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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 

(Attention!!  If you are a militia member, Prepper, or survivalist please visit the main webite http://keystoliberty.wordpress.com You are missing a great deal of information on spotting snipers, fuel storage, food storage, gardening, and soon a post on suturing.)

#117
Common Name: Juniper, Cedar, Cedron, Sabina
Latin Name: Juniperus communis, J. monosperma, J. occidentalis, J. osteosperma, J. scopulorum covered by Michael Moore and J. ashei, J. californica, J. communis, J. deppeana, J. horizontalis, J. osteosperma, J. sabina,  J. Scopulorum, J. silicicola, J. tetragona and  J. virginiana, covered by PFAF website.
Family: Cupressaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUAS 
Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas (Juniperus ashei)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUCA7California, Nevada and Arizona. (Juniperus califorica)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUCO6 all of North America except Florida, Tennessee, Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. (Juniperus communis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUDE2 Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. (Juniperus deppeana and Juniperus tetragona)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUHO2 New England south to New York, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana and Alaska; all of Canada (Juniperus horizontalis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUOC California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Nevada. (Juniperus occidentalis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUOS all States west of the Rocky Mountains except Washington and Oregon. (Juniperus osteosperma)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUMO Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Oklahoma and Texas. (Juniperus monosperma)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUSA5Ontario, Canada. (Juniperus sabina)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUSC2 all States west of the Rocky Mountains except California, plus N and S. Dakota,Nebraska,Oklahoma and Texas; in Canada-Saskatchewan to British Columbia (Juniperus scopulorum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUVIS Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, N. and South Carolina. (Juniperus silicicola)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUVI all States east of the Mississippi R. and all States along the west bank of the Mississippi R., plus N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado and Oregon; in Canada – Quebec and Ontario. (Juniperus virginiana)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
Warnings: None Known, except Juniperus silicicola – All parts of the plant might be toxic. Juniperus communis -Although the fruits of this plant is quite often used medicinally and as a flavouring in various foods and drinks, large doses of the fruit can cause retal damage. Juniper should not be used internally in any quantities by pregnant women. Diarrhoea with repeated use. Avoid kidney disease. Do not use internally for more than 6 weeks. Juniperus sabina – The whole plant is poinsonous and can produce abortions. Juniperus virginiana – All parts of the plant might be toxic. PFAP website
#117(a)
Common Name: Ashe’s Juniper, Moutain Cedar, Blueberry Juniper (Juniperus ashei )

Appearance and Habitat: Evergreen tree with trunk often grooved and twisted or branched from base, and with rounded or irregular, open crown; sometimes forming thickets. Ashe junipers large, radiating branches, which start almost at ground level, give the illusion of a multi-trunked tree. Female trees with blue berrylike cones; male with a burnt gold appearance in winter due to pollen. Fragrant, dark-green foliage, blue fruits on females, and shaggy bark are characteristic of this 30 ft. evergreen. Though a fragrant, evergreen, and picturesque tree, Ashe Juniper pollen, like that of many junipers, is very irritating to people with cedar allergies, so where the tree occurs in large concentrations, as in central Texas, it often becomes hated and targeted for removal, with various, sometimes invented, rationalizations given for doing so. Ashe Juniper is native, it has been abundant since the earliest European explorers arrived (and likely longer, given evidence that it has been in Texas since the Pleistocene), and it is an integral part of the native flora. The uniquely rich and well-draining soil that builds up as juniper leaves fall and decompose is ideal for several native plants, some of which tend to occur almost exclusively in association with it, including Cedar Sage (Salvia roemeriana) and Cedar Rosette Grass (Dichanthelium pedicillatum). The beautiful but notoriously difficult to propagate Texas Madrone (Arbutus xalapensis) also seems to germinate best in the soil beneath these trees. Other central Texas plants often seen under or near it are American Smoke Tree (Cotinus obovatus), White Limestone Honeysuckle (Lonicera albiflora), Lindheimers Garrya (Garrya ovata var. lindheimeri), and Orange Zexmenia (Wedelia texana). Better known is that a rare warbler, the Golden-cheeked Warbler, uses Ashe Juniper bark almost exclusively to build its nests. Many kinds of wildlife eat the sweetish berries, and the durable wood is a local source of fenceposts.(1)Found at lower elevations, growing mainly on limestone hills or in soils underladen with limestone. Southern N. America-Missouri to Texas and south to Mexico. An evergreen tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The cones are about 6 – 8mm in diameter, they are thin-skinned sweet, juicy and resinous.(3)
Medicinal Uses: None
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUAS
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus+ashei

