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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#98 (part 3)
Common Name: Pine
Latin Name: P. taeda, P. virginiana
Family: Pinaceae
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PITA New Jersey, Deleware, Maryland, Illinois, Kentucky and Virginia south to the Gulf Coast, plus Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas to the Gulf Coast (Pinus taeda)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIVI2 all states east of the Mississippi R. except New England north of New York, Florida, Wisconsin and Michigan; plus Missouri and in Canada British Columbia, Alberta and Ontario (Pinus virginiana)
Photos: (Click on latin name after common name)
Warnings: The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pin can cause dermatitis in sensitive people PFAF website warnings apply to all pines.
#98 (t)
Common Name: Loblolly Pine, Old Field Pine, Bull Pine, Rosmary Pine (Pinus taeda) 
Appearance and Habitat: The principal commercial southern pine, a large resinous, and fragrant tree with rounded crown of spreading branches. Loblolly pine is a 60 foot treewhich can reach 110 ft. It loses its lower branches with age, leaving an open, rounded crown. Dark green needles are 6-10 in. long. Bark is gray and scaly. Loblolly Pine is native in 15 southeastern states. Among the fastest-growing southern pines, it is extensively cultivated in forest plantations for pulpwood and lumber. One of the meanings of the word loblolly is mud puddle, where these pines often grow. It is also called Bull Pine, from the giant size, and Rosemary Pine, from the fragrant resinous foliage. (1)  Flatlands or rolling hills from sea level to 700 meters. Found on a variety of soil tpes from low poorly drained areas to well drained soils, but usuallly on poor upland soils. South-eastern N. America – New Jersey to Florida and Texas. An evergreen tree growing to 40 m (131ft 3in) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Mar to May, and the seeds ripen from Oct to February.(2) 
Edible Uses: A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood.(3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers.(4)
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#98 (u)
Common Name: Virginia Pine, Jersey Pine (Pinus virginiana) 
Appearance and Habitat: Virginia pine is a straggling, scrubby evergreen, 15-40 ft. tall, becoming flat-topped with age. Outstretched limbs spring irregularly from the reddish-brown trunk. Cones are sharp to the touch due to prickly-like appendages. Short-needled tree with open, broad, irregular crown of long spreading branches; often a shrub. Used principally for pulpwood and lumber, it is hardier than most pines and suitable for planting in poor dry sites. Common in old fields as a pioneer after grasses on hills of the Piedmont, growing rapidly and forming thickets. Later this pine is replaced by taller, more valuable hardwoods.(1)Barren and sterile soils at low elevations from 50 – 850 meters. Found in a variety of soils, the best specimens grow in moderate to well-drained clay, loam or sandy soils. Eastern N. America – New York to Alabama and Georgia. An evergreen treegrowing to 15 m (49ft) by 6 m (19ft).  It is hardy to zone 6. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen from Oct to February.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. Rich in oil with a resinous flavour. The seed is very small and fiddly to utilize, it is only about 4mm long. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. A tea is made from the leaves.(3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of high fevers. An infusion of the buds has been used to remove worms from the body.(4)Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=PIVI2
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 (Now for Michael Moore, who only covers western species)
Appearance and Habitat: Two characteristics separate Pines and other conifers such as spruce, fir, and Douglas fir. In Pine trees the needles are in bundles of two or more with a tiny papery sheath surrounding the base of the bundles. The only exception on the needles in bundles is P. monophylla which has only one needle per bundle. The cones of Pines are woody and stiffer than those of the spruces. The cones of the firs stand up-right in contrast to the hanging position of the pines. In the west most pines are found from 5,000 feet to the timber line. The pinion needing the least amount of moisture is the lowest in elevation, then the yellow pine and ponderosa belts.
Medicinal Uses: The Pine needles make an excellent tasting tea that are a diuretic and expectorant. The bark also makes an excellent tea after being boiled slowly with a bit of honey added. The bark tea is an even stronger expectorant and should be used after the feverish infectious stage of a chest cold. The pitch is the strongest expectorant of all, chew and swallow a pea sized piece and before long there will be a general softening of the mucus in your bronchial air ways. The chewing and swallowing pitch the also acts as a urinary tract disinfectant. Pitch is also useful in removing splinters, glass, or other skin invaders. Warm the pitch over a stove or campfire with butter or fat added, and when it is warmed slightly paste it over the splinter or glass invader. Overnight the splinter should come out, because the antibiotic resins in the pitch tend to speed up the body’s response to removing the object. Expect it to throb for several hours as the body is building up a defense, but within 24 hours it should be easy to remove with no need of further disinfectant.
