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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
Common Name: Gromwell, Stoneseed, Puccoon
Latin Name: Lithospermum canescens, L. caroliniense, L. incisum, L. multiflorum, L. officinale, L. ruderate
Family: Boraginaceae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=lica12
All States east of the Mississippi R., except Florida and states north of New York, on the west bank of the Mississippi R. Minnesota to Arkansas and North Dakota to Texas; in Canada; Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario (Lithospermum canescens)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LICA13 All States east of the Mississippi R. except North Carolina, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey and states north of New York; on the west bank of the Mississippi R. Minnesota to Louisiana, South Dakota to Texas, plus Colorado; in Canada; Ontario (Lithospermum caroliniense)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LIIN2 east of the Mississippi found in Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Tennessee, Indiana, Florida; on the west bank of the Mississippi, all states except Washington, Idaho, Oregon; in Canada; British Columbia to Ontario (Lithospermum incisum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=limu3Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas (Lithospermum multiflorum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LIOFNew England south to Pennslyvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota; in Canada; Manitoba east to Quebec and Newbrunswick (Lithospermum officinale)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LIRU4 All States west of the Rocky Mountains, except Arizona and New Mexico; in Canada; British Columbia to Saskatchewan (Lithospermum ruderale)
Photos:(Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
Warnings: None on PFAF website
Common Name: Paint Indian, Hoary puccoon (Lithospermum canescens )
Appearance and Habitat:
Hoary puccoon’s clumps of leafy stems grow 6-18 in. tall. A hairy, grayish plant with terminal clusters of yellow-orange, tubular flowers; leaves and stems covered with fine soft hairs, giving plant a hoary look. The leaves are bright green, small and narrow, and, like the stems, are covered with silky hairs. Bright, yellow-orange flowers form dense clusters at the tips of the stems. The flowers are tubular and five-lobed. Puccoon is an Algonquian word for a number of plants that yield dyes. Among the other species in the East, Hairy Puccoon (L. caroliniense) has harsher, longer hairs; Corn Gromwell (L. arvense), originally European but now found throughout the United States, is an annual with inconspicuous white flowers among its upper leaf axils.
(1)Dry or sandy woods, prairies etc. in Eastern N. America – Ontario to Georgia, west to Saskatchewan and Texas. A perennial growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from May to June. (2) 
Edible Uses: The roots have been chewed with gum in order to colour the gum red. The flowers have been chewed with gum in order to colour it yellow.
Medicinal Uses: A tea made from the leaves is applied externally in the treatment of fevers accompanied by spasms.(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LICA12
Common Name: Carolina Puccoon, Hairy Puccoon (Lithospermum caroliniense )
Appearance and Habitat: One to numerous stout, leafy stems, simple to branched above; 1-2 ft. tall. Stems and linear leaves are gray-green and covered with coarse, stiff hairs. Deep yellow, tubular flowers are clustered at the end of stems. Older plants may form clumps 2-3 ft. across. (1)Sandhills, pine barrens and dry sandy woods in Eastern N. America – New York to Florida, Minnesota, Montana and New Mexico. A perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is hardy to zone 6. (2)
Edible Uses: None (3)
Medicinal Uses: The powdered root has been used in the treatment of chest wounds.
Foot Notes:
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lithospermum+caroliniense
Common Name: Narrowleaf Stoneseed, Fringed Puccoon, Narrowleaf Gromwell (Lithospermum incisum )

Appearance and Habitat: One to several leafy stems, branched above on older plants, rise 6-16 in. high. Leaves are alternate, 2–4 inches long with rolled edges, larger near the base. Tubular, lemon yellow flowers with conspicuously fringed lobes are in clusters at the end of stems which are 6–12 inches long. They are trumpet–shaped with 5 petal-like lobes which open to 1 inch across, with crinkled margins. Very narrow leaves are less noticably hairy than other puccoons. (1)Dry soils of plains, foothills and ridges in mountains to 2100 meters. Central N. America – British Columbia to Manitoba, south to Illinois, Texas and Arizona. A perennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower in June. (2)
Edible Uses: Root – cooked. Eaten boiled or roasted. The root has been used to make a tea. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The root has been chewed by some native North American Indian tribes as a treatment for colds. The finely powdered leaves, root and stem have been rubbed on the body in the treatment of paralyzed limbs. An infusion of the root has been used in the treatment of stomach aches and kidney problems. The plant has been eaten as an oral contraceptive and also as a treatment for lung haemorrhages, coughs and colds. A cold infusion of the pulverized root and seed has been used as an eyewash. This plant was used as a medicine by various native North American Indian tribes and interest in the plant has revived recently as a possible source of modern drugs.
Foot Notes:
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lithospermum+incisum
Common Name: Manyflowered Stoneseed (Lithospermum multiflorum ) Appearance and Habitat: Manyflowered stoneseed is 9–18 inches tall and has basal leaves smaller than puccoon. Leaves are alternate and close together on the stem; the upper leaves are 1–2 inches long, narrow and blunt. The upper half is branched, with a compact cluster of flowers at the tip of the stem, 1/2– 3/4 inch long, with 5 round, yellow petals 1 1/4 inches across.
(1)Gravelly soils in Texas, 1800 – 3600 meters, mainly in the juniper and pine belts in Western N. America. A perennial growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jul to August. (2)
Edible Uses: The seeds have been used for food .
Medicinal Uses: The root has been used as a ‘life medicine’ by some native North American Indian tribes.
Foot Notes:
Common Name: European Gromwell (Lithospermum officinale ) Appearance and Habitat: Hedges, bushy places and woodland borders, usually on basic soil. Europe, including Britain, except the extreme southwest and north, east to Iran and the Caucasus. A perennial growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August.
Edible Uses: The leaves are used as a tea substitute
Medicinal Uses: The mature seeds are diuretic, lithontripic and oxytocic. They are ground into a powder and used in the treatment of bladder stones, arthritis and febrile conditions. An infusion of the leaves is used as a sedative. The root is depurative. A syrup made from a decoction of the root and stems is used in the treatment of eruptive diseases such as smallpox, measles and itch. All parts of the plant contain a substance that inhibits the secretion of the pituitary gonadotrophic hormone. Extracts of the herb possess contraceptive properties.
Common Name: Western Stoneseed, Western Gromwell (Lithospermum ruderale )