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#117(b)
Common Name: California Juniper, Desert White Cedar
(Juniperus californica )
Appearance and Habitat:
A tree-like shrub, 10-15 ft. high, with stout, irregular stems and a broad, erect, open habit. Bark is ashy gray, foliage is bluish-gray and scale-like, and berry-like cones are bluish, turning reddish-brown. Able to withstand heat and drought, this species extends farther down into the semidesert zone than other junipers and is important in erosion control on dry slopes. Indians used to gather the berries to eat fresh and to grind into meal for baking.
(1) Dry rocky or gravelly or sandy soils on dry mountain slopes and hills, 120 – 1200 meters in South-western N. America. An evergreen tree growing to 12 m (39ft 4in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Feb to April, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A thick, sweet, dry, fibrous and non-resinous flesh. It can also be dried and ground into a powder then used as a flavouring in various dishes or eaten as a mush. The fruit is produced abundantly in the wild, though it is unlikely to be freely produced in Britain. The cones are about 10 – 20mm in diameter
(3)
Medicinal Uses: The scorched twigs have been rubbed on the body in the treatment of fits. The leaves are analgesic, diaphoretic and hypotensive. An infusion has been used in the treatment of high blood pressure, coughs and colds and to bring relief from a hangover (the bark was also used in this case). It has also been taken by pregnant women just prior to childbirth in order to relax the muscles.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUCA7
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx LatinName=Juniperus+californica

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#117(c)
Common Name: Common Juniper
(Juniperus communis)

Appearance and Habitat: Usually a spreading low shrub, sometimes forming broad or prostrate clumps; rarely a small tree with an open irregular crown. Although commonly a tree in Eurasia, Common Juniper is only rarely a small tree in New England and other northeastern States. In the West, it is a low shrub, often at timberline. Including geographic varieties, this species is the most widely distributed native conifer in both North America and the world. Juniper berries are food for wildlife, especially grouse, pheasants, and bobwhites. They are an ingredient in gin, producing the distinctive aroma and tang. (1) Chalk downs in S. England but only where there is least sunshine and most rain, heaths, moors, pine and birch woods in the north of Scotland on acid peat, often dominant on chalk, limestone and slate. Northern temperate zone, incl. Britain, south to the mountains of N. Africa, Himalayas and California. An evergreen shrub growing to 9 m (29ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. It is usually harvested in the autumn when fully ripe and then dried for later use. A soft, mealy, sweet, resinous flesh. The fruit is often used as a flavouring in sauerkraut, stuffings, vegetable pates etc, and is an essential ingredient of gin. The aromatic fruit is used as a pepper substitute according to one report. An essential oil is sometimes distilled from the fruit to be used as a flavouring. Average yields are around 1%. The cones are about 4 – 8mm in diameter and take 2 – 3 years to mature. Some caution is advised when using the fruit, see the notes above on toxicity. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. A tea is made by boiling the leaves and stems. A tea made from the berries has a spicy gin-like flavour.(3)
Medicinal Uses: Juniper fruits are commonly used in herbal medicine, as a household remedy, and also in some commercial preparations. They are especially useful in the treatment of digestive disorders plus kidney and bladder problems. The fully ripe fruits are strongly antiseptic, aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, strongly diuretic, rubefacient, stomachic and tonic. They are used in the treatment of cystitis, digestive problems, chronic arthritis, gout and rheumatic conditions. They can be eaten raw or used in a tea, but some caution is advised since large doses can irritate the urinary passage. Externally, it is applied as a diluted essential oil, having a slightly warming effect upon the skin and is thought to promote the removal of waste products from underlying tissues. It is, therefore, helpful when applied to arthritic joints etc. The fruits should not be used internally by pregnant women since this can cause an abortion. The fruits also increase menstrual bleeding so should not be used by women with heavy periods. When made into an ointment, they are applied to exposed wounds and prevent irritation by flies. The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is ‘Toxin elimination’.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUCO6
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus+communis

