Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 158 Sage (part-1)

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#158
Common Name: Sage, Silver Sage, Chia, Lanceleaf Sage, Azure Blue Sage, White Sage
Latin Name:
Salvia apiana, S. ballotiflora, S. carduacea, S. columbariae, S. microphylla, S. lyrata, S. officinalis, S. pratensis, S. sclarea
Family: Lamiaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALVI
All States except Alaska and New Hampshire; In Canada; British Columbia to Quebec. This is the main database for Sage.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAAP2 California. (Salvia apiana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SABA5 Texas. (Salvia ballotiflora)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SACA8 California. (Salvia carduacea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SACO6 California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. (Salvia columbariae)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAMI20 California, Arizona and New Mexico. (Salvia microphylla)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALY2 All States east of the Mississippi R., except Wisconsin, and states north of New York and Connecticut, plus Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. (Salvia lyrata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAOF2 Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, W. Virginia, Virginia, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Utah and California; In Canada; Ontario and Quebec. (Salvia officinalis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAPR2 Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Wisconsin, Illinois, S. Dakota, Kansas, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Idaho and Washington; In Canada; Ontario. (Salvia pratensis)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SASC2 Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, Michigan, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington; In Canada; Ontario. (Salvia sclarea)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )
Warnings: None on PFAF website, except for Salvia officinalis
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#158 (a)
Common Name: White Sage, California White Sage (Salvia apiana)
Appearance and Habitat:
A low, soft-stemmed, aromatic subshrub with long wands of whitish-lavender flowers. Silvery foliage occurs in 2 ft. mounds, subtending the 5 ft. flowering stalks. A woody shrub, with erect whitish branches. White Sage is a member of the mint family (family Lamiaceae), which includes aromatic herbs or shrubs (rarely trees or vines), usually with stems square in cross-section, four-sided.There are about 200 genera and 3,200 species, distributed nearly worldwide. The Mediterranean region, the chief area of diversity, produces many spices and flavorings, such as various mints, oregano, marjoram, thyme, sage, and basil. Catnip and lavender are in the mint family.
(1)  Dry benches and slopes below 1500 meters in south-western N. America – California. A perennial growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower from Apr to July.(2)
Edible Uses:Seed – raw or cooked. It can be ground into a powder and used as a mush. The seed has been mixed with cereals such as oats or wheat, toasted then ground into a fine powder and eaten dry. The seed can also be soaked overnight and used as a drink in water or fruit juice or eaten with cereals. The seed is also used as a spice. The leaves are used in cooking. They can be used as a flavouring in seed mushes. Stem tops. The young stalks can be eaten raw. Ripe stem tops can be peeled and eaten raw.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :An infusion of the leaves is used as a blood tonic and as a treatment for coughs and colds. The leaves can be eaten, or used as a sweat bath, in the treatment of colds. The seeds have been used as eye cleaners. No more information is given here, but in other instances the seed has been placed in the eye, it then forms a gelatinous covering to which any foreign matter in the eye adheres. The seed is washed out of the eye by the eyes own tears.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAAP2

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+apiana
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#158 (b)
Common Name: Shrubby Blue Sage, Mejorana (Salvia ballotiflora )
Appearance and Habitat:
A much-branched aromatic shrub with square stems. Leaves are opposite with serrated margins, hairy above and below. Flowers bluish-purple in elongated clusters.
(1)Dry places in coastal sage shrub in California. South-western N. America – California to Texas. An annual.(2)
Edible Uses:An infusion of the aromatic flowering tops is used as a herb tea.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :None
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SABA5

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+ballotaeflora
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#158 (c)
Common Name: Thistle Sage, (Salvia carduacea)
Appearance and Habitat:
A handsome, whitish-woolly plant with vivid lavender, bilaterally symmetrical flowers in a stacked series of prickly round clusters near top of leafless stems. This is one of the most beautiful native sages; the brilliant lavender flowers are strikingly contrasted against the pale foliage, and the vermilion anthers provide color accent.
(1)  Sandy gravelly places below 1350 meters. Open nad grassy places in south-western N. America- California. An annual / perennial growing to 0.7 m (2ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower in July.(2)
Edible Uses:Seed – raw or cooked. It can be roasted, then ground into a powder and used with other seeds as a mush. The seeds can be added to wheat to improve the flavour. It can also be used as a cooling beverage.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :None
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SACA8

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+carduacea
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#158 (d)
Common Name: Chia, California Sage, Golden Chia, (Salvia columbariae)
Appearance and Habitat:
Tiny, blue flowers are aggregated in several balls along the square stems of this 4-20 in. annual. The leaves are mostly basal, once or twice pinnate and velvety. California sage smells distinctly skunky. Chia (pronounced chee-ah) is the common name for several Salvia species from which Indians made pinole; a meal ground from parched seeds. When steeped in water the seeds also produced a thick, mucilaginous drink.
(1)  Dry open places below 1200 meters in south-western N. America. An annual / perennial growing to 0.7 m (2ft 4in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.(2)
Edible Uses: Seeds roasted, ground into meal, water added to make gruel. Native American messenger runner’s carried ripe seeds in belt pouches and ate them on route. Pomo Indians ground the seeds for pinole. Chia is the Spanish name for this plant. Cortez found Mexican natives using these seeds parched and ground into meal.(3)  Seed – raw or cooked. Usually ground into a powder and used as piñole or made into dark-coloured cakes and loaves, it has a nutty flavour. It can also be mixed with corn meal when making mush or with ground wheat for gruel. Rich in niacin, thiamine, zinc, calcium and manganese, it is also a good source of protein and easily digested fats. It has a high food value and is easily digested. The sprouted seeds can be added to salads and sandwiches. A refreshing drink can be made by steeping the seed in cold water. Alternatively, the seed can be roasted and ground into a powder then mixed with water when it soon becomes a copious gelatinous mass. It is very palatable and nutritious. The seed has been used to render water palatable by removing the alkalis. The leaves are occasionally used as a sage-like seasoning.(4)
Medicinal Uses :Mission fathers used an infusion of the seeds for fevers and for cooling drinks. The ’49ers used the seeds for gunshot wounds, in a poultice.
(5)  The seed is digestive, disinfectant, febrifuge and ophthalmic. An infusion can be used in the treatment of fevers. A poultice of the seed mush can be applied to infections. The seeds have been kept in the mouth, and chewed during long journeys on foot, in order to give strength. The seeds have been used to cleanse the eyes or remove foreign matter from the eyes. No more information is given here, but in other instances the seed has been placed in the eye, it then forms a gelatinous covering to which any foreign matter in the eye adheres. The seed is washed out of the eye by the eyes own tears.(6)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SACO6

Foot Notes: (2, 4, 6 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+columbariae
Foot Notes: ( 3, 5 ) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 28, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
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#158 (e)
Common Name: Lyreleaf Sage, Cancer Weed, (Salvia lyrata)
Appearance and Habitat:
Lyreleaf sage is a strictly upright, hairy perennial, 1-2 ft. tall with a rosette of leaves at the base. The leaves are deeply 3-lobed, with a few simple leaves higher up on the stem. Large basal leaves are purple-tinged in the winter. This species has the typical square stem and 2-lipped blossom of the mints. Its pale-blue to violet, tubular flowers are arranged in whorls around the stem forming an interrupted, terminal spike. Each blossom is about 1 inch long. The 2-lobed lower lip is much longer than the upper, which has 3 lobes, the middle one forming a sort of hood. The sepals are purplish-brown. Lyreleaf sage makes a great evergreen groundcover, with somewhat ajuga-like foliage and showy blue flowers in spring. It will reseed easily in loose, sandy soils and can form a solid cover with regular watering. It even takes mowing and can be walked on. The exposed lower lip of this and other salvias provides an excellent landing platform for bees. When a bee lands, the two stamens are tipped, and the insect is doused with pollen.
(1)  Sandy soils and lawns in Eastern N. America – Pennsylvania to Florida, west to Texas and Illinois. A perennial growing 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower from Jul to August.(2)
Edible Uses:None(3)
Medicinal Uses :The plant is diaphoretic and mildly laxative. It can be used in the treatment of diarrhoea, coughs and colds. The fresh leaves are applied to remove warts. The plant is also a folk remedy for cancer. The leaves and seeds are made into an ointment to cure wounds and sores. The root can be used to make a salve for sores.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SALY2

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+lyrata
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#158 (f)
Common Name: Baby Sage, Blackcurrant Sage, (Salvia microphylla)
Appearance and Habitat:
Southern N. America -Mexico to Guatemala. An evergreen perennial growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Aug to October.
Edible Uses: The leaves have a pleasant scent of blackcurrant and can be used fresh or dried as a flavouring. A herbal tea, called ‘mirot de montes’, is made from the leaves.
Medicinal Uses : An infusion of the flowers and leaves have been used in the treatment of fevers.

