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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#147 (part 1)
Common Name: Onion, Leeks and Garlic

Latin Name: Allium acuminatum , A. ampeloprasum, A. bisceptrum, A. bolanderi , A. brevistylum, A. canadense, A. cepa, A. cernuum, A. douglasii 
Family: Liliaceae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALLIU This is the main database. All States except Hawaii, all of Canada except Nunavut.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALAC4 All States west of the Rocky Mountains; In Canada; British Columbia. (Allium acuminatum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALAM All States east of the Mississippi R. and south of the Ohio R. except W. Virginia and Florida, plus Illinois, Ohio, New York, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas and California. (Allium ampeloprasum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALBI2 Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. (Allium bisceptrum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALBO Oregon and California. (Allium bolanderi)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALBR2 Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah and Colorado. (Allium brevistylum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALCA3 All States east of the Mississippi R. and along the west bank, plus N. Dakota through Texas and Montana; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. (Allium canadense)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALCE All States north of the Ohio R. plus Pennsylvania and New York north to Maine (except Rhode Island), Kentucky, N. and S. Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Texas, Montana, Oregon and California. (Allium cepa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALCE2 All States east of the Mississippi R., except Florida, New Jersey and states north of New York, all States along the west bank of the Mississippi R. except Louisiana, plus S. Dakota, Nebraska, Texas and all states west of the Rocky Mountains except Nevada and California; In Canada; British Columbia to Saskatchewan and Ontario. (Allium cernuum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALDO Washington, Oregon and Idaho.(Allium douglasii)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
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#147(a)
Common Name: Tapertip Onion, Hooker’s Onion (Allium acuminatum)

Native American Name: Aukipi satsi nikim (Blackfoot), Bostick (Washoe) Gunk (Shoshone)(1)
Appearance and Habitat:
An umbel of pink or deep pink flowers grows at the top of a leafless stalk. Plant has a strong onion odor. One of the most common of the many western Wild Onions, all of which have edible bulbs, though some are extremely potent or unpalatable. In the early days of the West, Indians saved at least one exploration party from scurvy by alerting the ill explorers to the curative properties of Wild Onion. (2)  Amongst dry sunny rocks on hills and plains in Western N. America – Washington to N. California. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from May to June.  (3)
Warnings: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.  (4)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Eaten in spring and early summer. A strong flavour. The bulb is 10 – 15mm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a relish. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads. The seed heads can be placed in hot ashes for a few minutes, then the seeds extracted and eaten. (5)  These grow along streams in the mountains.  They are gathered in May and June and eaten as they are found, both the onions and leaves are eaten after washing in water.  (6)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.  (7)
Foot Notes: (1, 6) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 33, 68, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALAC4
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 7 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+acuminatum
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#147(b)
Common Name: Wild Leek, Broadleaf Wild Leek (Allium ampeloprasum)

Appearance and Habitat:
It forms a thick, fleshy structure like a large green onion plant without a bulb. It is attractive in appearance with its silvery base and green top. The leaves of some varieties are blue-green, while others are yellow-green. The leaves are flat, in contrast to the round ones of the onion, and are arranged in a fan-like manner. The thick leaf bases and slightly developed bulb are eaten as a cooked vegetable or raw with or without attached leaves. The green leaves may be eaten and have a pungent odor and acrid taste.(1)  Rocky places near the coast in S.W. England and Wales, S. Europe to W. Asia. A bulb growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 8-Oct It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen in August.(2)
Warnings: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible. (3)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. The small bulbs can vary considerably in size from 2 – 6cm, they have a fairly strong leek to garlic flavour and are nice as a flavouring in cooked foods. The bulbs of selected cultivars are very large with a mild garlic flavour. Leaves – raw or cooked. A pleasant mild to strong garlic flavour, they are available from late autumn to the spring though they can become rather tough and fibrous as they get older. Flowers – raw. A similar flavour to the leaves but they have a somewhat dry texture and are best used as a flavouring in cooked foods. The bulbils have a mild garlic flavour and make a nice flavouring in salads and cooked foods. Although produced abundantly, they are quite fiddly to use because they are small. They can also be pickled.  (4)
Medicinal Uses :This species has the same medicinal virtues as garlic, but in a much milder and less effective form. These virtues are as follows:- Garlic has a very long folk history of use in a wide range of ailments, particularly ailments such as ringworm, Candida and vaginitis where its fungicidal, antiseptic, tonic and parasiticidal properties have proved of benefit. It is also said to have anticancer activity. Daily use of garlic in the diet has been shown to have a very beneficial effect on the body, especially the blood system and the heart. For example, demographic studies suggest that garlic is responsible for the low incidence of arteriosclerosis in areas of Italy and Spain where consumption of the bulb is heavy. The bulb is said to be anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator. The crushed bulb may be applied as a poultice to ease the pain of bites, stings etc.   (5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mv087
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+ampeloprasum
(Growing Tip: If you grow Leeks in your garden, you can get longer white bulbs if you do what I do. Start them in a trench that is 6″ inches deep, as the plants grow, slowly fill it in to become a mounded row.)
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#147(c)
Common Name: Palmer’s Onion, Twincrest Onion, Two Stemmed Onion (Allium biceptrum)