Medical Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition by Michael Moore, page 195 – 197, Publisher: New Mexico Press
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 #99
Common Name: Sweet Clover, Mililot, Yellow Sweet Clover, White Sweet Cover, Alfalfon
Latin Name: Melilotus officinalus, M. alba
Family: Leguminosae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MEOF All of the United States all of Canada except Nunavut.
Appearance and Habitat: It is a typical three-leaved clover growing form two to five feet in height, sometimes larger in stream beds. It is indistinguishable from alfalfa prior to blooming. They do tend to grow taller and stemmier in the summer than alfalfa. The flowers are found in little spikes and have an aroma reminiscent of violet and vanilla. The yellow variety flowers before the white. The plants flower from early summer to the first snows in late autumn. Miles of mountain roadside are often covered with the plants.(1)Small, somewhat pea-like flowers, fragrant when crushed, are in long, slender, cylindrical, spike-like clusters rising in the leaf axils on a bushy plant. This tall, introduced legume has the fragrance of new-mown hay when crushed. Both this plant and yellow Sweet Clover (M. officinalis) are widely used as pasture crops for nitrogen enrichment of the soil. They are also highly valued as honey plants as suggested by the genus name from meli, a Greek word meaning honey.(2)  It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September. It can fix nitrogen. The plant prefers neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. and can grow in saline soils. It cannot grow in the shade.It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.(3) 
Warnings: The dried leaves can be toxic, though fresh leaves are quite safe. This is do to the presence of courmarin, the substance that gives some dried plants the smell of new mown hay, if taken internally it can prevent the blood from clotting.(4)Edible Uses: Root. Consumed as a food by the Kalmuks. Young shoots – cooked. Used like asparagus. Young leaves are eaten in salads. The leaves and seedpods are cooked as a vegetable. They are used as a flavouring. Only fresh leaves should be used, see the notes above on toxicity. The crushed dried leaves can be used as a vanilla flavouring in puddings, pastries etc. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Flowers – raw or cooked. The flowers and seeds are used as a flavouring. The flowers also give an aromatic quality to some tisanes.(5)
Medicinal Uses: Melilot, used either externally or internally, can help treat varicose veins and haemorrhoids though it requires a long-term treatment for the effect to be realised. Use of the plant also helps to reduce the risk of phlebitis and thrombosis. Melilot contains coumarins and, as the plant dries or spoils, these become converted to dicoumarol, a powerful anticoagulant. Thus the plant should be used with some caution, it should not be prescribed to patients with a history of poor blood clotting or who are taking warfarin medication. See also the notes above on toxicity. The flowering plant is antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, diuretic, emollient, mildly expectorant, mildly sedative and vulnerary. An infusion is used in the treatment of sleeplessness, nervous tension, neuralgia, palpitations, varicose veins, painful congestive menstruation, in the prevention of thrombosis, flatulence and intestinal disorders. Externally, it is used to treat eye inflammations, rheumatic pains, swollen joints, severe bruising, boils and erysipelas, whilst a decoction is added to the bath-water. The flowering plant is harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use. A distilled water obtained from the flowering tops is an effective treatment for conjunctivitis .(6)  It is best to pick when first in flower to avoid the stems from growing during the summer. The stems become tough when dried and only the dried plant is used. It is a traditional external poultice for sore breasts and mild mastitis, as well as other soft tissue inflammations. The tea is used throughout Europe as a stomach soother and for chronic flatulence, especially after an intestinal infection. The tea has a pleasant vanilla flavor. Care should be taken in long term use of the tea because of the Coumarin. Coumarin can combine with prescription drugs resulting in unpredictable compounds. One of the basic anti-coagulant drugs is bishydroxycoumarin (Dicumarol) which was discovered by accident when a rash of fatal internal bleeding among cattle was found to have been due to the eating of rotten Sweet Clover that had been bundled before properly drying. The bales fermented and the wet plants turned the coumarin into bishydroxycoumarin. (7)
Foot Notes: (1, 7)  Medicinal Plants Of the Mountain West  by Michael Moore, 1st Edition, page 152, publisher:  Museum of New Mexico Press ; copy right 1979  ISBN 0-89013-104-X 
Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
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