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#117(d)
Common Name: Allegator Juniper, Checkerboard Juniper
(Juniperus deppeana)

Appearance and Habitat: Alligator juniper forms a broadly-pyramidal or round-topped crown. The distinctive bark is furrowed into checkered plates. Fragrant, dark blue-green, scale-like foliage and copper-colored fruit are other landscape characteristics. This evergreen grows to 48 ft. in height. Alligator Juniper is easily recognized by its distinctive bark. One of the largest junipers, it is used for fuel and fenceposts. New sprouts often appear at the base of cut stumps. The large berries are consumed by birds and mammals. Large trees often have a partially dead crown of grotesque appearance with some branches that die and turn light gray instead of falling; other branches die only in a vertical strip and continue to grow on the other side.(1) Open oak or pine woodlands on dry, arid mountains slopes, 1200 – 1800 meters in South-western N. America – Texas, Arizona and Mexico. An evergreen tree growing to 18 m (59ft 1in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Feb to March, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A dry and mealy texture but with a sweet and palatable taste. The fruit can also be dried, ground into a meal and prepared as a mush or cakes. The fruit has a sweetish palatable pulp and is about 15mm in diameter. The cones take 2 years to mature(3)
Medicinal Uses: None
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUDE2
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus+deppeana

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#117(e)
Common Name: Creeping Juniper
(Juniperus horizontalis)

Appearance and Habitat: Creeping juniper is a procumbent, mat-like, evergreen shrub, less than 3 ft. tall but up to 20 ft. wide. Long, trailing branches are covered with conspicuously glaucous, soft-textured, blue-green, scale-type foliage. Juvenile foliage is prickly. Dark blue, berry-like cones with a heavy, white bloom, persist through winter.(1) Dry rocky soil, sterile pastures and fields in Northern N. America – Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to Washington and Maine. An evergreen shrub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 3 m (9ft). It is hardy to zone 4. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: The fruits are roasted and used in the preparation of a coffee-like beverage. A tea is made from the young branch tips.(3)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the branches, or fleshy cones, has been used in the treatment of coughs, colds and fevers. The cones or branches can also be used as a steam bath. An infusion of the seeds has been used in the treatment of kidney problems
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)(http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUHO2
Foot Notes: 2, 3, 4)
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus+horizontalis

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#117(f)
Common Name: Oneseed Juniper, Cherrystone Juniper
(Juniperus monosperma)

Appearance and Habitat: One-seed juniper is a large shrub or small tree, 6-20 ft., with a gnarled, multi-trunked appearance in the wild. Larger branches usually arise from below ground level. Bark is thin, scaly and ashy. Fragrant foliage is scale-like on mature twigs; needle-like on juvenile shoots and seedlings. Bluish-black to copper-colored fruits occur on the female plants. This abundant juniper is one of the most common small trees in New Mexico. The wood is important for fenceposts and fuel, and Indians used to make mats and cloth from the fibrous bark. Birds and mammals consume the juicy berries, and goats browse the foliage.(1) Dry rocky or sandy soils, 1000 – 2300 meters in South-western N. America – along the Rocky Mountains from Wyoming to Mexico. An evergreen tree growing to 18 m (59ft 1in) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 4. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Soft, juicy and pulpy, but with a thin flesh. It can be dried and ground into a powder and then be baked, or can be used as a seasoning in stews etc. The fruits were only used when other foods were in short supply. The cones are about 5 – 8mm in diameter and ripen in their first year. Inner bark – raw or cooked. It was chewed in times of food shortage for the little nourishment it supplied. The gum is chewed as a delicacy. No further details are given.(3)
Medicinal Uses: One-seed juniper was commonly employed medicinally by a number of native North American Indian tribes, who used it to treat a variety of complaints. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The leaves are febrifuge, laxative and pectoral. An infusion is used in the treatment of stomach complaints, constipation, coughs and colds. An infusion was also used by pregnant women prior to childbirth in order to relax the muscles. A poultice of the heated twigs can be bound over a bruise or sprain in order to reduce the swelling. An infusion of the staminate cones has been used as a stomach tonic and in the treatment of dysentery. The chewed bark has been applied externally to help heal spider bites. It is also highly prized as a dressing on burns. The fruits are strongly diuretic. A gum from the plant has been used as a temporary filling in a decayed toothheadaches
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUMO
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus+monosperma
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#117(g)
Common Name: Western Juniper (Juniperus occidentalis)

