughout New Mexico and Arizona and is the predominant species outside of California. It has four sided stems when young, but as the plant gets older it becomes 8 sided. The leaves are large, serrated and oval – triangular. S. lanceolata grows in the Rocky Mountians from Gila to Canada and the mountians fringing the Great Basin. Watch for it in spruce and fir meadows. The over-all appearance is similar to Nettles, but the plants are smooth and not hairy. The flowers from semi-opened blossoms along terminal spikes of rust, thinged with green or brown maroon.
Warnings: The European variety of S. nodosa contains cardiac depressants, strongest in the root in the spring to summer so avoid with ventricular tachycardia, or other heart medications, or when pregnant.
Medicinal Uses : Collect the above ground plant in middle summer, tie it into 1/2 inch bundles and hang in the shade to dry. After it has dried, remove the larger stems keeping the small stems, leaves, flowers and seeds for tea. You can also make a fresh tincture of the plant using water at a rate of 1 part plant to 2 parts water (by weight). As with all tincures, shake daily for a week before straining the plant out, then take up to 30 drops 3 times a day (internal). For the tea, use 1 part dried plant to 32 parts water, bring the water to a boil, remove from the heat and place the herbs in. After 30 minutes, strain out the plant and return the water level to 32 parts. Both the tea and tincture can be used by applying them to fungal infections of the skin. It works well for ‘cradle cap’ , althele’s foot, eczema and burns. It can also be drunk as a tea, using under a tablespoon of the dried plant in a cup of hot water, straining the plant out before drinking. Internally the tea works for skin erruptions of the back, chest, and as a blood tonic. It also has a mild sedative effect. A salve can be made from the fresh wilted plant as well, blend equal parts of the plant with olive oil. Allow this to stand for at least a week, strain out the plant, using cloth. Then heat the remaining oil just hot enough to melt bees wax and add the bees wax to the consistency you prefer. The salve can be used for PMS breast pain by applying from the arm pit to the nipple. The salve can also be used on cold sores. The fresh plant, or powdered plant makes a good poultice for joint injures, bruises and insect stings, just mix it with water. For arthritis brought on by cold and damp weather try a cup of the tea in the evening.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 115-118, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 162 Poplar (part2)

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Sorry for lack of plants along the left hand border, it wasn’t my idea. Suddenly, wordpress won’t allow more than 50 ‘recent’ posts along that border, I am trying to correct the problem. In the mean time use Archives or the search engine; I am truly sorry of the inconvenience. It took me completely by surprise when wordpress did this.  In my opinion they ruined the website, that was here to help people.
Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#162 Poplar (part 2)
Latin Name: Populus ×canadensis, P. ×canescens, P. ×jackii
Family: Salicacea
Range:
  http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POPUL Main database, all of North America

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POCA19 California, Utah, Wyoming, N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Minnesota to Arkansas, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina, Viginia, W. Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania and New York; In Canada; Ontario and Quebec. (Populus ×canadensis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POCA14 All states east of the Mississippi R., plus Minnesota, Arkansas and Louisiana; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. (Populus ×canescens)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POJA2 All states north of the Ohio R. and eastward to the coast, plus W. Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Colorado and all states along the west bank of the Mississippi, except Louisiana; In Canada; all lower Provinces except British Columbia. (Populus ×jackii)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )
Warnings:
None on Plants For A Future
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#162 (j)
Common Name: Carolina Poplar, Canadian Poplar (Populus ×canadensis)
Appearance and Habitat:
A group of naturally occuring hybrids between P. nigra and P. deltoidea in North America. A deciduous tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 4.

Edible Uses: None
Medicinal Uses : Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps.
 http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+x+canadensis
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#162 (k)
Common Name: Grey Poplar (Populus ×canescens)
Appearance and Habitat: Probably native in damp woods in S.C. and E. England. Europe, from Britain and France east to S. Russia, south to Italy and Macedonia. A deciduous tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 15 m (49ft). It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower from Feb to March.
Edible Uses: None
Medicinal Uses : Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps.
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+x+canescens
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#162 (l)
Common Name: Balm of Gilead (Populus ×jackii)
Appearance and Habitat: Not known in a truly wild situation. The origins of this tree is obscure. A deciduous tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in May.
Edible Uses: None
Medicinal Uses : Balm of Gilead is a common ingredient of cough medicines, its expectorant, antiseptic and analgesic actions making it an excellent remedy for a range of respiratory problems. It has also been used for several thousand years to soothe inflamed or irritated skin. The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odour and a bitter taste. They also contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The buds are antiscorbutic, antiseptic, balsamic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant and tonic. They are taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis, sore throats, dry irritable coughs and other upper respiratory tract infections. They should not be prescribed to patients who are sensitive to aspirin. Externally, the buds are used to treat colds, sinusitis, arthritis, rheumatism, muscular pain, grazes, small wounds and dry skin conditions. They can be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages. Internal use of the plant is believed to reduce milk flow in nursing mothers. The buds are harvested in the spring before they open and are dried for later use. Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps.
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+x+jackii
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(Now for Michael Moore who covers all Poplars in the west.)