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+microphylla
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#158 (g)
Common Name: Sage, Kitchen Sage (Salvia officinalis)
Appearance and Habitat:
Dry banks and stony places, usually in limestone areas and often where there is very little soil. Southern Europe. An evergreen shrub growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.
Warnings: The plant can be toxic when used in excesss or when taken for extended periods of time. Symptoms include: restlessness, vomiting, vertigo, tremors, seizures. Contraindicated during pregnancy. Avoid if predisposed to convulsions.
Edible Uses: Leaves and flowers – raw or cooked. A very common herb, the strongly aromatic leaves are used as a flavouring in cooked foods. They are an aid to digestion and so are often used with heavy, oily foods. They impart a sausage-like flavour to savoury dishes. The young leaves and flowers can be eaten raw, boiled, pickled or used in sandwiches. The flowers can also be sprinkled on salads to add colour and fragrance. A herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves, it is said to improve the digestion. An essential oil obtained from the plant is used commercially to flavour ice cream, sweets, baked goods etc.
Medicinal Uses : Sage has a very long history of effective medicinal use and is an important domestic herbal remedy for disorders of the digestive system. Its antiseptic qualities make it an effective gargle for the mouth where it can heal sore throats, ulcers etc. The leaves applied to an aching tooth will often relieve the pain. The whole herb is antihydrotic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cholagogue, galactofuge, stimulant, tonic and vasodilator. Sage is also used internally in the treatment of excessive lactation, night sweats, excessive salivation (as in Parkinson’s disease), profuse perspiration (as in TB), anxiety, depression, female sterility and menopausal problems. Many herbalists believe that the purple-leafed forms of this species are more potent medicinally. This remedy should not be prescribed to pregnant women or to people who have epileptic fits. The plant is toxic in excess or when taken for extended periods – though the toxic dose is very large. Externally, it is used to treat insect bites, skin, throat, mouth and gum infections and vaginal discharge. The leaves are best harvested before the plant comes into flower and are dried for later use. The essential oil from the plant is used in small doses to remove heavy collections of mucous from the respiratory organs and mixed in embrocations for treating rheumatism. In larger doses, however, it can cause epileptic fits, giddiness etc. The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is ‘Tonic’. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Salvia officinalis Sage for loss of appetite, inflammation of the mouth, excessive perspiration.

 http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+officinalis
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#158 (h)
Common Name: Introduced Sage, Meadow Clary (Salvia pratensis)
Appearance and Habitat:
A rare native of Britain, from scandanavia south nad east to Spain, Serbia, the Crimea, Bulgaria. A perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jul to August.
Edible Uses: The pungent, bitter flavoured herb has been used as a flavouring in beers and wines. It is also used as an adulterant of sage
Medicinal Uses : None

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+pratensis
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#158 (i)
Common Name: European Sage, Clary (Salvia sclarea)
Appearance and Habitat:
Rocky igneous slopes, mixed deciduous and coniferous woodland, shale banks and roadsides to 2000 meters in Turkey. Southern Europe to Syria. A biennial / perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.6 m (2ft). It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower in August, and the seeds ripen in September.
Edible Uses: Leaves – raw or cooked. A strong, warm, aromatic taste and odour. They are used mainly as a flavouring in cooked foods, they are similar to sage (S. officinalis). The leaves can be dipped in batter and cooked to make delicious fritters. Flowers – raw. A pleasant taste, they can be sprinkled on chopped salads, or made into a tea. The plant is sometimes used as a hop substitute in flavouring beer, imparting considerable bitterness and intoxicating properties – it either makes people dead drunk or insanely exhilarated. The leaves have also been used to adulterate wine and give it a muscatel flavour.
Medicinal Uses : Clary has been perceived both as a weaker version of sage (Salvia officinalis) and also as a significant herb in its own right. An antispasmodic and aromatic plant, it is used mainly to treat digestive problems such as wind and indigestion. It is also regarded as a tonic, calming herb that helps relieve period pain and pre-menstrual problems. Owing to its oestrogen-stimulating action, it is most effective when levels of this hormone are low. The whole plant, and especially the leaves, is antispasmodic, appetizer, aromatic, astringent, balsamic, carminative, pectoral and tonic. It is useful in treating disorders of the stomach and kidneys and is a valuable remedy for complaints associated with the menopause, particularly hot flushing. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women. The leaves can be used fresh or dried, for drying they are harvested before the plant comes into flower. The seed forms a thick mucilage when it is soaked for a few minutes in water. This is efficacious in removing small particles of dust from the eyes. The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is ‘Euphoric’.

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+sclarea

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
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Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 156-157 Cleavers, Dandelion