Appearance and Habitat: Western juniper is a 15-50 ft. , evergreen tree with a massive, squat trunk; large, wide-spreading branches; and reddish-brown, shreddy bark. Foliage is gray-green and berries are blue-black at maturity. Younger specimens are more trim and erect than their mature counterparts, with paler green foliage. Western Juniper is common at high altitudes in the Sierra Nevada. Giants reach a trunk diameter of 16 (5 m) and an estimated age of more than 2000 years. This species may develop thick, long roots that entwine rock outcrops, mimicking the shape of the branches.(1)Usually found on thin rocky or sandy soils on desert foothills and lower mountains, also on windswept peaks up to elevations of 3,000 meters where they become low gnarled shrubs. Western N. America – British Columbia to the Sierra Nevada. An evergreen tree growing to 18 m (59ft 1in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 5. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A thin dry flesh with a resinous flavour. The fruit is sweet and nutritious, it can also be dried or ground into a powder and mixed with cereal flours to be made into a bread.The cones are about 10mm in diameter, they take 2 years to mature(3)
Medicinal Uses: Western juniper was quite widely employed as a medicinal herb by a number of native North American tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, especially those related to the kidneys and the skin. It is rarely, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The leaves are blood tonic and laxative. A decoction is used in the treatment of constipation, coughs and colds. An infusion of the leaves has been taken by pregnant women prior to giving birth in order to relax the muscles. A poultice of the pounded moistened leaves has been applied to the jaw to treat swollen and sore gums and toothaches. The berries are analgesic, blood tonic and diuretic. A decoction is used to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps and to induce urination. Externally, the decoction is used as a poultice on rheumatic joints. The young twigs are antiseptic, blood tonic and febrifuge. A decoction is used in the treatment of kidney problems, fevers, stomach aches, smallpox, influenza and haemorrhages. The branches have been used in a sweat bath to ease rheumatism. A poultice of the twigs has been used as a dressing on burns and as a drawing agent on boils or splinters. A decoction has been used as an antiseptic wash on sores. The leaves or young twigs have been burnt and the smoke inhaled to ease the pain of headaches.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUOC
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus+occidentalis

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#117(h)
Common Name: Utah Juniper
(Juniperus osteosperma)

