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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#133
Common Name: Hawthorn
Latin Name: Crataegus Columbiana, C. erythropoda, C. pruinosa, C. punctata, C. rivularis
Family: Rosacea
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=crata Main database, all States, except Hawaii; In Canada; all lower Provinces.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRCHP2Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana; In Canada; British Columbia (Crataegus Columbia)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRER Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah and Wyoming. (Crataegus erythropoda)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRPR2 All States east of the Mississippi R. except Alabama, South Carolina and Florida, on the west bank of the Mississippi R.- Iowa through Louisiana, plus Kansas and Oklahoma; In Canada; Ontario and Quebec. (Crataegus pruinosa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRPU All States east of the Mississippi R., except Maine and Florida, on the west bank Minnesota through Arkansas, plus Kansas and Oklahoma; In Canada; Manitoba to Quebec, plus Nova Scotia. (Crataegus punctata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRRI Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. (Crataegus rivularis)
Warnings: None (PFAF)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
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#133 (l)
Common Name: Frosted Hawthorn (Crataegus pruinosa)

Appearance and Habitat: Thickets and rocky ground in open woods. Slopes of low hills, often on limestone soils in North-eastern N. America – Newfoundland to North Carolina, west to Wisconsin and Oklahoma. A deciduous tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The flesh is thick. A sweet yellow flesh. The fruit can be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. The fruit is about 1cm in diameter. The fruit is up to 16mm in diameter with a thin flesh. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.
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#133 (m)
Common Name: Dotted Hawthorn (Crataegus punctata)

Appearance and Habitat: Dotted hawthorn is a flat-topped, thorny, horizontal-branching, deciduous tree growing 40 ft. high. It is usually wider than tall at maturity. Trunk bark is round and dark-gray; twigs are silvery. Profuse clusters of white, rose-like flowers are followed by a dull red apple, 3/4 in. in diameter.(1)Open rocky ground, thickets and pasture on rich hillsides. Eastern N. America – Quebec to Georgia, west to Minnesota an Oklahoma. A deciduous tree growing to 10 m (32ft 10in). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw or cooked. Eaten out of hand or made into jellies, preserves etc. A good size, about 25mm in diameter, and borne in small clusters. Ripening in October, it is quite apple-like texture and appearance, making a good dessert fruit. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the center of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed. (3)
Medicinal Uses: A compound decoction of the shoots and bark has been used to stop menstrual flow. Although no other specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is used either used either as a tea or a tincture.(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CRPU
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+punctata
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#133(n)
Common Name: River Hawthorn (Crataegus rivularis)

Appearance and Habitat: Thickets and rocky ground. Borders of streams, 900 – 2500 meters in Texas. Western N. America – Wyoming to Idaho, New Mexico, Arizona and Nevada. A deciduous tree growing to 4 m (13ft 1in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The flesh is thin, dry and mealy. The fruit can also be dried for later use or for making into pemmican. The fruit is high in sugar but low in fats and protein. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.
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Now for Michael Moore that covers all species in the west, including (Crataegus erythropoda) and (Crataegus columbiana)

Appearance and Habitat: Both C. chrysocarpa and C. erythropoda (Cerro Hawthorn) are similar bushes of the southern and central areas where Hawthorns grow in the Rocky Mountains. They are abundant in warm canyons in New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado. C. chrysocarpa has round fan-shaped leaves that are toothed, and up to 2 inches in length. It also has thorns that maybe as long as four inches. The flowers are in clusters, bloom in May and mature into red or orage berries. It overlaps C. erythropoda in the south, but extends into Montana in drier rocky drainages. C. erythropoda Usually has a furrowed bark trunk, with smaller thorns and leaves. It has dark red to black berries that have little flesh and many seeds. C. dougasii This is a tall shrub, from 10 to 15 feet in height, has fewer thorns that are curved and an inch long. They also have larger trucks. It has gray-brown bark, on older growth, and red-brown bark on younger limbs. It’s leaves are round and bright green, fan-shaped and toothed on the tips. It is the most abundant of the Hawthorns found in the west. It’s flowers appear as small white roses along the side branches and are in clusters. They mature into little red berries that eventually turn blackish. This shrub can be found as far east as Michigan. C. columbiana Is usually shorter but also broader with lateral growth. The bark is reddish-brown, with newer branches covered in hair. The leaves are more ovate than the rest, and toothed along the sides. The fruit is smaller, red to purple. This variety also has thorns 3 to 4 inches in length. It is found east of the Cascade Mountains.
Medicinal Uses : There are two times to collect Hawthorn, once in the spring by taking flowering branches and these can be dried in a paper sack for tea, or a dry tincture. Also once in the fall before the first frost when the berries are ripe. For a fresh tincture use the leaves, spines, small twigs and flowers. Use 1 part fresh plant to 2 parts of 50% vodka, and as always allow it to sit for a week, shaking it daily before straining out the plant. You can take 15- 30 drops three times a day. For the dried branches, make a tincture at 1 part plant to 5 parts of 50% vodka at 10-20 drops three times a day after the plant has been strained out. Tinctures have to sit for a week, shaking them daily before straining the plant out. You can also make a tea out of the dried flowering limbs using the flowers, leaves, or a teaspoon of the crushed berries. For both types of tea, place a rounded teaspoon of the plant in a cup of hot water and let steep for 30 minutes. The tea can also be taken three times a day. Hawthron is a heart tonic, it acts to strenghten weak functions or decrease any functions that are excessive. It is a mild coronary vasodilator, increasing the blood supply to the heart muscles, a treatment for angina, and heart spasms. It helps with treat hypertension as we age. It will gradually lower diastolic pressure and quiet the pulse. The benefits can take weeks or months to be felt. It also treats rapid heart beat (tachycardia). However it is not recommended for a slow pulse. The syrup or tea from the berries help treat connective tissue weakened by inflammation. The berries contain high levels of flavinoids when they are ripe.
Medical Plants of the Moutain West2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 126-129; Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN: 978-0-89013-454-2
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Native American Name: for Crataegus columbiana – Simnasho (Warm Springs Oregon Tribe) We na ish, (Bannock)
Edible Uses:The fruits were gathered after it had dried and been frosted over on the bushes, and used it as others use the Sarvis Berry. Great thickets of Simnasho border the stream in that valley.
Indian Uses of Native Plants
by Edith Murphey, page 22; Publisher: Meyerbooks Copy right 1990; ISBN 0-916638-15-4

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Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

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