Tags

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#156
Common Name: Cleavers, Goosegrass, Catchweed Bedstraw, Stickywilly, Coachweed 
Latin Name:
Galium aparine
Family: Rubiaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=gaap2
All States except Hawaii; In Canada; British Columbia to Quebec, plus Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia.
Photos: Here
Appearance and Habitat: A weak-stemmed, reclining plant with backward-booked bristles on stems and leaves, and clusters of 1-3 (usually 2) very small white flowers on stalks rising from whorled leaf axils. The common name is appropriate since the bristles cause the stems, leaves, and fruits to cleave to clothes and the fur of animals. The fact that geese eat the plants accounts for the other common name. The plants are also known as Bedstraws since the pleasant smelling foliage of a yellow-flowered species (G. verum), was used to stuff mattresses in medieval times.(1)  An abundant native, annual, that blooms April to June. Variety of habitats, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains. Scrambling annual, the weak stem 1-10 dm. tall, little branched, square with retrorse hooks on the angles. Leaves: Leaves mostly in whorls of 8, tipped with a sharp point, narrow, 1-nerved, 1-4 cm. long, with stiff, recurved hairs on the margins and mid-rib beneath. Flowers: Inflorescences of 3-5 flowers on peduncles in the leaf axils which surpass the whorl of leaves, usually with a whorl of small leaves at the summit, or the peduncles in threes at the ends of short, axillary branches; pedicels straight and ascending; calyx obsolete; corolla rotate, 1-2 mm. wide, greenish-white, the 4 lobes much longer than the tube; styles 2, short; ovary 2-celled, inferior. Fruits: Fruit dry, 2-4 mm. long, covered with hooked bristles.(2)   Hedgerows and as a weed of cultivated land. Moist and grassy places on most types of soil. Europe, oncluding Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to Spain, N. and W. Asia. An annual growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 3 m (9ft 10in). It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.(3)  Of all the Galium species in the west, Cleavers is the most common. Most are perennials, except Cleavers which is an annual. They can all be used interchangeable for their medicinal qualities. Cleavers has a square stem with bristly edges and can form vine like mats over other bushes. Large plants may attain a height of 6 or 7 feet, if untangled and spread out. All Galiums are either small shrubs, with several weak stems, or have the habit of vining like Cleavers. The flowers are white and star shaped. The seeds that develop after the flowers are in pairs from each flower and are bristly and green. The leaves are roundly lanceloate and form circular rosettes along the stem comprising of 6 or 8 leaves. It can be found from sea level to 10,000 feet, but in the southwest it is usually found in the mountains. Watch for it along streamsides, moist embankments, pastures and in the shade under trees. Most species were introduced form Europe.(4)
Warnings: The sap of the plant can cause contact dermatitis in sensitive people. Can cause sever skin irritation.(5)
Edible Uses:The tender young shoot tips – raw or cooked as a pot-herb. A rather bitter flavour that some people find unpalatable, they are best used in the spring. They make a useful addition to vegetable soups. It is said that using this plant as a vegetable has a slimming effect on the body. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. One of the best substitutes, it merely needs to be dried and lightly roasted and has much the flavour of coffee. A decoction of the whole dried plant gives a drink equal to tea.(6)
Medicinal Uses :Goosegrass has a long history of domestic medicinal use and is also used widely by modern herbalists. A valuable diuretic, it is often taken to treat skin problems such as seborrhoea, eczema and psoriasis, and as a general detoxifying agent in serious illnesses such as cancer. The whole plant, excluding the root, is alterative, antiphlogistic, aperient, astringent, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, tonic and vulnerary. It is harvested in May and June as it comes into flower and can be used fresh or dried for later use. It is used both internally and externally in the treatment of a wide range of ailments, including as a poultice for wounds, ulcers and many other skin problems, and as a decoction for insomnia and cases where a strong diuretic is beneficial. It has been shown of benefit in the treatment of glandular fever, ME, tonsillitis, hepatitis, cystitis etc. The plant is often used as part of a spring tonic drink with other herbs. A tea made from the plant has traditionally been used internally and externally in the treatment of cancer. One report says that it is better to use a juice of the plant rather than a tea. The effectiveness of this treatment has never been proved or disproved. A number of species in this genus contain asperuloside, a substance that produces coumarin and gives the scent of new-mown hay as the plant dries. Asperuloside can be converted into prostaglandins (hormone-like compounds that stimulate the uterus and affect blood vessels), making the genus of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. A homeopathic remedy has been made from the plant.(7)  When collecting the vine type, simply wad them up, take them home and hang them in the shade. For the smooth stemmed variety bundle them in 1/2 inch bundles and place them in a short cardboard box, in the shade to dry. The plant is good for treating urinary tract and skin problems. The tea, made with a tablespoon of the dried herb is pleasant to drink and is of value for treating hepatitis and inflammations of the lower uninary tract. Take the tea 3 times daily, an hour before each meal. The tea is also useful in urinary tract gravel, as it acts as a diuretic. The fresh plant can be juiced and is a bit stronger than the tea. To use the juice use 2 or 3 teaspoons in a cup of water 3 times a day; once again an hour before meals. Either the juice or tea can also be used on slow to heal burns or ulcerated skin. It also has value for cancerous ulcers; proven by homeopaths.( 8 )
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=GAAP2
Foot Notes: (2 )http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Galium&Species=aparine
Foot Notes: ( 3, 5, 6, 7 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Galium+aparine
Foot Notes: (4, 8 ) Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 85-86, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5
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#157
Common Name: Dandelion, Chicoria, Blowball,
Latin Name:
Taraxacum officinale
Family: Compositae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=taof
All States, all of Canada.
Photos: Here
Appearance and Habitat: Non-native species. JAM. A common weed, its solitary flower head, each with numerous yellow ray flowers, tops a hollow, leafless stalk that rises from the center of a rosette of toothed leaves. Stem juice is milky. Unpublished. Non-native species. JAM. The popular name comes from dent de lion, French for lions tooth, referring to the teeth on the leaves. The young leaves may be used in salads and soups; wine is made from the heads. Several species, some native to high mountain meadows, are similar to the Common Dandelion but may have reddish-brown fruits and outer bracts that do not curl.(1)    Blooms March through October. Common in disturbed areas, fields, lawns, from the coast to the alpine. Mostly glabrous perennial herb from a fleshy taproot, strictly scapose, the scape to 50 cm. high, with milky juice. Leaves all basal, oblanceolate, 6-40 cm. long and 0.7-15 cm. wide, with lobes that angle backward, the terminal lobe the largest, tapering to a narrow base. Flowers: Scape hollow, with a few soft hairs upward, terminating in a large, solitary head; involucre 1.5-2.5 cm. high, the bracts in two series, the outer shorter, the inner 13-21, these at first erect, becoming reflexed; corollas all ligulate, bright yellow; the mature achenes and the white pappus form a ball.(2)   A very common weed of grassland and cultivated ground throughout most of the northern hemisphere, including Britain. A perennial growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June.(3)   A very common weed, it has no stems. The leaves, hollow flower stems, grow directly from the root. If the plant you found has divided stems or branched stems, it is not Dandelion. The most potent, as for medical use, are found in the mountains of the west. The leaves and roots are stronger than those found in the lower altitudes. It can grow almost to the tree line and is found in all mountains of the west.(4)
Warnings: This plant has been mentioned in various books on poisonous plants but any possible toxins will be of very low concentration and toxicity. There are reports that some people have suffered dermatitis as a result of touching the plant, this is probably caused by the latex in the leaves and stems.(5)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw or cooked. When used in salads, they are rather bitter, though less so in the winter. Tender young leaves are considerably less bitter than older leaves. The leaves are often blanched (by excluding light from the growing plant) before use. This will make them less bitter, but they will also contain less vitamins and minerals. A very nutritious food, 100g of the raw leaves contain about 2.7g. protein, 9.2g. carbohydrate, 187mg Calcium, 66mg phosphorus, 3.1mg iron, 76mg sodium, 397mg potassium, 36mg magnesium, 14000iu vitamin A, 0.19mg vitamin B1, 0.26mg vitamin B2, 35mg vitamin C. Root – raw or cooked. Bitter. A turnip-like flavour. Flowers – raw or cooked. A rather bitter flavour, the unopened flower buds can be used in fritters and they can also be preserved in vinegar and used like capers. Both the leaves and the roots are used to flavour herbal beers and soft drinks such as ‘Dandelion and Burdock’. The roots of 2 year old plants are harvested in the autumn, dried and roasted to make a very good coffee substitute. It is caffeine-free. A pleasant tea is made from the flowers. They are also used to make wine – all green parts should be removed when making wine to prevent a bitter flavour. The leaves and the roots can also be used to make tea.(6)
Medicinal Uses :The dandelion is a commonly used herbal remedy. It is especially effective and valuable as a diuretic because it contains high levels of potassium salts and therefore can replace the potassium that is lost from the body when diuretics are used. All parts of the plant, but especially the root, are slightly aperient, cholagogue, depurative, strongly diuretic, hepatic, laxative, stomachic and tonic. The root is also experimentally cholagogue, hypoglycaemic and a weak antibiotic against yeast infections. The dried root has a weaker action. The roots can be used fresh or dried and should be harvested in the autumn when 2 years old. The leaves are harvested in the spring when the plant is in flower and can be dried for later use. A tea can be made from the leaves or, more commonly, from the roots. The plant is used internally in the treatment of gall bladder and urinary disorders, gallstones, jaundice, cirrhosis, dyspepsia with constipation, oedema associated with high blood pressure and heart weakness, chronic joint and skin complaints, gout, eczema and acne. The plant has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococci, Meningococci, Bacillus dysenteriae, B. typhi, C. diphtheriae, Proteus etc. The latex contained in the plant sap can be used to remove corns, warts and verrucae. The latex has a specific action on inflammations of the gall bladder and is also believed to remove stones in the liver. A tea made from the leaves is laxative. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Taraxacum officinale for dyspepsia, urnary tract infections, liver and gallbladder complaints, appetite loss. (7)   This plant should not be stored longer than a year, as it loses a lot of potency after that period. Collect the leaves and flowers and dry them in a cheesecloth fold, hung in the shade in an airy spot. You can also dry the leaves and flowers in a short cardboard box with the cheesecloth under them for support. The roots need to be split in half and dried in a similar fashion to the leaves and flowers. The roots can also be used for a fresh tincture at a ratio of 1 part root to 2 parts 45% vodka by weight. The leaves and roots and a safe diuretic and can be taken as needed, as there is no toxic effects from using Dandelion. Using it increases the water and waste in the urine helping to dissolve urinary stones. Taking frequent doses of the fresh root tincture, one-half teaspoon, will help with kidney infections and restoring liver function after hepatitis. At one teaspoon of the tincture, taken often through the day, it will help treat liver or spleen cogestion. You can also use the dried leaves for tea, at a ratio of 1 part dried leaf to 32 parts water, by weight. Bring the water to a boil, remove it from the heat, add the leaf material and allow it to sit for 6 to 8 hours. You can take from 3-6 ounces as needed. The tea is helpful for chronic constipation caused by age. To help dissolve urinary stones, boil up to an ounce of the dried chopped root in a quart of water and drink in several doses through the day. This takes about 10 days to find relief. You can also drink two tablespoons of the root tincture twice a day for 10 days to remove urinary gravel.( 8 )
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=TAOF
Foot Notes: (2 )http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Taraxacum&Species=officinale
Foot Notes: ( 3, 5, 6, 7 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Taraxacum+officinale
Foot Notes: (4, 8 ) Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West 2nd Edition, by Michael Moore, pages 103-105, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 154-155 Pokeweed, Ground Ivy