Native American Name: Not misha (Owyhee, Nevada – Shoshone)(1)
Appearance and Habitat:
Several or many leafy stems in a clump produce, in the upper axils, clusters of 5-lobed light yellow flowers. (2)Open, fairly dry places form the foothills to moderate elevations in Western N. America – British Columbia to California. A perennial growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). It is hardy to zone 4. (3)
Edible Uses: The seed has been used for food. (4)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion or decoction of the root has been used as a diuretic in the treatment of kidney complaints and also to treat internal haemorrhaging, diarrhoea etc. A poultice of the dried powdered leaves and stems has been used to relieve the pain of rheumatic joints. Some N. American Indian women drank a cold water infusion of the roots daily for six months to ensure permanent sterility. Alcoholic extracts of the plant have been shown to eliminate the oestrus cycle and decrease the weight of the thymus and pituitary glands.
(5)A handful of dried root, chipped and boiled in water to cover, and tea used daily for six months, results in permanent birth control. (6)
Foot Notes:
(1, 6) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Murphey, page 46, Publisher: Meyerbooks Copy right 1990; ISBN 0-916638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LIRU4
Foot Notes: (3, 4, 5 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lithospermum+ruderale
Common Name: Marsh Marigold, American Cowslip, Elkslip,
Latin Name: Caltha leptosepala
Family: Ranunculaceae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CALE4 All States west of the Rocky Mountains, plus Alsaka; in Canada; Yukon, British Columbia and Alberta

Photos: Here

Appearance and Habitat: The glossy, basal leaves of this marsh-marigold are distinctly longer than broad with wavy edges. Showy flowers, occuring on a few-leaved stem, are purplish outside and white within. There are several leaves at the base of the each erect, leafless flowering stem, with usually only 1 white, bowl-shaped flower at tip. Masses of yellow stamens add to the flowers’ showiness. Usually only one flower is borne from each 2-4 in. stem, but there can be two or three. Marsh Marigolds bloom very close to receding snowbanks. The name Elks Lip refers to the shape of the long leaf of this species. Twin-flowered Marsh Marigold (C. biflora), from Alaska to California, east to Colorado, is very similar but has leaves about as wide as long and nearly always 2 flowers on each stem.(1)Open, wet, subalpine and alpine marshes, wet seepages and marshy meadows at elevations of 750 – 3900 meters in Western N. America – Alaska to Oregon. A perennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from May to June. (2)This plant is bright green with heart shaped leaves. It has white flowers with yellow centers. The petals ae sepals and quite often have blue veins on the underside. The flowers can be an inch across. This plant grows high up, from 8,500 – 12,000- feet in the south of its range, and 5,000 to 7,000 feet in the north. It is found in the Sierra Nevada range from Mineral King- north and in the higher mountains of New Mexico and Arizona and north. (3)
Warnings: The whole plant, but especially the older portions, contains the toxic glycoside protoanemanin – this is destroyed by heat. The sap can irritate sensitive skin (4)
Edible Uses: Root – it must be well cooked. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Flower buds – raw, cooked or pickled and used as a caper substitute. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Young leaves, before the flowers emerge are eaten raw or cooked. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Older leaves, before the plant flowers, can be eaten if well cooked. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. (5)The plant is cooked as a traditional potherb, few of the irritable properties suvive drying or cooking. It is used in Europe and by Native American tribes of the Northwest as a spinach substitute. (6)
Medicinal Uses: The whole plant is antispasmodic and expectorant. It has been used to remove warts. A poultice of the chewed roots has been applied to inflamed wounds.
(7)Collect the whole plant when in bloom. If the plants are small, dry them in a papersack in the shade; or if they are large, hang them in the shade in a cheesecloth pocket. Make sure the plant is completely dry before using it as a tea. Use up to a teaspoon of the dried plant made into tea and use it up to 4 times a day to stimulate the upward flow of mucus in the lungs, digestive tract and sinuses. It works well when a tooth ache has caused a sinus infection and you can drink a cup every 3 hours and don’t take it for more than three days in a row. The plant doesn’t tincture well so it has to be dried, or used fresh as a poultice. It works well as a poultice for insect bites, bruises or inflamed wounds. ( 8 )
Foot Notes:
Foot Notes:
(2, 4, 5, 7 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Caltha+leptosepala
Foot Notes: (3, 6, 8 ) Medical Plants of the Moutain West, 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 160 – 61 Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN: 978-0-89013-454-2

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.