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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUKE California and Oregon (Quercus kelloggii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QULA2 Coastal states – Louisiana to Virginia (Quercus laevis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QULO California (Quercus lobata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUMA2 All states east of the Mississippi R. except N. and S. Carolina, Georgia and Florida, all states along the west bank of the Mississippi, plus North Dakota to Texas, Montana, Wyoming and New Mexico; In Canada; Alberta to Quebec and New Brunswick (Quercus macrocarpa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUMA3 New York south to Florida, Indiana/Illinois south to Mississippi/Alabama, Iowa south to Louisiana, Nebraska south to Texas (Quercus marilandica)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUMI New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia south to Florida, Illinois/Indiana south to Mississippi/Alabama, Missouri south to Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas (Quercus michauxii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUMU All States east of the Mississippi R. except New Hampshire and Maine; all States on the west bank of the Mississippi R., plus Nebraska to Texas and New Mexico; In Canada; Ontario (Quercus muehlenbergii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUNI New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia south to Florida, Illinios/Kentucky south to Mississippi/Alabama, Missouri south to Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas (Quercus nigra)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUOB Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and south to Mexico (Quercus oblongifolia)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUPA2 All states east of the Mississippi R. except Florida, Alabama, South Carolina, Vermont and New Hampshire, Plus Iowa to Arkansas and Nebraska to Oklahoma; In Canada; Ontario (Quercus palustris)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUPR All States east of the Mississippi R. except Ohio, South Carolina and Florida, all States on the west bank of the Mississippi R. plus Nebraska to Oklahoma; In Canada; Ontario (Quercus prinoides)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUPR2 All States east of the Mississippi R. except Wisonsin and Florida, plus Louisiana (Quercus prinus)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.) 
Warnings: None
#128 (k)
Common Name: California Black Oak (Quercus kelloggii)

Native American Name: Tsonips (tree), Wa wachee (acorns) (Washoe Tribe)(1)
Appearance and Habitat: California black oak is a thick- trunked, globe-shaped oak, usually 30-40 ft. in cultivation. The deciduous leaves are oblong with bristle-tipped lobes; glossy-green in summer, turning yellow to orange in fall. Smooth black bark becomes ridged or checked with age. Tree with large branches and irregular, broad, rounded crown of stout, spreading branches. This is the common oak in valleys of southwestern Oregon and in the Sierra Nevada. The large, deeply lobed leaves with bristle-tipped teeth differ from all other western oaks, but resemble those of Black Oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) of the eastern United States. Woodpeckers drill holes in the bark and bury acorns there for future use, where they are safe from squirrels which cannot extract them. Slow-growing and long-lived, it is a popular fuelwood and hardy shade tree in dry soils. Deer and livestock browse the foliage.(2) Clay or gravelly soils in hills an mountains below 2500 meteres. Sometimes form groves of consideralbe extent in coniferous forests. South-western N. America – California to Oregon. A deciduous tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in). It is frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October.(3)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. Used as a staple food by several native North American Indian tribes. A bitter taste. The seed is 25 – 30mm long and 18mm wide, it can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. (4)The acorns were soaked over-night, which caused te shell to split open. The nuts were spread on open work baskets to dry and when they were dry enough, they were ground to flour in a stone mortar. After the acorn meal was ground it was leached to take out the bitterness in the following manner: a frame was prepared with incense cedar twigs laid overlapping, like shinges on a roof, the acorn meal was spread out on the frame, water poured through the meal repeatedly, until the meal turned pink, then it was dried and kept until used. If acorn soup was desired, it was made like a thin gruel. A few tribes made acorn bread. It was made up in round loaves, and before it was baked, it was pale brick-red color. If baked in ashes the bread was wrapped in fern leaves; the slow heat turned the bread black with fern prints on it. (5) If you want to place them in the ground, be my guest. However, as we have just seen Native Americans didn’t plant them in the ground and I am going to leave this portion out on PFAF from now on. In Part 3 I will use The Encyclopedia of Country Living for other ways to deal with processing acorns.
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. (6)
Foot Notes: (1, 5) Indian Uses of Native Plants
by Edith Murphey, page 24, 70, Publisher: Meyerbooks Copy right 1990; ISBN 0-916638-15-4

