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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
(Blog Masters Note: All past posts for Wild Edible And Medicinal Plants  are now located in a drop-down search below comments.)
#169
Common Name: Willow
Latin Name:
Salix spp
Family: Salicaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=salix
Main data base on usda, all of North America.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAAL2 All States east of the Mississippi R., except Mississippi, Alabama, Florida and S. Carolina; On the west bank of the Mississippi all States except, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah and Oregon. (include found in Alaska); In Canada; Saskatchewan to Quebec, plus Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. (Salix alba)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAAM2 All States west of the Mississippi R., except Arkansas, Louisiana and California; plus all States north of the Ohio R., plus Kentucky, Pennsylvania and New York; In Canada; British Columbia to Quebec. (Salix amygdaloides)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SABE2> All states west of the Rocky Mountains (including Alaska); all States north of the Ohio R., plus Pennsylanvia / New Jersey north to Maine, plus Maryland, N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota and Iowa; In Canada; all of Canada. (Salix bebbiana)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SACA22 Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia, W. Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York and Connecticut; In Canada; British Columbia, Ontario and Nova Scotia. (Salix caprea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SACI All States east of the Mississippi R., except Mississippi, Florida, Delaware, New Jersey, Vermont and New Hampshire; plus Louisiana and Utah; In Canada; Ontario and Nova Scotia. (Salix cinerea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SACO2 Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana and Alaska; In Canada; British Columbia, Alberta, Yukon and Northwest Territories. (Salix commutata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAER All States east of the Mississippi R. and along the west bank, except Mississippi, N. and S. Carolina; plus North Dakota to Oklahoma including Colorado; In Canada; Saskatchewan to Quebec, plus Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Salix eriocephala)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )

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#169 (a)
Common Name: White Willow (Salix alba )
Appearance and Habitat:
Introduced perennial tree to 80′; widely spreading crown; yellowish-brown twigs; grayish-brown, irregularly furrowed bark. The flower is 1 1/2″-2″ long erect catkins. The leaf is lance-like to narrowly oval, 2″-4″ long, underside whitened, edges finely toothed, stalks with distinct glands near the blade. Found on moist ground, lake shores and stream beds.
(1)  By streams and rivers, marshes, woods and wet fens on richer soils in Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to N. Africa, Siberia, Himalayas and Israel. A deciduous tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a fast rate.It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in June.(2)
Warnings: Gastrointestinal bleeding and kidney damage possible. Avoid concurrent administration with other aspirin like drugs. Avoid during pregnany. Drug interactions associated with salicylates application.
(3)
Edible Uses:Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and added to cereal flour then used in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, especially when fresh, it is used as a famine food when all else fails. Leaves and young shoots – raw or cooked. Not very palatable. They are used only in times of scarcity. The leaves can be used as a tea substitute.
(4)
Medicinal Uses :Justly famous as the original source of salicylic acid (the precursor of aspirin), white willow and several closely related species have been used for thousands of years to relieve joint pain and manage fevers. The bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, sedative and tonic. It has been used internally in the treatment of dyspepsia connected with debility of the digestive organs, rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. Its tonic and astringent properties render it useful in convalescence from acute diseases, in treating worms, chronic dysentery and diarrhoea. The fresh bark is very bitter and astringent. It contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge. The bark is harvested in the spring or early autumn from 3 – 6 year old branches and is dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic. An infusion of the leaves has a calming effect and is helpful in the treatment of nervous insomnia. When added to the bath water, the infusion is of real benefit in relieving widespread rheumatism. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Salix / Willow for diseases accompanied by fever, rheumatic ailments, headaches.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=SALALB

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+alba
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#169 (b)
Common Name: Peach Leaved Willow, Almond Leaved Willow (Salix amygdaloides )
Appearance and Habitat:
Peach-leaf willow is a medium-sized, multi-trunked tree, 35-50 ft. tall, with fine-textured, slightly weeping branching and orange-yellow twigs. Catkins appear before leaf emergence. The narrow, yellow-green foliage has insignificant fall color. Tree with 1 or sometimes several straight trunks, upright branches, and spreading crown. This is the common willow across the northern plains, where it is important in protecting riverbanks from erosion. Both common and scientific names refer to the leaf shape, which suggests that of Peach.
(1)Along muddy streambanks and in low wet woods bordering rivers to 2100 meters in N. America – British Columbia to New York, south to Texas. A deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft 7in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in May.(2)
Warnings: None 
(3)
Edible Uses: None 
(4)
Medicinal Uses :An infusion of the bark shavings has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea and stomach ailments. A poultice of the bark has been applied to bleeding cuts. A decoction of the branch tips has been used as a soak for treating cramps in the legs and feet. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAAM2