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 1–7+, commonly producing either cluster of stalked, basal bulbels or filiform rhizomes to 1 dm, terminated by bulbels, rhizomes generally lost when specimens are collected, ovoid, 1–2 × 0.6–1.8 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, light brown to gray, membranous, obscurely cellular-reticulate, cells rectangular, walls minutely sinuous, vertical, varying to irregular, all sinuous, without fibers; inner coats white to pink, cells obscure, quadrate. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2–5, basally sheathing, sheaths not extending much above soil surface; blade solid, flat, broadly channeled, 8–30 cm × 1–13 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary or clustered 1–3, erect, solid, terete, 10–30(–40) cm × 1–5 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, loose, 15–40-flowered, globose, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 3–4-veined, ovate to lanceolate, ± equal, apex acuminate. Flowers stellate, 7–10 mm; tepals spreading, lilac to white, lanceolate, ± equal, becoming papery in fruit, not carinate, margins entire, apex acuminate, not involute; stamens included; anthers purple; pollen yellow; ovary conspicuously crested; processes 6, central, distinct, flattened, triangular, margins papillose-denticulate; style included, linear, ± equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel 10–20 mm, often becoming flexuous and deflexed in fruit. Seed coat shining; cells each with minute, central papilla. 2n = 14, 28. Flowering May–Jul. Meadows and aspen groves, less commonly on open slopes in mountains; 1100–3000 m; Ariz., Calif., Idaho, Nev., N.Mex., Oreg., Utah.(1)Meadows and aspen groves, occasionally on open slopes. Western N. America – Oregon to California. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower from Jul to August.(2) 
Warnings: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.(3)  (I’m going to leave of PFAF warning, unless it changes.)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. They were usually harvested in spring or early summer. The bulbs are 10 – 15mm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a relish. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads. The seed heads can be placed in hot ashes for a few minutes, then the seeds extracted and eaten.
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The plant juice has been used as an appetite restorer. Although no other specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101335

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+bisceptrum
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#147(d)
Common Name: Bolander’s Onion (Allium bolanderi)