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#154
Common Name: Pokeweed, Poke Salad, American Pokeweed, Poke Berry
Latin Name:
Phytolacca americana
Family: :Phytolaccaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=pham4
All states east of the Mississippi R. and along the west bank, plus Nebraska south to Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Washington and Oregon; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick.
Photos: Here
Appearance and Habitat: A tall, large leaved, branching plant with reddish stems and long clusters of white flowers. This is frequently a troublesome weed with poisonous berries and roots, although emerging shoots can be gathered before the pink color appears, cooked, and eaten as greens. The berry juice was used as a dye by the early colonists and to improve cheap wine.(1)    Plants to 3(-7) m. Leaves: petiole 1-6 cm; blade lanceolate to ovate, to 35 × 18 cm, base rounded to cordate, apex acuminate. Racemes open, proximalmost pedicels sometimes bearing 2-few flowers, erect to drooping, 6-30 cm; peduncle to 15 cm; pedicel 3-13 mm. Flowers: sepals 5, white or greenish white to pinkish or purplish, ovate to suborbiculate, equal to subequal, 2.5-3.3 mm; stamens (9-)10(-12) in 1 whorl; carpels 6-12, connate at least in proximal 1/2; ovary 6-12-loculed. Berries purple-black, 6-11 mm diam. Seeds black, lenticular, 3 mm, shiny. Varieties 2 (2 in the flora): North America; introduced in Europe. The infraspecific taxonomy of Phytolacca americana has been disputed since J. K. Small (1905) recognized P. rigida as distinct from P. americana on the basis of its “permanently erect panicles” [sic] and “pedicels…much shorter than the diameter of the berries.” J. W. Hardin (1964b) separated P. rigida from P. americana by the length of the raceme (2-12 cm in P. rigida, 5-30 cm in P. americana) and the thickness and diameter of the xylem center of the peduncle (70% greater thickness in P. rigida, 17% greater diameter in P. americana), but he found no discontinuities in any feature. J. W. Nowicke (1968) and J. D. Sauer (1952), among others, treated P. rigida as a synonym of P. americana. Most recently, D. B. Caulkins and R. Wyatt (1990) recognized P. rigida as a variety of P. americana. The varieties are not always clearly distinct. Some specimens combine the erect inflorescences of var. rigida with the long pedicels of var. americana. Such intermediate plants can be seen as far north as coastal Delaware, sometimes growing with var. americana. Collectors of Phytolacca americana should record carefully whether the inflorescences are erect, drooping, or intermediate between the extremes. The fruits and seeds of Phytolacca americana are eaten and disseminated by birds and, probably, mammals. They are said to be an important source of food for mourning doves (A. C. Martin et al. 1951). Phytolacca americana is well known to herbalists, cell biologists, and toxicologists. According to some accounts, its young leaves, after being boiled in two waters (the first being discarded) to deactivate toxins, are edible, even being available canned (they pose no culinary threat to spinach). Young shoots are eaten as a substitute for asparagus. Ripe berries were used to color wine and are eaten (cooked) in pies. Poke is used as an emetic, a purgative, a suppurative, a spring tonic, and a treatment for various skin maladies, especially hemorrhoids. Pokeweed mitogen is a mixture of glycoprotein lectins that are powerful immune stimulants, promoting T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation and increased immun-oglobulin levels. “Accidental exposure to juices from Phytolacca americana via ingestion, breaks in the skin, and the conjunctiva has brought about hematological changes in numerous people, including researchers studying this species” (G. K. Rogers 1985). Poke antiviral proteins are of great interest for their broad, potent antiviral (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and antifungal properties (P. Wang et al. 1998). Saponins found in P. americana and P. dodecandra are lethal to the molluscan intermediate host of schistosomiasis (J. M. Pezzuto et al. 1984). The toxic compounds in P. americana are phytolaccatoxin and related triterpene saponins, the alkaloid phytolaccin, various histamines, and oxalic acid. When ingested, the roots, leaves, and fruits may poison animals, including Homo sapiens. Symptoms of poke poisoning include sweating, burning of the mouth and throat, severe gastritis, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, blurred vision, elevated white-blood-cell counts, unconsciousness, and, rarely, death. “Poke” is thought to come from “pocan” or “puccoon,” probably from the Algonquin term for a plant that contains dye.(2)  Damp rich soils in clearings, woodland margins and roadsides. Disturbed areas, pastures, clearings thickets, woodland borders and roadsides from sea level to 1400 meters n Northern and Central N. America. Occasionally naturalzed in Britain. A perennial growing to 2 m (6ft) by 1.5 m (5ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November.(3)
Warnings: The leaves are poisonous. They are said to be safe to eat when young, and the toxins developing as the plants grow older. Another report says the seed and root are poisonious. The plant sap can cause dermatitis in sensitive people. The plant contains substances that cause cell division and can damage chromosomes. These substances can be aborbed through any abasions in the skin, potentially causing serious blood aberratins, and so it is strongly recommended that people wear gloves when handling the plant. Avoid during pregnancy. Even children that consume even one berry emergency poison treatment should be instituted. Up to ten berries are considered harmless for adults.(4)
Edible Uses:Leaves – they must be cooked and even then it is best to change the water once. They are used like spinach. Only the young leaves should be used since they become toxic with age. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Young shoots – cooked. An asparagus substitute, they are delicious. The shoots are sometimes blanched before using, or forced in cellars to provide an early crop. The tender clear inner portion of the stem can be rolled in cornmeal and fried. Although cultivated on a small scale in N. America for its shoots, caution is advised, see notes above. A nutritional analysis is available. Fruit – cooked and used in pies. Poisonous raw, causing vomiting and diarrhoea. Even the cooked fruits should be viewed with caution. The fruit is a berry about 12mm in diameter. A red dye is obtained from the fruit and used as a food colouring.(5)
Medicinal Uses :Pokeweed has a long history of medicinal use, being employed traditionally in the treatment of diseases related to a compromised immune system. The plant has an interesting chemistry and it is currently (1995) being investigated as a potential anti-AIDS drug. It contains potent anti-inflammatory agents, antiviral proteins and substances that affect cell division. These compounds are toxic to many disease-causing organisms, including the water snails that cause schistosomiasis. All parts of the plant are toxic, an excess causing diarrhoea and vomiting. This remedy should be used with caution and preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women. The root is alterative, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, expectorant, hypnotic, narcotic and purgative. The dried root is used as an anodyne and anti-inflammatory. The root is taken internally in the treatment of auto-immune diseases (especially rheumatoid arthritis), tonsillitis, mumps, glandular fever and other complaints involving swollen glands, chronic catarrh, bronchitis etc. The fresh root is used as a poultice on bruises, rheumatic pains etc, whilst a wash made from the roots is applied to swellings and sprains. The root is best harvested in the autumn and can be dried for later use. The fruit has a similar but milder action to the roots.The juice is used in the treatment of cancer, haemorrhoids and tremors. A poultice made from the fruit is applied to sore breasts. A tea made from the fruit is used in the treatment of rheumatism, dysentery etc. The plant has an unusually high potassium content and the ashes, which contain over 45% caustic potash, have been used as a salve for ulcers and cancerous growths. The leaves are cathartic, emetic and expectorant. A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh root. Its main action is on the throat, breast, muscular tissues and the joints.(6)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=PHAM4
Foot Notes: (2)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=220010427
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Phytolacca+americana
Other Links: http://www.all4naturalhealth.com/herbs-for-cancer.html  http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail407.php********************************************
#155
Common Name: Ground Ivy, Alehoof, Creeping Charlie, Cat’s Foot,
Latin Name:
Glechoma hederacea
Family: Lamiaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=glhe2
All States except Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada and Hawaii; In Canada; All Provinces except Nunavut, Northwest Territory and Yukon.

Photos: Here
Appearance and Habitat: General: Fibrous-rooted perennial herb with slender stolons, the stem lax, 1-4 dm. tall, scabrous to nearly glabrous, with long, soft hairs at the nodes.  Leaves opposite, cauline, all alike, petiolate, the blades glabrous or stiff-hairy, rotund-cordate to cordate-reniform, with rounded teeth, 1-3 cm. long. Flowers in few-flowered verticels in the leaf axils, with short pedicels; calyx oblique at the mouth, narrow, 5-6 mm. long, 5-toothed, the upper teeth longer; corolla blue-violet with purple spots, 13-23 mm. long, two-lipped, the upper lip 2-lobed, the lower lip spreading with the central lobe much larger than the lateral lobes; stamens 4, the upper pair longer, ascending under the upper lip; style slender, 2-parted; ovary superior, 2-celled. Introduced from Eurasia, blooms April through June. Habitat: Moist woods and thickets, disturbed ground.(1)  Damp waste ground, hedgerows and woodland margins. Most of Europe, including Britain, northern and western Asia to Japan. A perennial growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Mar to May.(2)
Warnings: A report in the medicinal uses says the plant should be used with caution, no reason is given. Another report says that the plant maybe toxic to horses. Avoid if pregnant as abortifacient. Contraindicated in epilepsy. Avoid if kidney disease.(3)
Edible Uses:Young leaves – raw or cooked. The leaves have a bitter flavour, they can be mixed into salads to add a slight aromatic tang. They can also be cooked like spinach, added to soups etc or used as a flavouring. Available very early in the year. A herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves. It is often used mixed with verbena leaves. The herb has been added to beer in much the same way as hops in order to clear it and also to improve its flavour and keeping qualities. This species was the most common flavouring in beer prior to the use of hops from the 16th century onwards.(4)
Medicinal Uses :Ground ivy is a safe and effective herb that is used to treat many problems involving the mucous membranes of the ear, nose, throat and digestive system. A well-tolerated treatment it can be given to children to clear lingering catarrh and to treat chronic conditions such as glue ear and sinusitis. Throat and chest problems, especially those due to excess catarrh, also benefit from this remedy. The leaves and flowering stems are anodyne, antiphlogistic, appetizer, astringent, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, pectoral, gently stimulant, tonic and vermifuge. They are best harvested in May whilst still fresh, and are dried for later use. The leaves are used in the treatment of hypersensitivity in children and are useful in the treatment of kidney diseases and indigestion. Applied externally, the expressed juice speeds the healing of bruises and black eyes.(5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Glechoma&Species=hederacea
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Glechoma+hederacea

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 151-153 Ratany / Mexican Tea / Hollyhock