Native American Name: Sammapo (Shoshone), Wapi (Paiute), Paal (Washoe) Bat-they-naw (Arapaho)(1)
Appearance and Habitat: Utah Juniper is a tree-like shrub or bushy, small tree, 10-20 ft. tall. The plant forms rounded clumps or crowns. Branchlets are stiff with thin, ashy, scaly bark. Foliage is scale-like on mature twigs; needle-like on juvenile shoots and seedlings. Fruit is red-brown beneath a bloom when mature. The most common juniper in Arizona, it is conspicuous at the south rim of the Grand Canyon and on higher canyon walls. Utah Juniper grows slowly, becoming craggier and more contorted with age. American Indians used the bark for cordage, sandals, woven bags, thatching, and matting. They also ate the berries fresh or in cakes. Birds and small mammals also consume quantities of juniper berries. Junipers are also called cedars; Cedar Breaks National Monument and nearby Cedar City in southwestern Utah are named for this tree. Scattered tufts of yellowish twigs with whitish berries found on the trees are a parasitic mistletoe, which is characteristic of this tree. (2)Thin, dry rocky or gravelly soils on mountain slopes and high plains in desert regions between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. South-western N. America-California to New Mexico and Wyoming. An evergreen tree growing to 12 m (39ft 4in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 5. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October.(3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A thin flesh, it is sweet but strongly flavoured of resin and has a mealy texture. Used as a flavouring in stews. The fruit can be eaten fresh or it can be dried and ground into a powder then baked into cakes. The cones are about 6 – 18mm in diameter, they take 2 years to mature(4)
Medicinal Uses: Desert juniper was widely employed medicinally by a number of native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, especially those connected to the bladder and kidneys and to the skin. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The leaves are antiseptic, blood tonic and laxative. A decoction is used in the treatment of constipation. A poultice of the leaves has been applied to the jaw to treat toothaches and sore and swollen gums. A decoction of the young twigs has been used in the treatment of stomach aches, kidney complaints, haemorrhages, coughs and colds. Fumes from the burning twigs have been inhaled in the treatment of headaches and colds. The branches have been used in a sweat bath to treat rheumatism. A strong decoction has been used as an antiseptic wash on sores. A poultice of the mashed twigs has been used as a dressing on burns and swellings. The seeds are analgesic. They have been eaten in the treatment of headaches. The fruits are analgesic, blood tonic and diuretic. A decoction has been used to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps, to induce urination and to treat kidney complaints, fevers, coughs and colds. Externally, a decoction has been used as a poultice on rheumatic joints.
(5)Native Americans of the west used Juniper berries for the treatment of bladder problems by ingesting them, eaten or placed in tea. They also used it for rheumatism and arthritis by having burning wood down to the coals, laying fresh Juniper boughs on the coals and have the patient lie down on them and steam while drinking tea from the leaves. For birth control they would drink a cup of tea from the berries for three successive days. They used the tea also to end hiccoughs. The Arapaho used J. sibirica needles by placing them on hot rocks or on a stove to help drive smallpox away. The Shoshones had a folk lore about the Coyote, it was said that the Coyote could make pine nuts because he was the smartest of animals, but when all gathered to watch him, they turned out to be Juniper berries.(6)
Other Uses:
The Shoshone and Paiute Tribes used Juniper branches to make their bows.(7)
Foot Notes:
(1, 6, 7)Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Murphey, pages 19, 41, 43, 45-47, 50, 52 , Publisher: Meyerbooks Copy right 1990; ISBN 0-916638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUOS
Foot Notes:
(3 , 4, 5 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus+osteosperma
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#117(i)
Common Name: Rocky Mountain Juniper, Rocky Mountain Red Cedar (Juniperus scopulorum)
Appearance and Habitat:
A columnar to somewhat rounded evergreen tree, Rocky Mountain juniper often supports several main stems. The juvenile foliage consists of pointed, white-coated needles. Adult, scale-like foliage varies in color from dark- to bluish- or light-green. Round, dark-blue, berry-like cones, covered with a whitish bloom, ripen in the second year. Mature size is from 30-40 ft. high with a spread of 3-15 ft. Bark is reddish-brown or gray and shedding. A graceful ornamental, often with narrow crown of drooping foliage, several varieties differ in form and in leaf color. The aromatic wood is especially suited for cedar chests and is also used for lumber, fenceposts, and fuel. Wildlife eat the berries.(1) Scattered singly on dry rocky ridges, foothills and bluffs in montane areas or in dry habitats of the coastal forest region. The best specimens are found on slightly alkaline soils. Western N. America – British Columbia to Mexico and California. An evergreen tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 3. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Sweet and fleshy, but strongly flavoured. Resinous. Often used as a flavouring, imparting a sage-like taste, for which purpose it is usually dried and ground into a powder. The fruit can also be dried and ground into a meal for making mush and cakes.The fruits are about 5 – 8mm in diameter. The roasted fruit is a coffee substitute. A tea is made from the fruits and young shoots(3)
Medicinal Uses: Rocky Mountain juniper was widely employed medicinally by many native North American Indian tribes who used it in particular to treat problems connected with the chest and kidneys. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. A tea made from the terminal shoots has been used in the treatment of VD by some N. American Indian tribes. The treatment has to be taken over a long period of time. The fruits are appetizer, diuretic and stomachic. An infusion has been used in the treatment of stomach, kidney and bladder problems. An infusion of the twigs has been used in the treatment of fevers, pneumonia, coughs and colds. A poultice of the mashed and dampened branches has been applied to skin sores. The leaves are diaphoretic, disinfectant, febrifuge, haemostatic, laxative, sedative and tonic. A decoction has been used in the treatment of internal bleeding, constipation and constant coughing. The leaves have been boiled, then mixed with turpentine and used as an external treatment on rheumatic joints. The leaves have been rubbed into the hair in order to treat dandruff.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUSC2
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus+scopulorum
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#117(j)
Common Name: Southern Red Cedar
(Juniperus silicicola)