Appearance and Habitat:
The leaves of the Poplars in the west are heart shaped, bright green with long stems, turning a brilliant yellow in the fall. The leaf buds are waxy and scaled in appearance. Before the leaves appear the trees have long catkins. The bark is light and smooth, except in older trees it becomes furrowed. Aspen, however, retains its smooth bark. Both Cottonwoods and Poplars are associated with water, where Aspens are associated with high mountains. Fremont’s Cottonwood grows along live rivers, streams, or around underground springs throughout its range. Aspens grow in areas of mountains that have an elevation of at least from 8,500 ft., but can sometimes be found at 6,000 ft. Aspens inhabit burn areas in the mountains and are replaced by pine and spruce, or subalpine meadows covering an entire hillside. P. balsamifera and P. trichocarpa, the balsam poplars, frequently form hybrids and can be found in nearly all canyons of the west. The grow from Alaska to California, east to Colorado and the Great Lakes region.
Medicinal Uses : The buds should be collected in the spring, the leaves in midsummer and the bark in the fall or early spring. Collect the leaves, cut off the stems, tie in small bundles (less than 1/4 inch) and hang them to dry in the shade. The buds should be dried in cheesecloth, folded and hung in an airy area. Every few days stir the buds to help them dry faster. It is very common for branches to break off in thunderstorms, as long as the leaves are still green, use them for the bark. Make shallow cuts around the diameter of the limb every foot, and diagonal cuts every few inches, then strip off the bark from the inner wood. Run oiled wire through the bark and hang it in the shade to dry. All of the species contains salicin and populin, precusors of aspirin, and are very helpful with any inflammation. Tea from the bark is rather bitter, tea from the leaves can be used in the same manner and is preferred by some people. The drawback is the tea from the leaves is not as strong. To make tea from the bark, combine 1 part dried bark to 32 parts water (by weight) and bring slowly to a boil. Let it continue to boil for 10 minutes, remove from heat, let cool, strain, and return the water to 32 parts. For the leaves follow the same procedure, except put them in the water as it boils and remove from the heat immediately, then strain, return the water level. You can take 2 – 4 ounces of the tea up to 4 times a day (bark) or 5 times a day (leaves). The tea of either has been used in place of quinine for fevers, but not for malaria. Both uses are also helpful with urinary tract inflammations and as a diuretic to increase urine acidity. The fresh or dried plants (after moistening) can be used as a poultice for muscle aches, sprains and swollen joints. The buds are the strongest part of the plant, but the constituents are not very water soluble. You can fill a jar with the fresh buds, then fill with olive oil allow it to sit for a week in a warm location and then strain the buds from the oil. Re- heat the oil over low heat, add some bees wax to make a topical ointment. A tincture of the buds can also be make using 1 part to 2 parts (by weight) 75% vodka for fresh buds or for dried buds 1 part buds to 5 parts alcohol. Take between 15 and 30 drops throughout the day. The bud tincture is excellent to help remove mucus from bronchitis or bronchorrhea. Both the bud tincture and buds drained from the oil make an excellent analgesic for joint and muscle pain.
Other Uses : The dried wood from the fallen branches make an excellent walking stick or cane.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 206-207, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5

The solution for past posts, other than top 50, are now listed below the comment section in the footer as a drop down list. At least that will give you an idea of where in the archives the post can be found. Not the solution I was hoping for.

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.  

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants # 162 Poplar (part 1)

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#162 (part 1)
Common Name: Cottonwood, Alamo, Aspen, Poplar, Quaking Aspen
Latin Name:
Populus alba, P. angustifolia, P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, P. fremontii, P. grandidentata, P. heterophylla, P. nigra, P. tremuloides
Family: Salicacea
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POPUL
All of North America, this is the main database for USDA.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POAL7 All of the lower 48 states, except Arizona; In Canada; British Columbia, Manitoba to Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Populus alba)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POAN3 All states west of the Rocky Mountains, except Washington, plus South Dakota, Nebraska and Texas; In Canada; Alberta and Saskatchewan. (Populus angustifolia)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POBA2 Alaska, all states west of the Rocky Mountains, except Arizona and New Mexico, plus N. and S. Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, all states north of the Ohio R., Virginia, W. Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York north to Maine; All of Canada. (Populus balsamifera)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PODE3 All states east of the Mississippi, all states west to the Rocky Mountains, plus Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Utah; In Canada; British Columbia to Quebec. (Populus deltoides)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POFR2 California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. (Populus fremontii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POGR4 All states north of the Ohio R., all states north of Pennsylvania/New Jersey, plus Kentucky, Tennessee, W. Virginia, Virginia, N. Carolina, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri and N. Dakota; In Canada; British Columbia, Manitoba to Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Populus grandidentata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POHE4 All states east of the Mississippi R. except W. Virginia, Wisconsin, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine, plus Missouri to Louisiana; In Canada; Ontario. (Populus heterophylla)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PONI All of the lower 48 states, except Montana and Idaho; In Canada; British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. (Populus nigra)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POTR5 All states in North America, except Kansas, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana to S. Carolina; In Canada; all except Nunavut. (Populus tremuloides)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )
Warnings: None on Plants For A Future, except Populus temuloides.
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#162 (a)
Common Name: White Poplar (Populus alba)
Appearance and Habitat:
Distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America. Habitat: Disturbed areas often associated with urban and suburban areas, riparian zones. A perennial that was introduced.
(1)  Woods and watersides in C. Europe to Asia. Ferequently planted in Britian but not naturalized. A deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in March. (2)
Edible Uses: Leaves – rich in Vitamin C. Inner bark – dried, ground into a powder and added to flour for making bread. A famine food, it is only used when all else fails (3)
Medicinal Uses :The stem bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, diuretic and tonic. The bark contains salicylates, from which the proprietary medicine aspirin is derived. It is used internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, lower back pains, urinary complaints, digestive and liver disorders, debility, anorexia, also to reduce fevers and relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. Externally, the bark is used to treat chilblains, haemorrhoids, infected wounds and sprains. The bark is harvested from side branches or coppiced trees and dried for later use. The leaves are used in the treatment of caries of teeth and bones. The twigs are depurative.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Populus&Species=alba

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+alba

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#162 (b)
Common Name: Narrow Leaf Cottonwood (Populus angustifolia)