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 1–6+, not basally clustered, replaced annually by new bulbs borne terminally on rhizomes; rhizomes 1–3, inconspicuous, slender, less than 2 cm including renewal bulb; parent bulbs disappearing by anthesis except for still-functional roots and bulb coat, oblique-ovoid to ± oblong, 0.7–1.4 × 0.5–1.2 cm; outer coats not enclosing bulbs, brown to gray-brown, ± obscurely reticulate, membranous, reticulum delicate, cells transversely elongate, V-shaped or ± wavy, forming obscure herringbone pattern, without fibers; inner coats white, cells obscure, quadrate to ± rectangular, often contorted. Leaves persistent, withering from tip at anthesis, 2–3, basally sheathing, sheaths not extending much above soil surface; blade solid, subterete to ± channeled, 9–30 cm × 1–2 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, solid, terete, 10–35 cm × 1–3 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact to loose, 10–20-flowered, hemispheric, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 4–6-veined, lanceolate to lance-ovate, ± equal, apex acuminate. Flowers conic to campanulate, 7–14 mm; tepals erect, reddish purple, rarely white, narrowly lanceolate to lance-ovate, ± equal, becoming rigid and carinate in fruit, margins finely denticulate (inner tepal more prominently so), apex acute to obtuse, becoming involute at tip and appearing acuminate; stamens included; anthers yellow; pollen yellow; ovary crested; processes 3, central, 2-lobed, minute, margins entire; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, obscurely 3-lobed, scarcely thickened; pedicel 10–20 mm. Seed coat dull; cells minutely roughened.(1)  Heavy soils and openings in brush and woods below 900 meters in South western N. America – California. A bulb growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in).
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Jul to August.
(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulb is 10 – 25mm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101336
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+bolanderi
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#147(e)
Common Name: Shortstyle Onion (Allium brevistylum)

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 2–4, terminating thick, iris-like rhizome, elongate, 2–3 × 0.6–1 cm; outer coats enclosing single bulb, grayish or brownish, membranous, minutely striate, cells in parallel vertical rows, narrow, elongate, not fibrous-reticulate, fibers persistent, parallel, few, coarse; inner coats whitish, cells narrowly vertically elongate. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2–5, basally sheathing, sheaths not extending much above soil level; blade solid, flat, 10–40 cm × 2–8 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, solid, flattened and narrowly winged distally, 20–60 cm × 1.5–4 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, loose, 7–20-flowered, subhemispheric, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 3–5-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acute. Flowers narrowly urceolate, 10–13 mm; tepals erect, pink, lanceolate, ± equal, withering in fruit, margins entire, apex acuminate, midribs somewhat thickened; stamens included, ca. 1/2 as long as tepals; anthers yellow; pollen light yellow; ovary crestless; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, distinctly 3-lobed; pedicel 8–35 mm, elongating and becoming stout and curved in fruit. Seed coat dull or shining; cells each with minute, central papilla, or obscurely and minutely roughened. 2n = 14. Flowering Jun–Aug. Swampy meadows and along streams, rarely on wooded slopes; 2200–3400 m; Colo., Idaho, Mont., N.Mex., Utah, Wyo.(1)  Swampy meadows and stream sides at mediium to high elevations in Western N. America – Rocky Mountains from Montana and Idaho to Utah and Colorado. A bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower from Jul to August.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. The plant has thick iris-like rhizomes. The bulb is up to 3cm long and 1cm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. The young and succulent leaves are relished by many animals. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.(3)
Medicinal Uses :A poultice of the ground root and stems, or an infusion of them, is used as a wash for carbuncles. Although no other specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101338
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+brevistylum
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#147(f)
Common Name: Meadow Garlic, Canadian Garlic (Allium canadense)

Appearance and Habitat: Meadow garlic or wild garlic’s sparse cluster of grass-like leaves and its 8-12 in. flowering stalk grow from a bulb. From between narrow, grass-like leaves, which originate near its base, rises a stem topped by a dome-like cluster of star-shaped, pink or whitish flowers; plant has strong, onion-like odor. This antive perennial has a brown, fibrous skin on an edible bulb that tastes like onion. (1)  Sandy soils in low woods, thickets and meadows in N. America – New Brunswick to Minnesota, south to Florida and Colorado. A bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. It can be used as a vegetable, or as a flavouring in soups and stews, and can also be pickled. The bulb is up to 30mm in diameter, it is crisp, mild and with a pleasant flavour. Used as a leek substitute according to one report, it is a garlic substitute according to others. Leaves – raw or cooked. A delicious mild flavour, they are available from early spring until the autumn. They make a very acceptable salad and can also be used as a greens or as a flavouring in cooked foods. Flowers – raw. A little bit stronger flavour than the leaves, especially as the seeds begin to form, they can be used as a flavouring and garnish on salads. Some forms of this species produce bulbils. These top-setting bulbils make a fine onion flavoured pickle. They are said to have a superior flavour to other pickled onions.(3)
Medicinal Uses :The plant is antiasthmatic, carminative, cathartic, diuretic, expectorant and stimulant. A tincture is used to prevent worms and colic in children, and also as a remedy for croup. Although no other specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.  (4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALCA3
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+canadense
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#147(g)
Common Name: Garden Onion (Allium cepa)