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#151
Common Name: Ratany, White Ratany, Trailing Ratany, Little Leaf Ratany.
Latin Name:
Krameria erecta, K. grayi, K. lanceolata, K. ramosissima
Family: Krameriaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=KRAME
California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Georgia and Florida. Main database.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=KRER California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Texas. (Krameria erecta)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=KRGR Same states as above. (Krameria grayi)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=KRLA Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Arkanasas, Texas, Georgia and Florida. (Krameria lanceolata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=KRRA Texas (Krameria ramosissima)
Photos : (Krameria erecta ) (Krameria grayi ) (Krameria lanceolata) ( Krameria ramosissima)
Appearance and Habitat: A low, grayish, intricately branched, very twiggy shrub with bilaterally symmetrical reddish-lavender flowers. This species is commonly found among creosote bush. Similar species lack glands beneath flowers and have different barb arrangements on prickles of fruit. ( Krameria erecta)(1) White ratany is found in the arid regions of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It occurs from southern California east to western Texas and from southern Nevada and Utah south to northern Mexico. White ratany is not currently listed as a dominant and/or indicator in published plant association or habitat type classifications. It occursin the understory of ironwood (Olneya tesota), Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), juniper (Juniperus spp.), and shrub live oak (Quercus turbinella). In the shrub layer white ratany is associated with creosote bush (Larrea spp.), bursage (Ambrosia spp.), and little-leaf paloverde (Cercidium microphyllum). (Krameria grayi)(2) This is not the sandbur of the Grass Family; however, its burs are just as spiny, though densely covered with white hairs. The flowers and short silky leaves grow on prostrate branches, up to 2 feet long, from a thick woody root. The 5 wine-red sepals may be mistaken for the petals, which are smaller and tinged with green, the upper 3 being united. The flowers are about 1 inch broad. Not conspicuous or abundant. One of the common names sandbur comes from the hard, one-seeded, wooly fruit covered with barbless spines.  (Krameria lanceolata)(3)  All Ratany’s are easy to identify when in bloom. The flowers are magenta with 3 regular petals, with 2 of those fused together like sweet pea. The leaves are opposite and narrow and the fruit is barbed burrs. They are semi-parasitic on the roots of other bushes. K. grayii has fuzzy and whitish leaves and grows no taller than 2 feet. They form a bush of crisscross semispined branches when not in bloom. Liking the low desert, it blooms when ever there is enough moisture. K. lanceolota forms vines that may reach 2 feet in length and bloom from April through June. It prefers the higher desert grasslands in the prairies. All Ratany’s usually grows below 5,000 feet and are scare in the Great Basin, Utah and Colorado; but still can be found there. It is fortunate that our Ratany did not become the U.S.P. Kamaria, or it would have been decimated as was Virginia Snakeroot and American Ginseng. In the first half of the 20th Century tons of Ratany roots were harvested in Peru, Bolivia and Brazil. (4)
Medicinal Uses :The root is the strongest, followed by the foliage, but overall Ratany is one of our best astringents and topical hemostat. Collect the root and foliage, split the root and dry it in a cheesecloth pocket hung in the shade, the leaves can be dried in a low cardboard box or on newpaper in the shade. The foliage can be used for tea. To make the tea bring water to boil at 20 part (by weight), to one part dried leaves an boil for 10 minutes. Then remove from the heat and allow to cool. When it has reached body temperature strain out the leaves and add water to make 16 parts. For the dried root tincture, grind the root then use 1 part root to 5 parts 50% vodka, shake daily and wait until the second week to strain, then add 5% glycerin. To treat sore gums, mouth sores or abscesses you can use the tea or tincture alone or with Yerba Mansa or Sumac. The tea or diluted tincture can be gargled to treat an acute sore throat. You can also make a salve to treat hemorrhoids. For the salve mix one ounce of ground root moisten with 2 ounces of grain alcohol or 90% isopropyl alcohol. Let the two sit for half an hour, then add 14 ounces of vegetable oil and blend them together until warm. Now place a cloth inside a colander, with a bowl below, and strain the mix. Near the end of the straining process, pick up the cloth, forming a pocket, and by hand apply pressure to complete the straining. If the alcohol smell bothers you, allow the mixture to sit for 8 to 10 hours while the alcohol evaporates. Next add 3 ounces of bees wax and heat it only enough for the bees wax to melt (double broiler). Mix the two together while molten and pour into a jar that has a lid. As it cools the mixture will harden somewhat. The tea can also be used to decrease internal bleeding, but may cause constipation.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1, 2)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=KRER   http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=KRLA

Foot Notes: (3)http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/kragra/all.html
Foot Notes: (4, 5) Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West by Michael Moore, pages 97-99, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 1989, ISBN 0-80913-182-1
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#152
Common Name: Mexican Tea
Latin Name:
Chenopodium ambrosioides
Family: Chenopodiaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=cham
All states except Alaska, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana and Wyoming; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia.
Photos: Here
Appearance and Habitat: Mainly found on dry wasteland and cultivated ground in Tropical America, naturalized in S. Europe. An annual / perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.7 m (2ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. (Much too wide spread to be only in zone 8, use the map on usda plant database, click on the state, and see what counties it is found in.)
Warnings: The essential oil in the seed and flowering plant is highly toxic. In excess it can cause dizziness, vomiting, convulsions and even death. The plant can also cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions. The leaves and seeds of all members of this genus contain saponins, though usually in quantities too small to do any harm. Although toxic, saponins are poorly absorded by the body and most pass straight through without any problem. They are also broken down to a large extent in the cooking process. Saponins are in many foods, such as beans. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quanitities of them in streams, lakes, etc. in order to stupefy or kill fish. The plant also contains oxalic acid, which in large quantities can lock up some nutrients in food. However, even considering this, they are very nutritious vegetables in reasonalble quantities. Cooking the plant will reduce its content of oxalic acid. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take expecial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition.
Edible Uses: Leaves – cooked. The tender leaves are sometimes used as a potherb. Used as a condiment in soups etc, they are said to reduce flatulence if eaten with beans. The leaves have a rank taste due to the presence of resinous dots and sticky hairs. The raw leaves should only be eaten in small quantities, see the notes above on toxicity. Seed – cooked. The seed is small and fiddly, it should be soaked in water overnight and thoroughly rinsed before it is used in order to remove any saponins. An infusion of the leaves is a tea substitute.
Medicinal Uses : Mexican tea is a Central American herb that has been used for centuries to expel parasitic worms from the body. The whole plant is analgesic, antiasthmatic, carminative, stomachic and vermifuge. An infusion can be used as a digestive remedy, being taken to settle a wide range of problems such colic and stomach pains. Externally, it has been used as a wash for haemorrhoids, as a poultice to detoxify snake bites and other poisons and is thought to have wound-healing properties. Use with caution and preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. This remedy should not be prescribed for pregnant women. See also the notes above on toxicity. Until fairly recently, this was one of the most commonly used vermifuges, though it has now been largely replaced by synthetic drugs. The seed, or an essential oil expressed from the seed, was used. It is very effective against most parasites, including the amoeba that causes dysentery, but is less effective against tapeworm. Fasting should not precede its use and there have occasionally been cases of poisoning caused by this treatment. The oil is used externally to treat athlete’s foot and insect bites. One report says that it is an essential oil that is utilised. This is obtained from the seed or the flowering stems, it is at its highest concentration in the flowering stems before seed is set, these contain around 0.7% essential oil of which almost 50% is the active vermifuge ascaridol. The essential oil is of similar quality from plants cultivated in warm climates and those in cool climates. The leaves are added in small quantities as a flavouring for various cooked bean dishes because their carminative activity can reduce flatulence.
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Chenopodium+ambrosioides
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#153
Common Name: Hollyhock
Latin Name:
Alcea rosea
Family: Malvaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=alro3
All states except Alaska, Hawaii, Maine, New Hampshire, S. Carolina, Alabama, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Arizona; In Canada; Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick.
Photos: Here
Appearance and Habitat: Not known in a truly wild situation. The original habitat is obscure, it is probably of hybrid origin. A garden escape in Britain. A perennial to 2.4 m (7ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.(1)   A familiar Garden plant that grows to 6 or 7 feet in height. The flowers come in white, pink, blue and red. In the south it is a biennial and further north a short lived perennial. It is an increasingly urban weed, growing in vacant lots, along curbs, farming areas, and older sections of cities and towns.(2)
Warnings: None(3)
Edible Uses:Young leaves – raw or cooked. A mild flavour, but the texture leaves something to be desired. They have been used as a pot-herb, though they are not particularly palatable. They can also be chopped up finely and added to salads. Inner portion of young stems – raw. Flower petals and flower buds – raw. Added to salads. A nutritious starch is obtained from the root. A refreshing tea is made from the flower petals.(4)
Medicinal Uses :The flowers are demulcent, diuretic and emollient. They are useful in the treatment of chest complaints, and a decoction is used to improve blood circulation, for the treatment of constipation, dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhage etc. The flowers are harvested when they are open and are dried for later use. The shoots are used to ease a difficult labour. The root is astringent and demulcent. It is crushed and applied as a poultice to ulcers. Internally, it is used in the treatment of dysentery. The roots and the flowers are used in Tibetan medicine, where they are said to have a sweet, acrid taste and a neutral potency. They are used in the treatment of inflammations of the kidneys/womb, vaginal/seminal discharge, and the roots on their own are used to treat loss of appetite. The seed is demulcent, diuretic and febrifuge.(5)  Collect the roots in the fall and winter, peel away any sections that are dark and woody. The lighter the root, the better the medicine is that comes from it. You can use a short sided cardboard box to dry the roots in, like the cardboard cartons that come with beer or soda. Collect the leaves in the early spring, before the plant comes into bloom. Dry the leaves is small bundles 1/2 in diameter and remember to alway dry herbs in the shade. Tea works well form either the dried root or leaves. To make the tea use 1 part dried leaves or plant to 32 parts water (by weight). Boil the water, remove from the heat source, add the dried plant and after 8 hours strain the plant out. This tea can be used as much as you want. It is a time honored treatment for intestinal tract infections with vomiting and diarrhea, kidney and urinary tract infections, and as a douche of vaginal inflammations. You can also treat duodenal stomach ulcers with the same tea. The powdered root and leaves make an excellent poultice for skin infections. Mix the powered root or leaves with water, place on the gauze, tape over the wound, and apply hot towels over the top. Replace the hot towels as they cool. You can repeat the process every 4 hours, or as needed, until the infection starts to localize. and is on its way out.(6)
Foot Notes: (1, 3, 4, 5 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Alcea+rosea
Foot Notes: (2, 6) Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West by Michael Moore, pages 58-59, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 1989, ISBN 0-80913-182-1