Appearance and Habitat: Narrow-leaf cottonwood is a small, deciduous tree, growing 45-60ft, with rather narrow crown and slender twigs. Bark is less deeply furrowed than the broad-leaved cottonwoods. Toothed, yellow-green leaves are narrow and willow-like. Tree with narrow, conical crown of slender, upright branches and with resinous, balsam-scented buds. Discovered in 1805 by Lewis and Clark on their expedition to the Northwest, this is the common cottonwood of the northern Rocky Mountains. It is easily distinguishable from related species by the narrow, short-stalked, willowlike leaves. Its root system makes it suitable for erosion control.(1)Streambanks in dry mountains, foothills and dry plains in western N. America – Alberta to Mexico. A deciduous tree growing to 30 m (98ft 5in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 3.(2)
Edible Uses:Inner bark There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. A ‘honeydew’, produced on the undersides of leaves by aphis, was collected by various native North American Indian tribes and used as a sweetener. The buds have been used as a chewing gum.(3)
Medicinal Uses :A tea made from the inner bark is used in the treatment of scurvy. The bark contains salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. The woolly fruit is moistened and applied to the gums in order to treat infections. A tea made from the fruits is used in the treatment of toothache.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=POAN3
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+angustifolia
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#162 (c)
Common Name: Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera)
Appearance and Habitat:
A 20-60 ft tree with dark gray, furrowed bark. Trunk is straight and branches are erect and stout. Dark green leaves are shiny on top; silvery or brown underneath. Catkins appear before the leaves emerge. Cottony seeds are blown about by the wind. Large tree with narrow, open crown of upright branches and fragrant, resinous buds with strong balsam odor. The northernmost New World hardwood, Balsam Poplar extends in scattered groves to Alaskas Arctic Slope. Black Cottonwood, once considered a separate species (P. trichocarpa), is now considered a subspecies of Balsam Poplar. It occupies the more southerly portions of the species range in the West. Balm-of-Gilead Poplar, an ornamental with broad, open crown and larger, heart-shaped leaves, is a clone or hybrid of Balsam Poplar. Balm-of-Gilead, derived from the resinous buds, has been used in home remedies.
(1)  Deep moist sandy soils of river bottomlands, stream banks, borders of lakes and swamps in northern N. America – Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New England, Iowa and Colorado. A deciduous tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 2.(2)
Edible Uses:Inner bark. It is best used in spring. Mucilaginous. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. Catkins – raw or cooked. A bitter flavour.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :Balsam poplar has a long history of medicinal use. It was valued by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially to treat skin problems and lung ailments. In modern herbalism it is valued as an expectorant and antiseptic tonic. The leaf buds are antiscorbutic, antiseptic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant, tonic. The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odour and a bitter taste.They are boiled in order to separate the resin and the resin is then dissolved in alcohol. The resin is a folk remedy, used as a salve and wash for sores, rheumatism, wounds etc. It is made into a tea and used as a wash for sprains, inflammation, muscle pains etc. Internally, the tea is used in the treatment of lung ailments and coughs. The buds can also be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages. The bark is cathartic and tonic. Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. A tea made from the inner bark is used as an eye wash and in the treatment of scurvy.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=POBA2

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+balsamifera
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#162 (d)
Common Name: Eastern Cottonwood, Necklace Poplar (Populus deltoides)
Appearance and Habitat:
Eastern cottonwood is a large-canopied tree with upright limbs becoming arching at the tips creating a vase-shape outline. The deciduous tree grows to100 ft. or more with stout branches. Catkins appear before leaf emergence. Large, papery, toothed triangular, medium-green leaves turn yellow in fall. Large tree with a massive trunk often forked into stout branches, and broad, open crown of spreading and slightly drooping branches. Pendulous clusters of flowers without petals in late March and early April. Seeds wind-borne on a tuft of cottony hairs. The common name refers to the abundant cottony seeds; another name, Necklace Poplar, alludes to the resemblance of the long, narrow line of seed capsules to a string of beads. Although short-lived, it is one of the fastest-growing native trees; on favorable sites in the Mississippi Valley, trees average 5 (1.5 m) in height growth annually with as much as 13 (4 m) the first year. Plains Cottonwood (ssp. monilifera [Ait.] Eckenwalder or var. occidentalis Rydb.), a western subspecies or variety, has slightly smaller leaves that are often broader than long and more coarsely toothed.
(1)  Rich moist spoils, mainly along riverbanks, bottoms and rich woods. N. America – Quebec to Florida, west to Minnesota and Texas. A deciduous tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower from Mar to April, and the seeds ripen from May to June.(2)
Edible Uses:Inner bark. A mucilaginous texture, it is usually harvested in the spring. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. Seeds. No more details are given but they are very small and would be exceedingly fiddly to collect and use. Sap – used for food. Buds. No more details are given. The leaves are rich in protein and have a greater amino-acid content than wheat, corn, rice and barley. A concentrate made from them is as nourishing as meat, but can be produced faster and more cheaply. Some people believe that this will become a major food source for humans.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The bark contains salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. An infusion of the bark has been used in the treatment of whooping cough and tuberculosis. A decoction of the bark has been used to rid the body of intestinal worms. The bark has been eaten as a treatment for colds. A tea made from the inner bark is used in the treatment of scurvy. The inner bark, combined with black haw bark (Crataegus douglasii) and wild plum bark (Prunus spp) has been used as a female tonic. A poultice of the leaves has been used as a treatment for rheumatism, bruises, sores and boils.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=PODE3