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 1–3, not rhizomatous, mostly depressed-globose, varying in size from cultivar to cultivar, 5–8 × 3–10 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, yellowish brown, red, or white, membranous, without reticulation; inner coats white to pink, cells obscure to quadrate. Leaves persistent, 4–10, sheathing proximal 1/6–1/4 scape; blade fistulose, usually ± semicircular in cross section, 10–50 cm × 4–20 mm. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, fistulose, inflated below middle, 30–100 cm × 3–20 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact, to 500-flowered, globose, bulbils occasionally found; spathe bracts caducous, 2–3, 3–4-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acute to acuminate. Flowers stellate to campanulate to urceolate, 3–7 mm; tepals erect to ± spreading, white to pink with greenish midveins, withering in fruit, margins entire, apex obtuse or acute, outer ovate, inner oblong; stamens exserted; anthers white; pollen white; ovary crestless; style linear, ± equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel 10–50 mm. Seed coat not known. Flowering Jun–Aug. Disturbed sites adjacent to areas where cultivated; 0–500 m; Ark., Calif., Kans., La., Mont., Oreg., Tex., Wash.; cultivated in Europe, Asia. (1)Not known in the wild. W. Asia – Iran may be the source. An evergreen bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July.(2)
Warnings: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible. Hand eczema may occur with frequent handling. May interfere with drug control of blood sugar.(3)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. A very versatile food, the bulb can be 10cm or more in diameter and is widely used in most countries of the world. Eaten raw, it can be sliced up and used in salads, sandwich fillings etc, it can be baked or boiled as a vegetable in its own right and is also commonly used as a flavouring in soups, stews and many other cooked dishes. Some cultivars have been selected for their smaller and often hotter bulbs and these are used for making pickles. Leaves – raw or cooked. There are some cultivars, the spring onions, that have been selected for their leaves and are used in salads whilst still young and actively growing – the bulb is much smaller than in other cultivars and is usually eaten with the leaves. By successional sowing, they can be available at any time of the year. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads. The flowers are somewhat dry and are less pleasant than many other species. The seeds are sprouted and eaten. They have a delicious onion flavour.  (4)
Medicinal Uses :Although rarely used specifically as a medicinal herb, the onion has a wide range of beneficial actions on the body and when eaten (especially raw) on a regular basis will promote the general health of the body. The bulb is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, lithontripic, stomachic and tonic. When used regularly in the diet it offsets tendencies towards angina, arteriosclerosis and heart attack. It is also useful in preventing oral infection and tooth decay. Baked onions can be used as a poultice to remove pus from sores. Fresh onion juice is a very useful first aid treatment for bee and wasp stings, bites, grazes or fungal skin complaints. When warmed the juice can be dropped into the ear to treat earache. It also aids the formation of scar tissue on wounds, thus speeding up the healing process, and has been used as a cosmetic to remove freckles. Bulbs of red cultivars are harvested when mature in the summer and used to make a homeopathic remedy. This is used particularly in the treatment of people whose symptoms include running eyes and nose. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Allium cepa Onion for appetite loss, arteriosclerosis, dyspeptic complaints, fevers & colds, cough/bronchitis, hypertension, tendency to infection, inflammation of mouth and pharynx, common cold. (5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200027457
Foot Notes:(2, 3, 4, 5 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+cepa
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#147(h)
Common Name: Nodding Onion (Allium cernuum)