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#128 (l)
Common Name: Turkey Oak (Quercus laevis) Appearance and Habitat: A small tree, frequently a shrub, turkey oak grows up to 40 ft. tall, with stout, spreading, contorted branches forming a broad, irregular-shaped crown. The foliage is so deeply and narrowly lobed leaves that some leaves resemble a turkey foot. Leaves are deciduous, but the brightly colored fall foliage stays on the tree well into winter. Shrub or small tree normally growing to 43 feet (13 m), occasionally to 72 feet (21.9 m) in height; tree has irregular open crown with crooked branches. BARK: gray to dark gray, mature bark is deeply furrowed with irregular ridges, reddish inner bark. TWIGS and BUDS: dark chestnut-brown twigs with a gray cast, sparsely pubescent, chestnut-brown bark with pubescence; narrowly ovoid buds. LEAVES: smooth petiole 1⁄4 – 1 inch (6 – 25 mm) long; leaf blade broadly ovate or triangular in outline; 4 – 8 inches (101 – 203 mm) long, 3 1⁄8 – 6 inches (79 – 153 mm) wide near middle, base is acute or rounded and decurrent on pteiole, margin with 3 – 7 lobes which looks similar to a turkey’s foot, usually with 1 – 3 bristle-tipped teeth, sinuses between lobes are deep; leaf surface is smooth and light green above, paler green below with axillary tufts of reddish hair, raised veins on both surfaces. The common name refers to the shape of the 3-lobed leaves suggesting a turkeys foot.
(1) Dry barren sandy ridges, sandy bluffs and hammocks, growing well in almost sterile soil. South-eastern N. America-Virginia to Florida and west to Louisiana.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. The seed is up to 27mm long and 18mm wide. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. 
(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QULA2
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 #128 (m)
Common Name: California White Oak, Valley Oak (Quercus lobata)

Appearance and Habitat: Valley oak is a large, majestic, deciduous oak, up to 70 ft. or more, with huge, wide-spreading limbs. The massive trunk, broad crown and weeping branches make a picturesque, vase-like form. Leaves, with rounded lobes, are deep-green above, paler below. Large, handsome tree with stout, short trunk and large, widely spreading branches drooping at ends, forming broad, open crown. Valley Oak is the largest of the western deciduous oaks and a handsome, graceful shade tree. This relative of the eastern White Oak (Quercus alba L.) is common through Californias interior valleys. Acorn crops, often abundant, are consumed by many kinds of wildlife and domestic animals, especially hogs. California Indians roasted these large acorns and also ground edible portion into meal which they prepared as bread or mush. (1) Fertile lowlands in deep rich soils in valles of W. California betwen the Sierra Nevada and the coast. A deciduous tree growing to 30 m (98ft 5in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. A staple food for several native North American Indian tribes. Quite large, it is up to 5cm long and 15mm wide. The seed of this species is sweet and low in tannin and needs little if any leeching. Any bitter tannins can be leached out by thoroughly washing the dried and ground up seed in water, though many minerals will also be lost. The seed can be roasted and then eaten, its taste is something like a cross between sunflower seeds and popcorn. The seed can also be ground into a powder and used in making bread etc. Roasted seed is a coffee substitute. (3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. A poultice of the ground galls and salt has been used as a treatment for burns, sores and cuts. A decoction of the bark has been used as a cough medicine and a treatment for diarrhoea. The pulverized bark has been used as a dusting powder to dry up running sores, it is particularly useful for babies with sore umbilicus.