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+amygdaloides
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#169 (c)
Common Name: Bebb Willow, Gray Willow, Long-Beaked Willow (Salix bebbiana )
Appearance and Habitat:
A narrow, somewhat columnar-shaped shrub or small tree, 20-30 ft. tall. The single or multiple trunks have maroonish bark. Catkins appear before the silvery-gray foliage emerges. Fall color is insignificant. Bebb Willow is the most important diamond willow, a term applied to several species which sometimes have diamond-shaped patterns on their trunks. These are caused by fungi, usually in shade or poor sites. The contrasting whitish and brownish stems are carved into canes, lamps, posts, furniture, and candleholders. Forms willow thickets as a weed on uplands after forest fires. Named for Michael Schuck Bebb (1833-95), U.S. specialist on willows.
(1)Moist rich soils along streams, lakes and swamps, but also forming dense thickets in open meadows. Found at elevations up to 3000 meters in North America – Newfoundland to Alaska, south to California. A deciduous shrub growing to 7 m (23ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in June.(2)
Warnings: None
(3)
Edible Uses: None
(4)
Medicinal Uses :A poultice of the chewed root inner bark has been applied to a deep cut. The shredded inner bark has been used as sanitary napkins to ‘heal a woman’s insides’. A poultice of the damp inner bark has been applied to the skin over a broken bone. A decoction of the branches has been taken by women for several months after childbirth to increase the blood flow. A poultice of the bark and sap has been applied as a wad to bleeding wounds. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SABE2

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+bebbiana
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#169 (d)
Common Name: Goat Willow (Salix caprea )
Appearance and Habitat:
Woods, scrub and hedges, usually on basic soils, to 840 meters in Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to Spain, temperate Aisa and Syria. A deciduous tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Mar to April, and the seeds ripen in May.
Warnings: None
Edible Uses: Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable. The source of an edible manna No further details.
Medicinal Uses : The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of fevers. A distilled water from the flowers is aphrodisiac, cordial and stimulant. It is used externally in the treatment of headaches and ophthalmia. The ashes of the wood are useful in the treatment of haemoptysis. The stems and the leaves are astringent. A gum and the juice of the trees are used to increase visual powers.

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+caprea
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#169 (e)
Common Name: Large Gray Willow (Salix cinerea )
Appearance and Habitat:
Introduced, rarely excaped, perennial shrub 7′-20′ tall, peeling bark with long, prominent ridges. The leaf is narrow, pointed at both ends, underside whitened.
(1)   Fens ect in E. England, it is often dominant in carr. Occasionally found in damp woods in other areas of England. Europe, inclucing Britain, from Scandanavia south nad east to France, Siberia and Iran. A deciduous shrub growing to 5 m (16ft 5in). It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Mar to April, and the seeds ripen from May to June.(2)
Warnings: None 
(3)
Edible Uses: None
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=SALCIN

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+cinerea
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#169 (f)
Common Name: Undergreen Willow (Salix commutata )
Appearance and Habitat:
A perrenial native shrub that blooms June to September. Chiefly in the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska and Yukon south to Oregon, occasionally east to idaho and Montana.
Found in moist areas, mid to high elevations in the mountains.
(1)Wet places at moderate to rather high elevations in western N. America – Alaska to California. A deciduous shrub growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender.(2)
Warnings: None 
(3)
Edible Uses:Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable.
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Salix&Species=commutata

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+commutata
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#169 (g)
Common Name: Missouri River Willow, Stiff Willow, Missouri Willow (Salix eriocephala )
Appearance and Habitat:
A narrow shrub or small tree to 20 ft. with multiple trunks and dark-gray, scaly bark. Lance-shaped leaves are thick and persistently pubescent beneath. Catkins, which appear before the leaves in early spring, are densely silky.
(1)Sandy to rocky soils, near rivers, creeks and swamps. Sand bars along rivers in eastern and central N. America – Newfoundland to Nebraska, south to Mississippi. A decicuous shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April. (2)
Warnings: None
(3)
Edible Uses: None
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAER

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+eriocephala

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
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