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+deltoides
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#162 (e)
Common Name: Fremont Cottonwood, Western Cottonwood, Gila Cottonwood, Alamo (Populus fremontii)
Appearance and Habitat:
A fast-growing riparian tree, Fremonts Cottonwood has been known to grow 30ft in one year. It ultimate height is up to 90 ft. Tree with broad, flattened, open crown of large, widely spreading branches. The crown is broad and open with stout branches. Bark is whitish and roughly cracked. The triangular, deciduous leaves are bright green turning yellow in fall. This species, including varieties, is the common cottonwood at low altitudes along the Rio Grande and Colorado River and in the rest of the Southwest, as well as in California. Fremont Cottonwood grows only on wet soil and is an indicator of permanent water and shade. Easily propagated from cuttings, it is extensively planted in its range along irrigation ditches, and although it grows rapidly, it is short-lived. To this day, Hopi Indians of the Southwest carve cottonwood roots into kachina dolls, the representations of supernatural beings, that have become valuable collectors items. Horses gnaw the sweetish bark of this species; beavers also feed on the bark and build dams with the branches. Greenish clumps of parasitic mistletoes are often scattered on the branches. Fremont Cottonwood is named for its discoverer, General John Charles Fremont (1813-90), politician, soldier, and explorer.
(1)Banks of streams and other moist places in south-western N. America – California to Texas. It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Mar to April, and the seeds ripen in April.(2)
Edible Uses:Catkins – raw or cooked. Eaten as a snack. The young green seedpods have been chewed as a gum. Inner bark. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The inner bark was consumed by various native North American Indian tribes in order to prevent scurvy. The bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. An infusion of the bark and leaves has been used to wet a cloth which is then tied around the head as a treatment for headaches. The infusion has also been used as a wash on cuts, bruises, wounds and insect stings. A poultice of the boiled bark and leaves has been used to treat swellings caused by muscle strain.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=POFR2

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+fremontii

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#162 (f)
Common Name: Canadian Aspen, Bigtooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata)
Appearance and Habitat:
Big-tooth aspen is a columnar tree 50-75ft. tall. Toothed leaves are cottony white on the lower surface, especially when the tree is young. The slender trunk’s whitish bark, becomes furrowed at base and darker gray with age. Silvery catkins appear before leaves. Deciduous foliage becomes golden-yellow in fall. Easily distinguishable from Quaking Aspen by the large curved teeth of leaf edges, mentioned in both common and scientific names. Like that species, Bigtooth Aspen is a pioneer tree after fires and logging and on abandoned fields, short-lived and replaced by conifers. The foliage, twig buds, and bark are consumed by wildlife.
(1)  Rich moist sandy soils near streams and the borders of swamps from sea level to 900 meters in north-eastern N. America – Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to North Carolina. It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen in April.(2)
Edible Uses:Inner bark – boiled. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory, febrifuge and tonic. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. An infusion of the bark has been used to ease and lessen menstrual flow.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=POGR4
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+grandidentata
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#162 (g)
Common Name: Black Cottonwood, Swamp Cottonwood, Swamp Poplar (Populus heterophylla)
Appearance and Habitat:
Most recently discovered Canadian tree (April 2003). Found in Bickford Woods south of Sarnia, Ont.
(1)Found mainly on heavy waterlogged clay soils on the edges of swamps and bottom lands in eastern N. America – Connecticut to Goergia, west to Louisiana, Ohio, Indiana and Arkansas.(2)
Edible Uses:None
(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=POHE4

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+heterophylla
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#162 (h)
Common Name: Black Poplar, Lombardy Poplar (Populus nigra)
Appearance and Habitat:
Moist ground in woods and by streams in central and southern Europe, including Britain, Mediterranean temperate Asia to the Himalayas. A deciduous tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in June.
Edible Uses: Inner bark – dried, ground then added to flour and used for making bread etc. A famine food, used when all else fails.
Medicinal Uses : The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odour and a bitter taste. They also contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The buds are antiscorbutic, antiseptic, balsamic, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, salve, stimulant, tonic and vulnerary. They are taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections, stomach and kidney disorders. They should not be prescribed to patients who are sensitive to aspirin. Externally, the buds are used to treat colds, sinusitis, arthritis, rheumatism, muscular pain and dry skin conditions. They can be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages. The buds are harvested in the spring before they open and are dried for later use. The stem bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, diuretic and tonic. The bark contains salicylates, from which the proprietary medicine aspirin is derived. It is used internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, lower back pains, urinary complaints, digestive and liver disorders, debility, anorexia, also to reduce fevers and relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. Externally, the bark is used to treat chilblains, haemorrhoids, infected wounds and sprains. The bark is harvested from side branches or coppiced trees and dried for later use.