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#128 (n)
Common Name: Bur Oak, Savannah Oak, Mossy over-cup Oak, Prairie Oak (Quercus macrocarpa) Appearance and Habitat: Bur oak is a large, deciduous tree with a very wide, open crown. Usually wider than tall, the tree can exceed 100 ft. in height and width. The massive trunk supports heavy, horizontal limbs and rough, deep-ridged bark. Leaves up to 9 inches long with a central midrib from which branch veins lead into rounded lobes. Lobes separated by deep sinuses reaching, in some cases, to within 1/2 inch of the midrib. Lobes beyond the midpoint of the blade wavy margined and longer and broader than those toward the base. Acorns large, up to 1 1/2 inches broad with 1/4 to more than 1/2 of the acorn enclosed in the cup. Cup with coarse scales and a fringed margin. The acorns of this species, distinguished by very deep fringed cups, are the largest of all native oaks. The common name (sometimes spelled Burr) describes the cup of the acorn, which slightly resembles the spiny bur of a chestnut. Bur Oak is the northernmost New World oak. In the West, it is a pioneer tree, bordering and invading the prairie grassland. Planted for shade, ornament, and shelter belts. Bur oak extends farther north than any other oak species and becomes shrubby at the northern and eastern limits of its range.
(1) Found in a variety of habitats from dry hillsides to moist bottomlands, rich woods and fertile slopes, mainly on limestone soils. Eastern N. America – Nova Scotia to Manitoba, Wyoming, Massachusetts, Georgia, Kansas and Texas. A dedicuous tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. Very large, the seed can be up to 5cm x 4cm, though it is somewhat variable in size and shape. The seed can be ground into a powder and used in making bread, dumplings etc and as a thickener in soups. The seed of this species is considered to be one of the most palatable of all the oaks. Many trees have sweet seeds with little tannin and the seed can be eaten raw or cooked. If the seed is bitter then this is due to the presence of tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the dried and ground up seed in water, though many minerals will also be lost.
(3)
Medicinal Uses: The bark is astringent and tonic. An infusion has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea. A decoction of the root or inner bark has been used in the treatment of cramps. Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUMA2
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#128 (o)
Common Name: Blackjack Oak, Barren Oak (Quercus marilandica)

Appearance and Habitat: A small to medium-sized oak, 30-50ft, with bristle-lobed leaves that are shiny on top & rusty-yellow beneath. The short nearly black trunks divide into many dense, contorted limbs, bark dark, furrowed; dead branches persistant. Leaf blades wedge shaped (obdeltoid – obovate) with a narrow, rounded base and broadening toward the tip. Blades shallowly lobed with usually an apical and 2 lateral lobes bearing bristlelike extensions (awns) of the main vein. Foliage glossy dark green turns red in fall and persists into winter. Acorn elliptic, broadly rounded at the apex and base, up to 3/4 inch long when mature; cap covering 1/2 the nut. This oak sometimes grows in colonies. GROWTH FORM: small to medium sized tree usually between 15 – 45 feet (4.6 – 19.8 m), occasionally to 95 feet (28.9 m), with an open irregular spreading crown of crooked branches and some dead twigs, slow growing and short lived. BARK: thick rough bark, nearly black, with deep furrows, mature bark forming irregular or rectangular plates, orange inner bark. TWIGS and BUDS: light brown twigs, finely pubescent; narrowly ovoid pointed buds, reddish-brown pubescent scales, 5-angled in cross section. LEAVES: pubescent petiole 1⁄4 – 3⁄4 inch (6 – 19 mm) long; leaf broadly triangular and widest near tip, 2 3⁄4 – 8 inches (70 – 203 mm) long, 2 3⁄4 – 8 inches (70 – 203 mm) wide, leathery, base rounded, thickened blade with 3 – 5 broad lobes, with 1 – 3 bristle- tipped teeth, apex obtuse; glossy yellowish-green above, pale green with dense brown pubescence (scurfy) below, secondary veins raised on both surfaces. (1) Dry siliceous or argillaceous barrens and sterile woods in Central and South-eastern N. America – New York to Florida, west to Iowa and Texas. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. Used in times of scarcity. The seed is about 2cm long, it can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.(3)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the tree bark coal has been taken to ease childbirth, remove the afterbirth and ease cramps. Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.  
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUMA3
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+marilandica
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#128 (p)
Common Name: Swamp Chestnut Oak, Basket Oak, Cow Oak (Quercus michauxii)