Appearance and Habitat: Evergreen aromatic tree with narrow or spreading crown, lower branches drooping; sometimes forming thickets. This southeastern coastal relative of Eastern Red Cedar is distinguished by its often drooping foliage and smaller berries and is planted as an ornamental. The wood is similarly used for fenceposts, cedar chests, cabinetwork, and carvings. The Latin name silicola means growing in sand.(1) Low wet areas of swamps, steams and creek margins and flood-plain woodlands. Tolerating varying levels of soil moisture, it also grows in open woods and abandoned fields, usually on limestone. South-eastern N. America – South Carolina to Texas. An evergreen tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A thin, sweetish resinous flesh, the cones are about 7 – 10mm in diameter and have a thin skin.(3)
Medicinal Uses: The leaves are analgesic, antirheumatic, diuretic and febrifuge. An infusion has been used in the treatment of fevers, stiff neck, backache, headaches, low fever, coughs, colds and diarrhoea. A decoction of the leaves has been used as a body rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatism. The following reports are for the closely related J. virginiana, they probably also apply to this species. The leaves are anthelmintic, diuretic, rubefacient and stimulant. A decoction has been used in the treatment of coughs and colds, general weakness and as a medicine for convalescents. The berries are anthelmintic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue and mildly antiseptic. They have been chewed as a treatment for mouth ulcers or made into a tea to treat colds, rheumatism, worms etc. The fresh young twigs are used as a diuretic. An infusion has been used both internally and as a steam bath in the treatment of rheumatism. The essential oil from the wood is an abortifacient, in some cases it has caused vomiting, convulsions, coma and death. The plant is said to contain the anticancer compound podophyllotoxin. The essential oil from the berries is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is ‘Composing’
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUVIS
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus+silicicola
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#117(k)
Common Name: Eastern Red Cedar, Virginia Juniper
(Juniperus virginiana)