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 149(Sup)-150 Gentian/Maidenhair Fern

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#149 Supplement
Common Name: American Columbo, Green Gentian, Elkweed
Latin Name:
Frasera caroliniensis, F. speciosa
Family: Gentianaceae
Range:
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=FRCA2
 Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and all states south of the Ohio R. and east of the Mississippi R. , except W. Virginia and Florida; In Canada; Ontario. (Frasera caroliniensis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=FRSP All states west of the Rocky Mountains, plus North Dakota and Texas. (Frasera speciosa)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )

149 (e)
Common Name: American Columbo, Green Gentian (Frasera caroliniensis)
Appearance and Habitat:
Found in calcareous grasslands and savannah over much of east-central North America, but not common, Frasera caroliniensis is listed as a species of special concern in Canada by SARA (Species at Risk Act), as threatened in New York, and as endangered in Pennsylvania.
(1)  Dry soils in Eastern N. America – New York to Ontario and Wisconsin, south to Georgia and Tennessee. A perennial growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in). It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower from Jul to August.(2)
Warnings: None
(3)
Edible Uses:None
(4)
Medicinal Uses : The powdered plant is applied externally to ulcers as a poultice. The plant is a feeble simple bitter. The root is cathartic, emetic, stimulant and tonic. When dried it is a simple bitter that can be used as a digestive tonic in a similar way to gentian root (Gentiana spp), but the fresh root is cathartic and emetic. The root is used in the treatment of dysentery, stomach complaints and a lack of appetite. It should be harvested in the autumn of its second year, or the spring of its third year. (5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=FRCA2

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Frasera+caroliniensis
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149 (f)
Common Name: Elkweed, Green Gentian (Frasera speciosa)
Appearance and Habitat:
A narrowly cone-shaped plant with 1 stout, tall errect stem, large leaves in evenly spaced whorls, and clusters of 4-lobed, yellowish-green corollas in axils of upper leaves and leaf-like bracts. The broad leaves are a good browse for deer.
(1)  Dryish or dampish places in Rich soils in open pine and woods, aspen groves etc. from 1500 – 3000 meters in Western N. America – California to Washington. A biennial/perennial growing to 1.5 m (5ft). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jul to August.(2)
Warnings: When used medicinally, large does of the powdered root have proved fatal.
(3)
Edible Uses:Root. It has been reported that the N. American Indians ate the fleshy root of this plant, but caution is advised since the roots of closely related plants are used medicinally as emetics and cathartics.
(4)
Medicinal Uses : The whole plant is febrifuge, pectoral, laxative and tonic. An infusion of the dried, powdered leaves, or the root, has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea. A cooled decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment of asthma, colds, digestive complaints etc. An infusion of the plant has been used as a contraceptive. Caution is advised in the use of this plant, see the notes above on toxicity. (5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=FRSP

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Frasera+speciosa
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#150
Common Name: Maidenhair Fern, Lady Fern, Culatrillo
Latin Name:
Adiantum aleuticum, A. capillus-veneris, A joranii, A. pedatum
Family: Polypodiaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ADIAN
All 50 states, except North Dakota; In Canada; British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. This is the main database.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ADAL All states west of the Rocky Mountains, except New Mexico, plus Alaska, Michigan, Pennsylvania, W. Virginia, Maryland, Vermont and Maine; In Canada; British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec and Newfoundland. (Adiantum aleuticum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ADCA All states east of the Mississippi R. and south of the Ohio R., except W. Virginia, plus Ohio, Maryland, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, South Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, California and Hawaii; In Canada; British Columbia. (Adiantum capillus-veneris)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ADJO California and Oregon. (Adiantum jordanii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ADPE All states east of the Mississippi, except Florida, all states on the west bank of the Mississippi R., plus South Dakota to Oklahoma and Alaska; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Adiantum pedatum)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )

Warnings: On PFAP for all covered. Although we have found no reports of toxicity for this species, a number of ferns contain carcinogens so some caution is advisable. Many ferns also contain thiaminase, an enzyme that robs the body of its vitamin B complex. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove the thiaminase.
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#150(a)
Common Name: Common Maidenhair Fern, Southern Maidenhair Fern, Venus Hair Fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris)
Appearance and Habitat:
This plant has specific growing requirements that must be met to be successful in a garden setting. Though it lacks the fan-like pattern of Northern maidenhair, the fine, lacy foliage of Southern maidenhair has the same a graceful, delicate character. This fern grows from 6 inches to 1 foot in height; its fronds arising in clusters from creeping rhizomes. Listed as an endangered species in North Carolina (known as southern maidenhair-fern there) and threatened in Kentucky (known as venus hair fern there). Mostly found in the lower half of the U.S.and some parts of the tropics, the only Canadian site is near Fairmont Hot Springs, B.C.
(1)   Rock crevices, cliffs by the sea on basic rocks in damp positions. Tropical and warm temperate zones throughout the world, including Britain. It is a fern growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in) at a slow rate.  It is hardy to zone 9 and is frost tender. The seeds ripen from May to September.(2)
Edible Uses:The fronds are used as a garnish on sweet dishes. The dried fronds are used to make a tea. A syrup is made from the plant – it makes a refreshing summer drink. The fern (does this refer to the rootstock?) is simmered in water for several hours and the liquid made into a thick syrup with sugar and orange water. It is then mixed with fruit juices to make a refreshing drink.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The maidenhair fern has a long history of medicinal use and was the main ingredient of a popular cough syrup called ‘Capillaire’, which remained in use until the nineteenth century. The plant is little used in modern herbalism. The fresh or dried leafy fronds are antidandruff, antitussive, astringent, demulcent, depurative, emetic, weakly emmenagogue, emollient, weakly expectorant, febrifuge, galactogogue, laxative, pectoral, refrigerant, stimulant, sudorific and tonic. A tea or syrup is used in the treatment of coughs, throat afflictions and bronchitis. It is also used as a detoxicant in alcoholism and to expel worms from the body. Externally, it is used as a poultice on snake bites, bee stings etc. In Nepal, a paste made from the fronds is applied to the forehead to relieve headaches and to the chest to relieve chest pains. The plant is best used fresh, though it can also be harvested in the summer and dried for later use.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ADCA

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Adiantum+capillus-veneris
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#150(b)
Common Name: Northern Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum pedatum)
Appearance and Habitat:
Northern maidenhair’s delicate, 8-20 in. fronds, with dark, shiny stems, spread their pinnae horizontally in a nearly perfect circle. This graceful, fan-like pattern is unique among native ferns. The fronds arise from a creeping rootstock in clusters. Burgundy red fiddleheads appear in early spring. The roots are wiry and black, colonizing in favorable sites. This fern is quite easy to grow if it is provided with the right conditions. Western plants are sometimes treated as a separate variety or subspecies, A. pedatum var. or ssp. aleuticum, but eastern and western plants look very much alike.
(1)   Stems short-creeping; scales bronzy deep yellow, concolored, margins entire. Leaves lax-arching (rarely pendent), closely spaced, 40–75 cm. Petiole 1–2 mm diam., glabrous, occasionally glaucous. Blade fan-shaped, pseudopedate, 1-pinnate distally, 15–30 × 15–35 cm, glabrous; proximal pinnae 3–9-pinnate; rachis straight, glabrous, occasionally glaucous. Segment stalks 0.5–1.5(–1.7) mm, dark color entering into segment base. Ultimate segments oblong, ca. 3 times as long as broad; basiscopic margin straight; acroscopic margin lobed, lobes separated by narrow incisions 0–0.9(–1.1) mm wide; apex obtuse, divided into shallow, rounded lobes separated by shallow sinuses 0.1–2(–3.7) mm deep, margins of lobes crenulate or crenate-denticulate. Indusia transversely oblong, 1–3 mm, glabrous. Spores mostly 34–40 µm diam. Sporulating summer–fall. Rich, deciduous woodlands, often on humus-covered talus slopes and moist lime soils; 0–700 m; N.B., N.S., Ont., Que.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis. Once considered a single species across its range in North America and eastern Asia, Adiantum pedatum is considered to be a complex of at least three vicariant species ( A . pedatum and A . aleuticum occur in North America) and a derivative allopolyploid species (C. A. Paris 1991). Adiantum pedatum in the strict sense is restricted to deciduous woodlands in eastern North America.(2)  Rich, deciduous woodlands, often on humus-covered talus slopes and moist lime soils for sea level to 700 meters in North America – Alaska to Quebec and Nova Scotia, south to California nad Georgia. East to Asia. It is hardy to zone 3. The seeds ripen from Aug to October.(3)
Edible Uses:None
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The whole plant is considered to be antirheumatic, astringent, demulcent, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, haemostatic, pectoral and tonic. A tea or syrup is used in the treatment of nasal congestion, asthma, sore throats etc. A decoction of the root was massaged into rheumatic joints. The N. American Indians chewed the fronds and then applied them to wounds to stop bleeding. A strong infusion of the whole plant was has been used as an emetic in the treatment of ague and fevers. This plant was highly valued as a medicinal plant in the 19th century and merits scientific investigation.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ADPE