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+nigra
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#162 (i)
Common Name: Quaking Aspen, American Aspen, (Populus tremuloides)
Native American Name: Sinnabe(Shoshone)
(1)
Appearance and Habitat:
A 35-50 ft. deciduous tree, quaking aspen is pyramidal when young, usually developing a long trunk and narrow, rounded crown at maturity. Its small, nearly round, shiny leaves have a flattened petiole which allows them to quiver in the slightest breeze. Smooth, whitish-green bark becomes furrowed at the trunk’s base with age. Silvery catkins appear before leaves. Fall color is bright yellow. The names refer to the leaves, which in the slightest breeze tremble on their flattened leafstalks. The soft smooth bark is sometimes marked by bear claws. A pioneer tree after fires and logging and on abandoned fields, it is short-lived and replaced by conifers. Sometimes planted as an ornamental. Principal uses of the wood include pulpwood, boxes, furniture parts, matches, excelsior, and particle-board. The twigs and foliage are browsed by deer, elk, and moose, also by sheep and goats. Beavers, rabbits, and other mammals eat the bark, foliage, and buds, and grouse and quail feed on the winter buds.
(2)  A pioneer species of old fields logged or burnt land, it is found in a range of soils from shallow, rocky or clay soils to rich sandy ones. It grows best in rich porous soils with plenty of lime. N. America – Alaska to Newfoundland, south to Mexico.(3)
Warnings: Possible toxic effects due to salicylates (e.g. heartburn, tinnitus). Avoid with ulcers, stomach or peptic ulcers.
(4)
Edible Uses:Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a flour. This is normally mixed with other flours for making bread etc and can also be used as a thickener in soups. It is best used in the spring. Sap – can be tapped and used as a drink. It has also been used as a flavouring with wild strawberries. Catkins – raw or cooked. Bitter.
(5)  The inner bark of cottonwoods and aspens was used for man and horses in hard times. Some Indians preferred it because of its sweetness.(6)
Medicinal Uses :American aspen has a long history of herbal use. It was widely employed medicinally by many native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for its antiseptic and analgesic qualities, using it in the treatment of wounds, skin complaints and respiratory disorders. It is used for the same purposes in modern herbalism. The stem bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, nervine and stimulant. The bark contains salicylates, from which the proprietary medicine aspirin is derived. It is used internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, lower back pains, urinary complaints, digestive and liver disorders, debility, anorexia, also to reduce fevers and relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. Externally, the bark is used to treat chilblains, haemorrhoids, infected wounds and sprains. The bark is harvested from side branches or coppiced trees and dried for later use. An infusion of the inner bark is considered to be a remedy for coughs and an appetite stimulant, it is also used in the treatment of stomach pains, urinary ailments, VD, worms, colds and fevers. The root is poulticed and applied to cuts and wounds. A tea from the root bark is used as a treatment for excessive menstrual bleeding. The leaf buds are used as a salve for colds, coughs and irritated nostrils. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Populus tremuloides American Aspen for haemorrhoids, wounds & burns.
(7)
Foot Notes: (1, 6) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 17, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=POTR5

Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 7 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+tremuloides

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants #159 – 161 Water Cress/ Fleabane/ Syrian Rue

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#159
Common Name: Water Cress
Latin Name:
Nasturtium officinale
Family: Brassicaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=NAOF
All states, except Hawaii and N. Dakota; In Canada; British Columbia to Quebec, plus New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
Photos: Here
Appearance and Habitat:
Introduced and naturalized. An erect or spreading, perennial, 4″-18″ tall, emergent aquatic, sometimes evergreen, forming large, tangled wintergreen masses; stems spreading; rooting from the lower nodes. The flower is white, 4-parted, 1/5″ wide, petals 2 times longer than the sepals; inflorescence a cluster (raceme) of stalked flowers from the ends of the shoots; blooms May-Oct. The leaf is pinnately-divided into 3-9 rounded leaflets with the end one longest. Found in sun; streams, springs, cold water; in limy, sedimentary, gravelly soil.(1)  Streams margins, ditches, flushes ect. with moving water, usually in chalk or limestone areas. Europe, including Britain, from Denmark south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia. A perennial growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to October, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October.(2)
Warnings: Whilst the plant is very wholesome and nutritious, some care should be taken if harvesting it from the wild. Any plants growing in water that drains from fields where animals, particularly sheep, graze should not be used raw. This is due to the risk of it being infested with the liver fluke parasite. Cooking the leaves, however, will destroy any parasites and render the plant perfectly safe to eat. May inhabit the metabolism of paracetamol.(3)
Edible Uses: Leaves – raw or cooked. Water cress is mainly used as a garnish or as an addition to salads, the flavour is strong with a characteristic hotnes. It has a reputation as a spring tonic, and this is its main season of use, though it can be harvested for most of the year and can give 10 pickings annually. Some caution is advised if gathering the plant from the wild, see the notes above on toxicity. The leaves are exceptionally rich in vitamins and minerals, especially iron. A nutritional analysis is available. The seed can be sprouted and eaten in salads. A hot mustardy flavour. The seed is ground into a powder and used as a mustard. The pungency of mustard develops when cold water is added to the ground-up seed – an enzyme (myrosin) acts on a glycoside (sinigrin) to produce a sulphur compound. The reaction takes 10 – 15 minutes. Mixing with hot water or vinegar, or adding salt, inhibits the enzyme and produces a mild but bitter mustard.
(4)(Good break down on composition at the website.)
Medicinal Uses : Watercress is very rich in vitamins and minerals, and has long been valued as a food and medicinal plant. Considered a cleansing herb, its high content of vitamin C makes it a remedy that is particularly valuable for chronic illnesses. The leaves are antiscorbutic, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, purgative, hypoglycaemic, odontalgic, stimulant and stomachic. The plant has been used as a specific in the treatment of TB. The freshly pressed juice has been used internally and externally in the treatment of chest and kidney complaints, chronic irritations and inflammations of the skin etc. Applied externally, it has a long-standing reputation as an effective hair tonic, helping to promote the growth of thick hair. A poultice of the leaves is said to be an effective treatment for healing glandular tumours or lymphatic swellings. Some caution is advised, excessive use of the plant can lead to stomach upsets. The leaves can be harvested almost throughout the year and are used fresh.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=NASOFF

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Nasturtium+officinale

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#160
Common Name: Daisy Fleabane, Rayless Shaggy Fleabane, Philadelphia Fleabane
Latin Name:
Erigeron annuus, E. aphanactis, E. philadelphicus
Family: Asteraceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=eran
 All of the lower 48 States, except Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Nevada and Arizona; In Canada; British Columbia to Quebec, Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Erigeron annuus)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ERAPA2 Oregon, California, Nevada, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico. (Erigeron aphanactis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=erph All of the lower 48 States, except Utah and Arizona; All of Canada except Nunavut and Labrador. (Erigeron philadelphicus)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )

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#160 (a)
Common Name: Daisy Fleabane, Eastern Daisy Fleabane, Annual Fleabane (Erigeron annuus)
Appearance and Habitat:
An erect stem covered with spreading hairs bears flower heads with 40 or more tightly packed white to pale pink ray flowers surrounding the central yellow disk flowers.
(1)   An erect native , 2′-4′ tall forb with dense foliage; stems with long spreading hairs. The flower has a head 1/2″ – 3/4″ wide with 80-125 white to pinkish rays up to 1/3″ long, disks yellow and flat; inflorescence of several to many heads; blooms June-Sept. The seeds are dry fluffy pappus. The leaves are described as, basal leaves elliptical and coarsely toothed, stem leaves widely lance-like, usually sharply toothed, and not clasping. It is found in disturbed areas.(2)   Fields and waste places. Prairies and open ground in various soil types in Texas. North America, naturalized in C. Europe. It is hardy to zone 3.(3)
Warnings: None.
(4)
Edible Uses:Young plant – boiled.
(5)
Medicinal Uses :None.(6)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ERAN

Foot Notes: (2)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=ERIANN
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Erigeron+annuus
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#160 (b)
Common Name: Shaggy Rayless Fleabane (Erigeron aphanactis)
Native American Name:
Ah gwe shuh(Shoshone)
Appearance and Habitat:
No information other than photos.
Edible Uses: Tea from plant
Medicinal Uses : A dwarf yellow aster, used at Owyhee as a cure for gonorrhea. The tea from the whole plant ws used.

Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 47, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
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#160 (c)
Common Name: Philadelphia Fleabane, Fleabane Daisy, Marsh Fleabane (Erigeron philadelphicus)
Appearance and Habitat:
The fleabane daisy grows along roadsides and in fields and woodlands. It has more than 150 threadlike, white ray flowers. The center, disk flowers are 5-toothed and yellow, and there are many flower heads to each much-branched stem. The yellow center with the large number of very fine ray flowers is the best identification. They are much finer than those of other daisies or asters. Flower heads are 1/2-3/4 inch across. The geneus name, from Greek eri (early) and geron (old man), presumably refers to the fact that the plant flowers early and has a hoary down suggesting an old mans beard. Robins Plaintain (E. pulchellus) is slightly shorter and has fewer, but larger, lilac or violet flower heads, as well as stem leaves that are sparse and stalkless but do not clasp the stem; it is insect-pollinated and also spreads actively by runners.
(1)  An erect, biennial/perennial, 4″-36″ tall forb usually with long, spreading hairs. The flower head is 1/2′ – 3/4″ wide, 150-400 pink to white rays up to 1/3″ long, disks yellow and flat; inflorescence of usually more than 9 heads per cluster; blooms May-Aug. The fruit from the flowers, dry seed on fluffy pappus. It has basal leaves toothed, narrowly-oblong with a rounded tipped; stem leaves clasping. Found in wet areas, woods, shores, meadows. (2)   Thickets, fields, and woods in low prairies and streambanks, often on calcareous clays; in N. America – Labrador to British Columbia, south to Florida and California. A biennial/perennial growing to 0.7 m (2ft 4in) by 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower from Jul to August.(3)
Warnings: Contact with plant can cause dermatitis in sensitive people.
(4)
Edible Uses: None.
(5)
Medicinal Uses : A tea made from the plant is astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic and emmenagogue. It is used in the treatment of chronic diarrhoea, gout, gravel, epilepsy and menstrual problems. A poultice of the plant is used to treat headaches and is also applied to sores. It should not be taken by pregnant women since it can induce a miscarriage. A snuff made from the powdered florets is used to make a person with catarrh sneeze.
(6)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ERPH

Foot Notes: (2) http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=ERIPHI

Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Erigeron+philadelphicus
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#161
Common Name: Syrian Rue, African Rue, Soma
Latin Name:
Peganum harmala
Family: Zygophyllaceae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PEHA
Montana, Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.
Photos : Here
Appearance and Habitat: A native of northern India, Afghanistan and southern Russia that began growing in this country in 1930. Originally found near Fallon, Nevada and Deming, New Mexico; it has now spread to other states. It is found mostly on secondary dirt roads and paved roads. In grows in lower canyons, alluvial flats and grazing lands. In the past there have been eradication efforts because the plant is poisonous to sheep. The plant is bright green, composed of many 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 foot tall basal leaves that are theady in appearance. Through the warmer months it has 5 petaled flowers that grow from the leaf axils. The flowers mature into round hollow capsules which contain many small, angular seeds. Brown capsules are resent products, but turn grey in subsequent years. The root is grey-brown, pithy, with yellow heart-wood and is rather hard to dig up.(1)   Dry steppes, especially where grazing is heavy, and dry waste places. It is often found in saline soils. Europe – Mediterranean and southeastern Europe is its range. A perennial, growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 8. The seeds ripen in September. It cannot grow in the shade.(2)
Warnings: Use with caution. Although the seed is used medicinally and as a condiment, it does contain hallucinogenic and narcotic alkaloids. When taken is excess it causes hallucinations and vomiting.(3)
Edible Uses:Seed – used as a spice and purifying agent. Some caution is advised because the seed has narcotic properties, inducing a sense of euphoria and releasing inhibitions. An edible oil is obtained from the seed.(4)
Medicinal Uses :Alterative. The fruit and seed are digestive, diuretic, hallucinogenic, narcotic and uterine stimulant. They are taken internally in the treatment of stomach complaints, urinary and sexual disorders, epilepsy, menstrual problems, mental and nervous illnesses. The seed has also been used as an anthelmintic in order to rid the body of tapeworms. This remedy should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a qualified practitioner since excessive doses cause vomiting and hallucinations. The seeds contain the substance ‘harmine’ which is being used in research into mental disease, encephalitis and inflammation of the brain. Small quantities stimulate the brain and are said to be therapeutic, but in excess harmine depresses the central nervous system. A crude preparation of the seed is more effective than an extract because of the presence of related indoles. Consumption of the seed in quantity induces a sense of euphoria and releases inhibitions. It has been used in the past as a truth drug. The oil obtained from the seed is said to be aphrodisiac. The oil is also said to have galactogogue, ophthalmic, soporific and vermifuge properties. The seed is used externally in the treatment of haemorrhoids and baldness. The whole plant is said to be abortifacient, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue and galactogogue. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of rheumatism. The root has been used as a parasiticide in order to kill body lice. It is also used internally in the treatment of rheumatism and nervous conditions.(5)  The root and seeds remain stable for years and make good medicine, while the foliage is useful for only a year. Recent Russian studies have verified many of the folk remedies. The plant is useful for treating skin conditions such as eczematous, exfoliative dermatitis and psoriasis. They respond well to an external wash of the seed tincture or root tincture or tea. The herb tea is an excellent hair and scalp treatment for dandruff, using it after a shampoo, but tends to make the hair stiff. The seeds in tincture (40 drops), or in a #00 capsule will treat depression and make a good anti-depressant. It won’t help with manic depression however. The seed tincture has cardiovascular effects as well, it increases the force of the pulse and aortal flow, while decreasing the pulse rate. It treats high blood pressure in this fashion. The dry herb can be used as a tea or tincture. For the tea, boil 32 parts water to 1 part dried herb (by weight), remove from the heat source and allow it to sit for up to an hour, strain out the plant and return the water to the original level. For the plant tincture or seed tincture (grind seeds) use part dried plant to 5 parts of 50% vodka, place in a jar and shake daily for a week. For the root tincture, follow the same procedure but use 60% vodka at a rate of 1 part dried root to 5 parts vodka. Ingesting up to a dozen capsules of the seed will cause hallucinations.(6)
Other Uses :A red dye is obtained from the seed. It is widely used in Western Asia, especially as a colouring for carpets. The ripe seed contains 3.8 – 5.8% of the alkaloids harmine, harmaline, harmalol and peganine. Ineffective as a contact poison, they are active in vapour form where they are effective against algae, in higher concentrations to water animals and lethal to moulds, bacteria and intestinal parasites. The seed is used as an incense.(7)
Foot Notes: (1, 6 ) Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West by Michael Moore, pages 120-121, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 1989, ISBN 0-80913-182-1
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5, 7 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Peganum+harmala