Appearance and Habitat: A 60-100 ft. oak with tight, narrow crown very high on the massive trunk. Bark is light gray. The shiny, oval unlobed leaves have large, r9unded teeth and turn yellow to vibrant red in the fall. Large tree with compact, rounded crown and chestnutlike foliage. GROWTH FORM: large tree growing to 48 – 100 feet (15 – 30.5 m), occasionally to 155 feet (47.2 m), with a compact rounded crown and chestnut like foliage, often with a limbless trunk to 40 feet (12.2 m). BARK: light gray, rough, flaky ridges. TWIGS and BUDS: juvenile growth is green, progressing to brown during the first winter and turning gray during second year; ovoid, reddish-brown bud, apex may be blunt or pointed, sparsely pubescent scales. LEAVES: short petriole 1⁄4 – 3⁄4 inch (6 – 19 mm) long; obobate leaves widest beyond the middle, 2 3⁄4 – 11 inches (70 – 279 mm) long, 2 – 7 inches (51 – 178 mm) wide, wavy margin with 9 – 14 pair of rounded teeth, base acuminate, apex broadly rounded with an abruptly pointed tip; shiny dark green above, grayish-green with dense pubescence (felty to the touch) below. Called Basket Oak because baskets were woven from fibers and splints obtained by splitting the wood. These strong containers were used to carry cotton from the fields. The sweetish acorns can be eaten raw, without boiling. Cows consume the acorns, hence the name Cow Oak. (1) Inundated bottoms, stream borders and swamps in South-eastern N. America – Delaware to Indiana, Missouri, Florida and Texas. A deciduous tree growing to 30 m (98ft 5in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender (2) .
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. The seed is large, up to 35mm long and 30mm wide, but contains bitter tannins. Other reports say that the acorns are sweet and edible. The seed can be roasted then dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The bitter tannins can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. (3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. 
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUMI
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+michauxii
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#128 (q)
Common Name: Chinkapin Oak, Chestnut Oak, Yellow Oak, Rock Oak, (Quercus muelenbergii)

Appearance and Habitat: A tree with light gray platy or scaly bark and smooth, gray twigs changing to brown on the current year’s leaf-bearing growth. Leaves up to 8 inches long and 4 1/2 inches wide with their widest part nearer the apex than the base. Larger leaves broadly rounded from the widest part to the apex and tapered to the base, the smaller ones narrower, leaf margins shallowly lobed or coarsely toothed, each lobe or tooth with a minute tip; the upper surface smooth, with a sheen, the lower surface dull. Flowers inconspicuous in narrow clusters. Fruit an acorn up to 1 inch long and 3/4 inch wide. (1) Dry calcareous slopes and ridges, or on rich bottoms. Well drained uplands, favouring limestone soils and avoiding acid soils in Eastern N. America – Vermont and Ontario to Minnesota, Nebraska, Alabama and Texas. A deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in November.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. It is up to 18mm long. The seed contains very little bitter tannin, it is quite sweet and rather pleasant eating. Tastes nice when baked in an oven. Any bitter seeds can be leached by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. Roasted seed is a coffee substitute. (3)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the bark has been used in the treatment of vomiting. Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. 
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUMU
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+muehlenbergii
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#128 (r)
Common Name: Water Oak (Quercus nigra) Appearance and Habitat: Water oak is a conical to round-topped tree, 50-100 ft. tall, with thick, leathery, leaves that are semi-evergreen in the warmer parts of its range. The shiny, dark-green leaves are wedge-shaped and may have lobes at the tips. Foliage becomes yellow in fall. Tree with conical or rounded crown of slender branches, and fine textured foliage of small leaves.
(1) Dry woods or borders of streams and bottomlands. The best specimens are found in well-drained, silty clay or loamy soils. South-eastern N. America -New Jersey to Florida, west to Oklahoma. A deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 8 m (26ft). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. A staple food for some native North American Indian tribes. The seed is about 15cm long and wide, it can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.
(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. 
(4) 
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUNI
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+nigra

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#128 (s)
Common Name: Mexican Blue Oak (Quercus oblongifolia)

Appearance and Habitat: Small evergreen tree with many branches and a spreading, rounded crown of bluish foliage; or a shrub. This handsome small oak is limited to the Mexican border region. It is recognized by its light gray, checkered bark and small, blue-green, hairless leaves without teeth. Deer browse the foliage.