Foot Notes: (2 ) http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200003542
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Adiantum+pedatum
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Appearance, Habitat and Photos for Others: (Adiantum aleuticum) Adiantum aleuticum – Western maidenhair, Aleutian maidenhair- Stems short-creeping or suberect; scales bronzy deep yellow, concolored, margins entire. Leaves lax-arching to stiffly erect or pendent, often densely clustered, 15–110 cm. Petiole 0.5–3 mm diam., glabrous, often glaucous. Blade fan-shaped to funnel-shaped, pseudopedate, 1-pinnate distally, 5–45 × 5–45 cm; proximal pinnae (1–)2–7-pinnate; rachis straight, glabrous, often with glaucous bloom. Segment stalks 0.2–0.9(–1.3) mm, dark color entering into segment base or not. Ultimate segments oblong, long-triangular, or occasionally reniform, ca. 2.5–4 times as long as broad; basiscopic margin straight to oblique, or occasionally excavate; acroscopic margin lobed, lobes separated by narrow to broad incisions 0.2–3 mm wide; apex acute to obtuse, obtuse apices divided into ± angular lobes separated by sinuses 0.6–4 mm deep, margins of lobes sharply denticulate. False indusia transversely oblong to crescent-shaped, 0.2–3.5(–6) mm, glabrous. Spores mostly 37–47 µm diam. Sporulating summer–fall. Wooded ravines, shaded banks, talus slopes, serpentine barrens, and coastal headlands (uncommon); 0–3200 m; Alta., B.C., Nfld., Que.; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Maine, Md., Mont., Nev., Oreg., Pa., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wyo.; Mexico in Chihuahua. Adiantum aleuticum is disjunct in wet rock fissures at high elevations in Arizona, Colorado, Montana, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Mexico in Chihuahua, and it is disjunct on serpentine in Newfoundland, Quebec, Maine, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Vermont. Although the western maidenhair has traditionally been interpreted as an infraspecific variant of Adiantum pedatum , the two taxa are reproductively isolated and differ in an array of morphologic characteristics. Therefore, they are more appropriately considered separate species (C. A. Paris and M. D. Windham 1988). Morphologic differences between A . pedatum and A . aleuticum are subtle; the two may be separated, however, using characteristics in the key. Adiantum aleuticum occurs in a variety of habitats throughout its range, from moist, wooded ravines to stark serpentine barrens and from coastal cliffs to subalpine boulder fields. Although morphologic differences exist among populations in these diverse habitats, they are not consistent. Consequently, infraspecific taxa are not recognized here within A . aleuticum .
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500026
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(Adiantum jordanii Adiantum jordanii – California maidenhair- Stems short-creeping; scales reddish brown, concolored, margins entire. Leaves arching or pendent, clustered, 30–45 cm. Petiole 1–1.5 mm diam., glabrous, not glaucous. Blade lanceolate, pinnate, 20–24 × 8–10 cm, gradually reduced distally, glabrous; proximal pinnae 3(–4)-pinnate; rachis straight, glabrous, not glaucous. Segment stalks 1–4 mm, with dark color ending abruptly at segment base. Ultimate segments fan-shaped, not quite as long as broad; base truncate or broadly cuneate; margins of fertile segments unlobed but very narrowly incised, sterile segments with margins lobed, denticulate; apex rounded. Indusia transversely oblong, 3–10 mm, glabrous. Spores mostly 40–50 µm diam. Sporulating early spring–midsummer. Seasonally moist, shaded, rocky banks, canyons, and ravines; 0–1000 m; Calif., Oreg.; Mexico in Baja California. Adiantum jordanii occasionally hybridizes with A . aleuticum where their ranges overlap in northern California, yielding the sterile hybrid Adiantum × tracyi C. C. Hall ex W. H. Wagner. Adiantum × tracyi , morphologically intermediate between its parental species, can be distinguished from A . jordanii by its broadly deltate leaf blade that tapers abruptly from the 4(–5)-pinnate base to a 1-pinnate apex. It is best separated from A . aleuticum by leaf blades with a strong rachis, and by ultimate blade segments that are less than twice as long as broad. Adiantum × tracyi shows 59 univalents at metaphase; its spores are irregular and misshapen (W. H. Wagner Jr. 1962).
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500027
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(Now for Michael Moore who covers Adiantum aleuticum, A. capillus-veneris and A joranii.)

Appearance and Habitat: A delicate fern, hard to mistake when it is found. The fronds sprout from a scaly root, usually just below the mulch or moss. The stems almost appear black and the individual leaflets are separated by black stems. All are interchangeable as to medical uses and A. capillus-venus the most widespread. They are rarely found above 7,000 feet and rarely encountered below 3,000 feet, the exception is the coastal ranges of California. In the west, it is found in warm, lower canyons. Look for it around springs or northern slopes and wet crevices in the rock. Adiantum jordanii is found in canyons from Baja California to southern Oregon. Adiantum pedatum is common from mid way through California to British Columbia to the northern Rocky Mountains. Adiantum capillus-venus is found world-wide.
Medicinal Uses : Collect the leaves by making small bundles, 1/2 inch in diameter, and dry them in a dark room in paper bags. The root requires splitting into sections, length-wise, and drying in cheese cloth. Hang the cheese cloth up, making a pocket and hang it in the shade. It makes an excellent treatment for upper respiratory problems and suppressed menstruation. Like Horsetail, the plant contains silica at a ratio of 12,000 to 20,000 parts/million. The silica content makes it useful to treat connective tissues of the lungs and kidneys. Chronic conditions require strong cup of tea on a daily basis for a month. Use at least a tablespoon full per cup in hot water. For acute conditions, make a standard infusion and drink 1-3 ounces 3 times daily. Combine 32 parts water, with one part dried fronds (by weight) bring slowly to a boil and continue boiling for 10 minutes, cool until warm and strain. It is also useful to treat bronchial infections, sore throats and laryngitis. To make a cough syrup combine two parts honey, one part water, and two parts of finely chopped leaves. To improve the taste, ginger can be added. To regulate menstruation, boil 1/2 ounce of the dried root in a pint of water for twenty minutes and drink it through the day.
Other Uses : It can be used as hair rinse that will add both body and shine to your hair. Use, somewhat less than a 1/2 cup of the dried plant in a cup of boiling water and use as a final rinse.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, pages 153-155, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 148 -149 Chicory-Gentian