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 158 – Sage (part2)

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
This is Michael Moore on western Sages, with some overlap.
#158 (part 2)
Common Name: Black Sage, White Sage, Scarlet Sage, Purple Sage, Hummingbird Sage, Blue Sage, Texas Sage, Crimson Sage
Latin Name:
Salvia apiana, S. Arizonica, S. azurea, S. carduacea, S. clevelandii, S. dorri, S. farinacea, S. greggi, S. lemmonii, S. leucophylla, S. mohavensis, S. spathacea, S. reflexa 
Family: Lamiaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALVI
Main database
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAAP2 California (Salvia apiana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAAR8 Arizona and Texas. (Salvia arizonica)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAAZ Most states east of the Mississippi River, except Virginia, W. Virginia, Maryland, Deleware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont, New Hamshire and Maine; all states along the west bank of the Mississippi R. plus Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah.(Salvia azurea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SADO4 Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, California and Arizona. (Salvia dorrii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAFA2 Connecticut, Ohio, Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico. (Salvia farinacea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAGR4 Texas (Salvia greggii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALE5 Arizona and New Mexico. (Salvia lemmonii)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALE3 California (Salvia leucophylla)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAMO3 California, Nevada and Arizona. (Salvia mohavensis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SASP3 California (Salvia spathacea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?mode=symbol&keywordquery=SARE3 Most states east of the Mississippi R., except, states north and east of New York, Kentucky, and South Carolina to Mississpippi; on the west bank of the Mississippi R., all states except Washington and Idaho; In Canada; British Columbia, Saskatchewan to Quebec. (Salvia reflexa)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )
Warnings: None on part 2
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#158 (a)(repeat from part 1)
Common Name: White Sage, California White Sage (Salvia apiana)
Appearance and Habitat:
A low, soft-stemmed, aromatic subshrub with long wands of whitish-lavender flowers. Silvery foliage occurs in 2 ft. mounds, subtending the 5 ft. flowering stalks. A woody shrub, with erect whitish branches. White Sage is a member of the mint family (family Lamiaceae), which includes aromatic herbs or shrubs (rarely trees or vines), usually with stems square in cross-section, four-sided.There are about 200 genera and 3,200 species, distributed nearly worldwide. The Mediterranean region, the chief area of diversity, produces many spices and flavorings, such as various mints, oregano, marjoram, thyme, sage, and basil. Catnip and lavender are in the mint family.

http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAAP2
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#158 (j)
Common Name: Arizona Sage, Desert Indigo Sage (Salvia arizonica)
Appearance and Habitat:
Arizona sage is a 1-2 ft. perennial with shiny, dark green leaves and clusters of tubular, indigo blue flowers. This salvia is browsed by deer at high elevations.

http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAAR8
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#158 (k)
Common Name: Pitcher Sage, Big Blue Sage, Azure Sage (Salvia azurea)
Appearance and Habitat:
A tall, delicate plant with large, 2 lipped, blue flowers, whorled around the square stem and forming a termimal spike-like cluster. A widespread perennial of the grasslands, it also extends east to the Carolinas. It begins to flower early and may continue until fall, or into early winter in Florida.

http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAAZ
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#158 (l)
Common Name: Purple Sage, Gray Ball Sage, Desert Sage (Salvia dorrii)
Appearance and Habitat:
A many-branched sub-shrub, 2-3 ft. tall and often broader than high, with numerous silvery-gray leaves and rigid, often spiny branches. Deep blue-violet flowers rise in long, showy, spike-like clusters above the silvery foliage. A broad bush with many rigid, spine-tipped branches, silvery leaves, and bright blue to blue-violet bilaterally symmetrical flowers. It is this sage, not sagebrush, that is referred to in Zane Greys classic Western, Riders of the Purple Sage. It is a handsome plant, pretty in leaf as well as in flower.