(1) A common tree of open and oak woodlands in foothills, mountain slopes an in canyons. South-western N. America – Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and Mexico. An evergreen shrub growing to 8 m (26ft 3in).
It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jan to December.
(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. A staple food for some native North American Indian tribes. Very sweet, it is up to 2cm long and 8mm wide. The seed can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread.(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. 
(4) 
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUOB
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+oblongifolia
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#128 (t)
Common Name: Pin Oak (Quercus palustris)

Appearance and Habitat: Straight-trunked tree with spreading to horizontal branches, very slender pinlike twigs, and a broadly conical crown. Pin oak is a stongly pyramidal tree with a distinct central leader, growing 60-70 ft. or taller. Instead of the gnarled, massive qualities of most oaks, pin oak has a more graceful, slender appearance. Old trees become high-crowned after shedding lower limbs. Dark-green foliage becomes dark-red in fall. Leaves persist into winter. Named for the many short side twigs or pinlike spurs. (1) Deep rich soils in swampy woods and bottoms at low elevations. Often found on wet, poorly drained claypan soils typical of floodplains, tolerating short periods of spring flooding. North-eastern and Central N. America – Massachusetts to Michigan, Virginia and Arkansas. A deciduous tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a fast rate. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October (2).
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. The seed is about 15mm long, it can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. (3)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the inner bark has been used to treat intestinal pains. Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.
(4) 
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUPA2
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+palustris

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#128 (u)
Common Name: Dwarf Chinkapin Oak (Quercus prinoides)

Appearance and Habitat: Growth Form: rhizomatous shrub or a small tree to 25 feet (7.6 m). BARK: thin gray bark with furrows and scaly ridges. TWIGS and BUDS: grayish twigs, broadly rounded bud brown to chestnut-brown with a blunt apex, scales have some pubescence. LEAVES: shortpetiole 1/4 – 5/8 inch (6 – 16 mm); leathery leaves are obovate, 1 1/2 – 5 1/2 inches (38 – 140 mm), 3/4 – 2 1/2 inches (19 – 63 mm), margin undulate or toothed with 3 – 8 pair of short rounded teeth, base cuneate, apex rounded; shiny dark green above, light green below with slight pubescence. ACORNS: annual; 1 – 2 acorns on peduncle up to 3/8 inch (10 mm), thin cup with short gray pubescent scales, covering up to 1/3 of nut; oblong to oval light brown nut, up to 3/4 inch (19 mm) long. Dwarf Chinkapin oak can produce acorns at 3 – 5 years. The largest known dwarf chinkapin oak is growing in Richardson County, Nebraska.(1) Sunny sites, often in rocky or acid sandy soils on dry plains, rocks, thickets and woodland edges in Eastern and Central N. America – Maine to Minnesota, south to Alabama and Texas. A deciduous shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. A sweet taste. The seed is up to 15mm long, it can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed might contain bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached.  The roasted seed is also a coffee substitute.(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUPR
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+prinoides
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#128 (v)
Common Name: Chestnut Oak, Rock Chestnut Oak, Mountain Chestnut Oak, Tanbark Oak (Quercus prinus)

Appearance and Habitat: A medium to large tree, 65 – 145 feet (19.8 – 44.2 m), broad open and irregular crown, chestnut like foliage. BARK: dark reddish- brown to dark gray, mature bark with deep v-shaped furrows producing broad ridges. TWIGS and BUDS: stout twigs, dark green to reddish-brown; light brown to reddish-brown ovoid bud, pointed apex, bud scales may have slight pubescence. LEAVES: yellow petiole 3⁄8 – 1 1⁄4 inches (10 – 32 mm) long; leaf blade obovate, 4 3⁄4 – 8 inches (121 – 203 mm) long, 2 3⁄8 – 4 inches (60 – 101 mm) wide, margins have 10 – 14 rounded teeth, base subacute, apex broadly acuminate; thick firm blade, shiny dark yellowish-green above, light green with slight pubescence along veins below.(1) Dry or rocky woods, mainly on siliceous soils and on the borders of streams. The best specimens are found on deep rich well-drained soils. Eastern N. America – Maine to Georgia and Alabama. A deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft 7in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. Somewhat sweet according to some reports whilst another says that it contains bitter tannin. The seed is quite large, up to 4cm long and 25mm wide. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. If the seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. 
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUPR2
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+prinus

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