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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
Common Name: Cinquefoil, Goosegrass, Five Fingered Grass, Silverweed
Latin Name: Potentilla spp.
Family: Rosaceae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POTEN all of North America- main database (few covered by PFAF, Michael Moores covers all in the West.)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POHI6 Alaska, all of lower Canada, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Nebraska, N. and S. Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan (Potentilla hippiana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PONO3> all of North America except Louisiana, Mississippi and Florida (Potentilla norvegica)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PORE5 all of lower Canada, all states in N. America except Alaska, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico (Potentilla recta)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PORE6California, Wisconsin, Illinois, Florida, Kentucky, Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey and Massachusetts – in Canada-Nova Scotia, Quebec and Ontario (Potentilla reptans)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=POSI2 all states east of the Mississippi R. plus All states along the western bank and Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas; in Canada -Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Quebec and Ontario (Potentilla simplex)
Photos: (click on latin name after common name.)
Warnings: None on PFAF website.
Common Name: Woolly Cinquefoil (Potentilla hippiana)
Appearance and Habitat: Dry soils. Open grassland sagebrush, often on saline soils to juniper scabland and pine forests of foothills and lower elevations in the mountains. Western N. America – Minnesota to British Columbia, south to New Mexico and Arizona. A perennial growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jul to August.
Edible Uses: None
Medicinal Uses: The whole plant is oxytocic, poultice and salve. An infusion of the plant has been used to expedite childbirth. The plant has been used as a lotion on burns and a poultice of the fresh leaves applied to injury. The plant is dried, powdered and applied to sores.
Common Name: Norwegian Cinquefoil (Potentilla norvegica)
Appearance and Habitat: Waste ground, southwards from INverness but mainly in south-eastern England. Northern Temperate zones through Asia, Europe to N. America. Naturalized in Britian. An annual/perennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jun to September.
Edible Uses: None
Medicinal Uses: The root is astringent. A decoction of the root has been gargled, or the root has been chewed, in the treatment of sore throats. A cold infusion of the whole plant has been used to relieve pain. The plant has been burnt and the fumes used to treat sexual infections. All the above uses are recorded for the sub-species P. norvegica monspeliensis. (L.)Aschers.&Graebn..
Common Name: Rough Fruited Cinquefoil (Potentilla recta)
Appearance and Habitat: More or less naturalized in waste or grassy places in Britain. C. and S. Europe to W. Asia. More or less naturalized in Britain. Casual in Eastern N. America. A perennial growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July.

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The unripe fruit is almost as pleasant as the fully ripe fruit.
Medicinal Uses: The whole plant is astringent. A poultice of the pounded leaves and stems has been applied to open sores and wounds
Common Name: Cinquefoil (Potentilla reptans)
Appearance and Habitat: Dry sunny locations in meadows, pastures and waste ground, usually on basic or neutral soils. Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to the Mediterranean, Siberia and Himalayas. A perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to September.
Edible Uses: Young leaves – raw. A useful addition to salads
Medicinal Uses: Both the roots and the herb are antispasmodic, astringent and febrifuge. An infusion of the dried herb is used in the treatment of diarrhoea etc, it is also used as a gargle for sore throats and is used externally as an astringent lotion. A concentrated decoction of the root relieves toothache.
Common Name: Common Cinquefoil, Oldfield Cinquefoil
(Potentilla simplex)

Appearance and Habitat:
A familiar plant with prostrate stems, which root at the nodes, and flowers and leaves arising from runners on separate stalks. Runners are 6-20 in. Five-parted leaves and five-petaled, yellow flowers. Common Cinquefoil is a member of the rose family (family Rosaceae), which includes herbs, shrubs, and trees with mostly prickly stems. There are about 100 genera and 3,000 species in this worldwide family. Apples, pears, quinces, cherries, plums, peaches, apricots, loquats, blackberries, raspberries, and strawberries are important fruits. Roses, Cotoneaster, Firethorn, Mountain Ash, Spirea, and Hawthorns are common ornamentals.
(1)Locally common in dry open woods, prairie hillsides, roadsides, old fields and waste places. Eastern and Central N. America – Nova Scotia to North Carolina, Alabama, Minnesota and Missouri. A perennial growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jun to August.(2)
Edible Uses: None(3)
Medicinal Uses: The plant is mildly astringent and antiseptic. A decoction is used as a gargle for loose teeth and spongy gums. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of dysentery. (4)Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=POSI2
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+simplex
(Now for Michael Moore)