http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SADO4
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#158 (m)
Common Name: Mealy Blue Sage, Mealy Sage, Mealycup Sage (Salvia farinacea)
Appearance and Habitat:
This 2 -3 ft. upright or sprawling perennial, usually forms a mound as wide as the plant is tall. Mealy sage is named for the mealy-white (sometimes purple) appearance of the sepals, which are covered with felted hairs. The blue flowers are 5-lobed and 2-lipped, 2/3–3/4 inch long, with 2 stamens and 1 pistil. They have the usual sage fragrance. The long, narrow leaves grow in clusters, out of which grow the flower stems. The leaves may or may not have teeth. Dark-blue to white, tubular flowers are densely congested in whorls along the upper stems, creating a 3-9 in. spike. Gray-green, lance-shaped leaves are numerous, especially in the lower portion of the plant.

http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAFA2
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#158 (n)
Common Name: Autumn Sage, Cherry Sage (Salvia greggii)
Appearance and Habitat:
Autumn sage is a soft, mounding shrub normally 2-3 ft. tall, with small, mintily aromatic green leaves that are evergreen in warmer climates. The flowers are borne on racemes from spring to frost and can be red, pink, purple, orange, or white. Its natural range is from south-central and west Texas south to San Luis Potosi in Mexico, mostly on rocky slopes. Its aromatic foliage quickens the senses and its flowers are sure to draw hummingbirds. The color of its blossoms in the wild is usually red but varies from area to area, with some regions dominated by red-blooming plants, others pink, others orange, others purple, and others white, plus many shades in between. The color range has been further enhanced by breeding, resulting in many cultivars over the years. It is disease and insect free and drought tolerant, and once established, should not be fertilized.

http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAGR4
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#158 (o)
Common Name: Lemmon’s Sage (Salvia lemmonii)
Appearance and Habitat:
An aromatic, leafy, branched plant, somewhat woody near base, with upward-angled, bilaterally symmetrical, deep pink to crimson flowers in raceme-like clusters at stem ends. This handsome plant has the long, tubular, reddish flowers typical of many plants visited by hummingbirds.

http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SALE5
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#158 (p)
Common Name: Hummingbird Sage, Pitcher Sage (Salvia spathacea)
Appearance and Habitat:
This perennial spreads by rhizomes and bears upright stems with several pairs of broad, quilted, light-green, aromatic leaves. The flower spikes rise above the leaves to 2-3 ft. in height and bear large, tubular, magenta-colored flowers.

http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SASP3
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Other Photos: For Sage covered by Michael Moore Salvia carduacea, Salvia clevelandii, Salvia mohavensis, Salvia leucophylla,
Salvia reflexa

Appearance and Habitat: Being a member of the mint family there leaves are opposite and the stem is square. Sage (Salvia) can be mistaken for Wormwoods (Artemissia) because the common name for Wormwoods is Sage. But the Wormwoods are not the spice used in cooking. The leaves of the Salvia are rounder than Sagebrush and are usually not bitter like Sagebrush. The foliage is either silvery white, wrinkled gray-green, or shiny green. The flowers range from pink, red, blue, purple and white. Any Sage that is moderately smelly makes good medicine. Sage can be found from the ocean side to the borders of the Mohave desert, there are pure stands of mixed Sage’s in the foothills of California and Arizona. One of the better Sages for medicine in the southwest is Salvia lemmonii and Salvia greggii. Salvia greggi is found in the Texas mountains, it has thick leaves than are crinkled and heart shaped, bright but small reddish flower clusters and grows from a foot to a foot and a half in height. Salvia reflexa is a small annual with purple-jointed stems with a faint aroma. It has pale blue flowers. Although this Sage has a faint aroma it is one of the better medicine Sages of the Rocky Mountains. Salvia reflexa can be found in meadows, waste places, rural roadsides in the Four-Corners area at a middle altitude and ranges into Montana and the Great Basin areas as well.
Edible Uses: The seeds of all Sages found in the west are edible and nutritious. It is best to grind up the seed and use them in baked goods such as breads, muffins, hot cereals, and put them in corn-meal mush called ‘atole’.
Medicinal Uses : Sages are quite complex, taken as tea or tincture hot, they stimulate sweating, salivation and intestinal secretions, while drunk cold, the same tea will decrease the same effects, removing mucous from the sinuses, throat or lungs. It is one of the best remedies for decreasing lactation for both animals and humans. Just drink a cup before a meal. All Sages are anti – inflammatory and astringent as are several of the mint family (Self-Heal, Rosemary, Lemon Balm). It is also a good stomach tonic for ulcers and stomach inflammations, just take a cold cup of tea. It will also help with diarrhea that originates from the small intestine. The luke warm tea or tincture is very useful in treating sore throats, it can be used gargled and drunk slowly. The tincture is also effective for treating scratches, rashes, broken skin, or for sore gums. To make the tincture, use 1 part fresh plant to 2 parts 50% vodka (by weight); or for the dried plant at 1 part to 5 parts of 50% vodka. Take up to 30-60 drops at a time. For the tea, cold use 1 part dried herb to 32 parts water (by weight) moisten the herb, then place in it the water, leave at room temperature for 12 hours, remove the herb, squeezing the water from it, return the water to the same level; and it is ready. You can take 2 – 4 ounces as needed. For a hot tea, use 1 part plant to 32 parts water (by weight), place the herb in the water and slowly bring to a boil, let boil for 10 minutes, cool until warm, strain while pouring additional water through the herb to return the original level, and drink 2- 4 ounces as needed.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 225-228, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5

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