Appearance and Habitat: Evergreen, aromatic tree with trunk often angled and buttressed at base and narrow, compact, columnar crown; sometimes becoming broad and irregular. Pyramidal when young, Eastern red-cedar mature form is quite variable. This evergreen usually grows 30-40 ft. but can reach 90 ft. Fragrant, scale-like foliage can be coarse or fine-cut, and varies in color from gray-green to blue-green to light- or dark-green. All colors tend to brown in winter. Pale blue fruits occur on female plants. Soft, silvery bark covers the single trunk. The most widely distributed eastern conifer, native in 37 states, Eastern Red Cedar is resistant to extremes of drought, heat, and cold. Red Cedar can be injurious to apple orchards because it is an alternate host for cedar-apple rust, a fungal disease. First observed at Roanoke Island, Virginia, in 1564, it was prized by the colonists for building furniture, rail fences, and log cabins. (1)Dry, rarely wet, open woods and rock slopes, often on limestone. Infertile soils and old pastures in Central and Eastern N. America from Canada south to Georgia and Texas. An evergreen growing to 20 m (65ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 4. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A sweetish resinous flesh. They can be crushed and used as a flavouring in soups and stews. The cones are about 5mm in diameter. About 10mm according to another report. A tea is made from the fruit. It is not very nice. It is made from the young branchlets and the fruit according to one report. (3)
Medicinal Uses: Pencil cedar leaves were much used medicinally by the native N. American Indians, and also in folk medicine by the white settlers, especially to treat chest complaints and skin problems such as venereal warts and other excrescences. The leaves are anthelmintic, diuretic, rubefacient and stimulant. A decoction has been used in the treatment of coughs and colds, general weakness and as a medicine for convalescents. The berries are anthelmintic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue and mildly antiseptic. They have been chewed as a treatment for mouth ulcers or made into a tea to treat colds, rheumatism, worms etc. The fresh young twigs are used as a diuretic. An infusion has been used both internally and as a steam bath in the treatment of rheumatism. The essential oil from the wood is an abortifacient, in some cases it has caused vomiting, convulsions, coma and death. The plant is said to contain the anticancer compound podophyllotoxin. The essential oil from the berries is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is ‘Composing’.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=JUVI
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus+virginiana
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(Now for Michael Moore)
Appearance and Habitat: There are two types of Junipers, small trees with dark olive green scaly, legless twigs, and a high altitude shrub with sharp pine-like needles. Both the fruit and the leaves, or scales, have a strong aromatic. The fruit or seeds are nearly perfectly round and green, at first, turning a frosted blue by spring. The high altitude types, such as J. communis, are flattened shrubs that eventually can reach a circumference of ten to fifteen feet. The needle leaves are sharp prickly with a bluish green color, which is lighter underneath. The purple berries are green the first fall and are spread among the branches with mature berries from the year before. Generally the berries are clustered on the underside of the outer branches. The high altitude Junipers (J. cummunis, J. sibirica, and J. montana) are usually found above 8,000 feet but can grow to timberline. The tree Junipers are found at lower altitudes in dry foothills from 1,500 feet to 8,000 feet. They can form pure stands, but normally they are found in an area with Pinion Pine, especially true in Arizona and New Mexico.
Edible Uses: The berries are necessary in venison marinades and in cooking any wild meats. Use ten berries per pound of meat. They are also used in making sauerkraut and German potato salad. The leaves make a good garnish for wild fowl and fish by placing them with the food shortly before removing them from the heat. (3)
Medicinal Uses: Collect the fruit and dry them loosely in hanging cheesecloth by doubling over the cheesecloth to form a pocket for the fruit to dry. Only pick the fruit when it is ripe (bluish or purplish in color) Collect the leaves or scales by removing small branches, wrap them together in bundles about an inch in diameter to dry. Remember never dry herbs in the sun.
Juniper is most frequently used for urinary tract infections such as cystitis and urethritis. The berries are the most effective. Use a teaspoon of the crushed berries or a rounded teaspoon of the leaves to make a tea. Use a cup of water in making the tea and steep them for 15 minutes. You can drink up to three cups daily. Juniper should not be used when there is a kidney infection or kidney weakness as the oils excreted in the urine can be irritating to such inflammations. Eating a few berries prior to a meal will stimulate the stomach to produce hydrochloric acid and pepsin, which are normal secretions. The aromatic properties of all Junipers have been used by many cultures to ward off negative influences such as bad magic or plagues. With so many cultures using Juniper for the aromatic properties it has to be beneficial to humans. The berries have been thrown on hot rocks in sweat lodges, saunas, and the foliage made into incense. During pregnancy eating or the berries or drinking the tea from the foliage is not recommended as the volative oils can have a vasodilating effect on the uterine lining.
 Medicinal Plants Of the Mountain West  by Michael Moore, 1st Edition, page 93-94, publisher:  Museum of New Mexico Press ; copy right 1979  ISBN 0-89013-104-X  
Blog Master’s Note: I firmly believe that when camping or backpacking, if you place fresh Juniper/Cedar branches around your sleeping bag  and maybe make a mattress out of them (that the snake would have to crawl over or through) you would be safe from snakes.   There is something in the oil from Juniper/Cedar that will kill a snake.

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.