Appearance and Habitat: Soft, grasslike leaves and a 1-2 ft., leafless flowering stalk rise from a bulb. The stem bends so that the pink flowers, borne in a cluster at the top, nod toward the ground. An umbel of many pink or white flowers at the tip of a long, erect, leafless stalk, bent like a shepherd’s crook; a basal cluster of several long, narrow leaves. All parts of the perennial have a mild, oniony scent. This plant is closely related to the Autumn Wild Onion (A. stellatum) but differs in its unique nodding flower cluster and earlier flowering. One of the rarer Carolinian species because of its restricted habitat. It is principally found on Lake Erie islands, the southern most land in Canada. It is edible and has medicinal uses similar to garlic. (Lamb/Rhynard). Eaten sparingly by Northwest Coast First Nations. They were steamed in pits lined with cedar boughs and covered with lichen and alder boughs. After they were eaten, or dried in strings or on mats or pressed into cakes. EDIBLE PARTS: Leaves, bulbs and bulblets. Field garlic (A. vineale), introduced from Eurasia and northern Africa, is too strong for most tastes. Gather leaves during spring and fall. Gather bulbs in the second year when they are large enough to use like cultivated onions. Flower stem bulblets are collected during the summer. Use as domestic onions, for seasoning or raw in salads. Bulbs can be used raw, boiled, pickled or for seasoning. Their strong taste can be reduced by parboiling and discarding the water. To freeze onions or garlic, one should coarsely chop, blanch two minutes, drain, pat dry and place them into plastic bags. The bulbs can also be dried for use as seasoning. Use flower bulbs to flavor soup or for pickling. Attracts hairstreak butterfly. The city of Chicago gets its name from the Algonquin Indian name for this plant, chigagou.(1)  Ledges, gravels, rocky or wooded slopes and crests ascending to higher altitudes. Widely distributed on moist soils in mountainous and cool regions to 3500 meters. N. America – Canada to Mexico. A bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Feb It is in flower from Jun to July.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Strongly flavoured, it is mainly used as a flavouring. The bulb is about 50mm tall and 15mm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. A delicious, strong-onion flavour, they are very nice in salads. The leaves are available from spring until the autumn and are one of the most favourite onions we are growing on our Cornish trial grounds. Flowers – raw or cooked. A delicious strong onion flavour, somewhat stronger than the leaves especially if the seeds are starting to set. They make a very decorative and tasty addition to the salad bowl.(3)
Medicinal Uses :The whole plant has mild medicinal activity similar to the action of garlic (Allium sativum). It is used specifically as a poultice on the chest for the treatment of respiratory ailments and the juice has been used in the treatment of kidney stones. The juice of the plant is used in treating colds, croup, sore throats etc. A poultice of the plant is applied externally to various infections such as sore throats, sores, swellings, chest and pleurisy pains.(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALCE2
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+cernuum
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#147(i)
Common Name: Douglas’ Onion (Allium douglasii )

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 1–4, not clustered on stout, primary rhizomes, ovoid, 1.2–3 × 1–2 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, light brown, membranous, lacking cellular reticulation, or cells arranged in only 2–3 rows distal to roots, ± quadrate, without fibers; inner coats white, sometimes pink, cells obscure, quadrate or linear. Leaves usually persistent, green at anthesis, 2, basally sheathing, sheaths not extending much above soil surface; blade solid, flat, falcate, 9–28 cm × (2–)5–15 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, solid, terete, not expanded proximal to inflorescence, (10–)20–30(–40) cm × 1–4 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact, 25–50-flowered, hemispheric to globose, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 3, 4–6-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acute. Flowers ± stellate, (6–)7–8(–10) mm; tepals spreading, light pink to purple with prominent green midribs, narrowly lanceolate, ± equal, becoming papery in fruit, margins entire, apex acuminate; stamens equaling tepals or exserted; anthers blue-gray; pollen white to light gray; ovary crested; processes 6, 2 per lobe, low, rounded, margins entire; style exserted, linear; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel 15–30 mm. Seed coat shining; cells smooth.(1)  Low hills in shallow soil that is wet in winter but dry in summer. Western N. America – Washington to Oregon and Idaho. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is in flower from Jul to August.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. A mild and sweet flavour, it can be sliced and used in salads or used as a vegetable or flavouring in cooked foods. The bulb is up to 3cm long and 2cm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.  (3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)(http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101354
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)(http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+douglasii

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
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