Appearance and Habitat: Describing all the Potentillas in the west is beyond impossible. They do all have some characteristics in common, a yellow flower with five separate pedals and five sepals. Several species have leaves that are serrated, with 5 to 7 to 9 leaves per frond. They are usually low growing and have a pink-pithed taproot. Look for them in high meadows and sandy flats from 6,000 feet to timberline in the West.
Medicinal Uses: Collect the entire plant and dry it in a paper sack in the shade. Like all members of the rose family, Potentilla is an astringent. As an astringent it tighens tisses, reduces inflammations. Make a strong tea of the plant, you can drink it 2 or 3 times a day to speed recovery from stomach ulcers or inflammations in the upper digestive tract. You can use the tea for a week or more. It also helps with gum inflammations, will lessen fevers and diarrhea. With gum infections use it as a gargle. Recent studies have shown that it has antioxidant effects and prohibit blood platelet clots.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, 2nd Edition page 208-09, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 978-0-89013-454-2
Common Name: Puncture Vine, Little Caltrop, Bullheads, Goats’ Heads,
Latin Name: Tribulus terrestris
Family: Zygophyllaceae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRTE all states, except Alaska, Alabama and  Georgia; in Canada it is found in British Columbia and Ontario.  

Photo: (here)
Appearance and Habitat: Dry vacant lots, gravelly soils, and rural waste places. It has long vine-like pinnate leaves and small yellow flowers. The seed pods are little four sided pods that break apart into a 3 sided seeds with thorns and are the bane of pets, bicycle tires, and children that crawl. They are enough to keep you wearing shoes.
(1) Dry open habitats, often as a weed in Europe. Sandy seashores in Japan. Europe – N. France and eastwards to E. Asia. An annual/biennial growing to 0.6 m (2ft) at a fast rate. It is frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to August.(2) 
Warnings: None on PFAF website.(3)
Edible Uses: Leaves and young shoots – cooked. A nutritional analysis is available. Fruit – cooked. The unexpanded seed capsules are ground into a powder and made into a bread. A famine food, it is only used when all else fails. (4)
Medicinal Uses: The seed is abortifacient, alterative, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogue, galactogogue, pectoral and tonic. It stimulates blood circulation. A decoction is used in treating impotency in males, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea and incontinence of urine. It has also proved effective in treating painful urination, gout and kidney diseases. The plant has shown anticancer activity. The flowers are used in the treatment of leprosy. The stems are used in the treatment of scabious skin diseases and psoriasis. The dried and concocted fruits are used in the treatment of congestion, gas, headache, liver, ophthalmia and stomatitis . (5) Collect the whole plant while it is in flower. Dry the plant in a shady area and grind it up. The seeds, and to a lesser extent, foliage is useful to lower blood cholesterols. It helps with arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis, as well as hypertension. It slows adrenaline stimulation while it increases myocardial contractions. In other words a slower, stronger heart beat. In this way it lowers diastolic pressure, the pressure between beats. However if you have more serious cardiovascular disorders, kidney disease, or liver disease; keep the doses small. For the average individual, take 1/2 to 1 teaspoon in tea both in the morning and at night. (6) 
Foot Notes: (1, 6) Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West by Michael Moore, 2nd Edition page 96, Publisher: Museum of  New Mexico Press, Copyright 1989, ISBN 978-089013182-4
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Tribulus+terrestris

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.