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#148
Common Name: Chicory
Latin Name:
Cichorium intybus
Family: Asteraceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CIIN
All of the lower 48 States, all of lower Canada.
Photos: Here
Appearance and Habitat: An introduced species. It is erect, perennial, 1′-6′ tall forb with milky juice; stems widely branched; long taproot. The leaf is alternate, entire to pinnately-divided, becoming smaller toward the top. The flower heads are up to 1 1/2″ wide with many blue to white rays, no disk; inflorescence of 1-3 widely spaced heads from upper leaf axils; blooms July-Oct. It is usually found on disturbed sites, roadsides.(1)Grassy meadows and arable land, especially on chalk in Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia. A perennial growing to 1.5 m (5ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.(2)A scruffly looking plant with several 2 to 3 foot stems, with the foliage widely spaced along the stems. It’s range is unpredictable, from below 1,000 feet in Southern California to high grazing pastures at 9,300 feet in Montana. It is found in farming and pasture lands in all of the states.(3)
Warnings: Excessive and continued use may impair function of the retina. Slight potential for sensitization. (4) No toxic protential to Chicory and large quantities can be used.  (5)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw or cooked. The leaves are rather bitter, especially when the plants are flowering. The leaves are often blanched by excluding light, either by removing all the leaves and then earthing up the new growth, or by covering the plant with a bucket or something similar. Whilst this greatly reduces any bitterness, there is also a corresponding loss of vitamins and minerals. The blanched leaves are often used in winter salads (they are known as chicons) and are also cooked. The unblanched leaves are much less bitter in winter and make an excellent addition to salads at this time of year. A nutritional analysis of the leaves is available. Flowers – raw. An attractive addition to the salad bowl, but rather bitter. Root – cooked like parsnip. The boiled young roots form a very palatable vegetable. The root is said to be an ideal food for diabetics because of its inulin content. Inulin is a starch that cannot be digested by humans, it tends to pass straight through the digestive system and is therefore unlikely to be of use to a diabetic. However, the inulin can be used to make a sweetener that is suitable for diabetics to use. Chicory-root is free of harmful ingredients, and is essentially a concentrated combination of three sugars (pentose, levulose and dextrose) along with taraxarcine (the bitter principle of dandelion). It is especially important as source of levulose. Roots are used in seasoning soups, sauces and gravies, and to impart a rich deep colour. The roasted root is used as a caffeine-free coffee adulterant or substitute. Young roots have a slightly bitter caramel flavour when roasted, roots over 2 years old are much more bitter. (6)  For use as coffee, dry the roots and cut them sideways into small sections, then roast in an oven at 350 degrees, then run through a coffee mill or blender. This should be done before they are in flower. (7)
Medicinal Uses :Chicory has a long history of herbal use and is especially of great value for its tonic affect upon the liver and digestive tract. It is little used in modern herbalism, though it is often used as part of the diet. The root and the leaves are appetizer, cholagogue, depurative, digestive, diuretic, hypoglycaemic, laxative and tonic. The roots are more active medicinally. A decoction of the root has proved to be of benefit in the treatment of jaundice, liver enlargement, gout and rheumatism. A decoction of the freshly harvested plant is used for treating gravel. The root can be used fresh or dried, it is best harvested in the autumn. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into flower and can also be dried for later use. The root extracts have experimentally produced a slower and weaker heart rate (pulse). The plant merits research for use in heart irregularities. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies – the keywords for prescribing it are ‘Possessiveness’, ‘Self-love’ and ‘Self-pity’. The latex in the stems is applied to warts in order to destroy them[218]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Cichorium intybus for loss of appetite, dyspepsia. ( 8 )Collect the tap roots in the spring of second year plants. Split the roots once or twice, while fresh, and dry them in a shallow box or on newspaper in the shade. The root is a safe and effective diuretic. It increases urin flow and can be used to treat kidney stones and gravel. To use, boil an ounce of the chopped, dried roots in a quart of water and drink it in several doses during the day. Each dose can be up to 3 to 6 ounces at a rate of 4 times daily. You can also drink two tablespoons of the tincture in water twice a day.(9)
Foot Notes: (1)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=CICINT
Foot Notes: (2, 4, 6, 8 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Cichorium+intybus
Foot Notes: ( 3, 5, 7, 9 ) Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, pages 80 – 82, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5
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#149
Common Name: Gentian, Blue Gentian, Fringed Gentian, Gall Plant,
Latin Name:
Gentiana affinis, G algida,   G. andrewsii, G. calycosa, G. parryi, G. saponaria, Gentianella amarella, G. quinquefolia, G. tenella, Gentianopis simples, G. thermalis
Family: Gentianaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GENTI
This is the usda main data base for Gentiana only, all States, except Hawaii; all Canadian Provinces, except Nunavut, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GEAF> All States west of the Rocky Mountains, plus N. and S. Dakota, Minnesota and Texas; In Canada; British Columbia to Manitoba and Northwest Territories. (Gentiana affinis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GEAL2 Alaska, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah and New Mexico; In Canada; Yukon. (Gentiana algida)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GEAN All States north of the Ohio R. and north into New England, except Maine, plus Minnesota to Missouri, North Dakota to Nebraska, Colorado, Kentucky, W. Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania and New Jersey; In Canada; Saskatchewan to Quebec. (Gentiana andrewsii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GECA Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada and California; In Canada; British Columbia and Alberta. (Gentiana calycosa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GEPA Wyoming, Utah and Colorado. (Gentiana parryi)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GESA All States east of the Mississippi R., except north of New York and Wisconsin. (Gentiana saponaria)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GEAMH Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Arizona and New Mexico. (Gentianella amarella)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GEQUQ New England south to Pennsylvania and New Jersey, plus Maryland, W. Virginia, Virginia, N. and S. Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee; In Canada; Ontario. (Gentianella quinquefolia)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GEQUO States along both banks of the Mississippi R. (except Louisiana), plus Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Virginia and Nebraska; In Canada; Ontario. (Gentianella quinquefolia)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GETET All States west of the Rocky Mountains, plus Alaska; In Canada; British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Ontario and Quebec. (Gentianella tenella)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GESI3 Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and California. (Gentianopsis simplex)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GETH Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico. (Gentianopsis thermalis)
Photos: ( click on link after Common name)

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#149(a)
Common Name: Closed Bottle Gentian, Closed Gentian (Gentiana andrewsii)

Appearance and Habitat:
Closed bottle gentian is a 1-2 ft. plant with narrow, purplish leaves whorled or opposite below clusters of purple flowers which stay closed. Dark blue, bottle-like, cylindrical flowers, nearly closed at tips, in tight clusters atop stem and sometimes in axils of upper leaves. Robust plants may have two whorls of flowers. When in full bloom, the flower looks like a bud about to open. This is one of our most common perennial gentians and the easiest to grow in a moist wildflower garden. Other bottle gentians include a very similar species, Blind Gentian (G. clausa), in which the bands are not longer than the petals. Narrow-leaved Gentian (G. linearis), which occurs chiefly in the north and in the mountains as far south as West Virginia, has very narrow leaves and open flowers. The flowers of Soapwort Gentian (G. saponaria) are light blue and slightly open at the tip; this midwestern species has soapy juice. Stiff Gentian (Gentianella quinquefolia), an annual, has light blue or lilac, open flowers with bristle-pointed, fringeless lobes and a 4-sided stem; it occurs from southwestern Maine south to Florida and from southern Ontario to Missouri, Louisiana, and southern Tennessee.(1)  Meadows, damp prairies and low thickets in Eastern N. America – Quebec to Manitoba, Georgia and Nebraska. It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jul to August.(2)
Warnings: None (3)
Edible Uses: None (4)
Medicinal Uses :The root is said to be an antidote to snakebites. An infusion of the roots has been used as a wash and also taken internally in the treatment of pain and headaches. An infusion of the roots has been used as drops for sore eyes. This N. American species has medicinal properties practically identical with the European gentians. The following notes are based on the general uses of G. lutea which is the most commonly used species in the West. Gentian root has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders and is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines. It contains some of the most bitter compounds known and is used as a scientific basis for measuring bitterness. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system, stimulating the liver, gall bladder and digestive system, and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant, stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of liver complaints, indigestion, gastric infections and anorexia. It should not be prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties. (5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=GEAN
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+andrewsii
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#149(b)
Common Name: Harvestbells, Soapwort Gentian, (Gentiana saponaria)

Appearance and Habitat: Harvestbells or soapwort gentian, a perennial, grows 8-20 in. tall, having light-green, opposite, lance-shade leaves on slender stems. The blue-violet flowers are bottle-shaped, opening only partly, and occur in terminal or axillary clusters.(1)  Wet soils in woodlands in Eastern N. America – Ontario to Minnesota, Connecticut, Florida and Louisiana. It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower from Aug to October.(2)
Warnings: None (3)
Edible Uses: None (4)
Medicinal Uses :The root is said to be an antidote to snakebites. This N. American species has medicinal properties practically identical with the European gentians. The following notes are based on the general uses of G. lutea which is the most commonly used species in the West. Gentian root has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders and is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines. It contains some of the most bitter compounds known and is used as a scientific basis for measuring bitterness. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system, stimulating the liver, gall bladder and digestive system, and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant, stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of liver complaints, indigestion, gastric infections and anorexia. It should not be prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties.  (5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=GESA
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+saponaria
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#149(c)
Common Name: Autumn Dwarf Gentian, Felwort (Gentianella amarella)

Appearance and Habitat:
An annual with lanceolate or oblanccolate leaves. It flowers in June through September and the flower color is blue to violet.(1)  Basic pastures, usually amongst short grass and dunes. Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to France, Hungary and the Caucasus. A biennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October.(2)
Warnings: None (3)
Edible Uses:None (4)
Medicinal Uses :This species is one of several that can be used as a source of the medicinal gentian root. Gentian has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant and stomachic. It is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties. The root is anodyne, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, pectoral, refrigerant, stomachic. A substitute for G. lutea. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies – the keywords for prescribing it are ‘Doubt’, ‘Depression’ and ‘Discouragement”(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=GEAMH
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentianella+amarella
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#149(d)
Common Name: Agueweed, Stiff Gentain (Gentianella quinquefolia) and (Gentianella quinquefolia occidentalis)

Appearance and Habitat:
Stiff Gentian (Gentianella quinquefolia), an annual, has light blue or lilac, open flowers with bristle-pointed, fringe-less lobes and a 4-sided stem; it occurs from southwestern Maine south to Florida and from southern Ontario to Missouri, Louisiana, and southern Tennessee. quinquefolia sp quinquefolia
(1)  Little Gentian, reflecting its having been split off from the genus Gentiana because, while very similar, was of a different enough character and measurements to warrant its own genus. Quinquefolia is Latin for 5 leaved. An erect, perennial, 3″ – 16″ tall with purple to white flowers 5/8″ long, tubular-shaped with a small opening at the top, no folds between the petals; inflorescence mostly a tall, dense, branched cluster (cyme) at the ends of the stems and branches; blooms Aug.-Oct. The leaf is stalkless, opposite and lanced shaped. Found on dry prairies, woods, in limy soil. quiquefolia sp occidentalis(2)  Rich woods and moist fields in Eastern N. America – southern Ontario to Tennessee and Florida. It is an annual/biennial growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. (3)
Warnings: None
(4)
Edible Uses: None
(5)
Medicinal Uses :The root is cathartic, febrifuge, haemostatic, stimulant and stomachic. A tea or tincture of the root is a bitter tonic, used to stimulate the digestion and a poor appetite. An infusion has also been used to treat diarrhoea, sore chest, worms and haemorrhages. A homeopathic remedy is made from the root. It is used in the treatment of intermittent fevers and as a stomachic and tonic.  
(6)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=GEQUQ

Foot Notes: (2)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=GENQUI1sOCC
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentianella+quinquefolia
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(Now For Michael Moore, who will cover the rest)

Photos : (More photos for Michael Moore ) (Gentiana affinis ) (Gentianopsis simplex )
(Gentianopsis thermalis ) (Gentianella tenella) (Gentiana calycosa) (Gentiana parryi) (Gentiana algida)
Appearance and Habitat:
This plant is very distinctive. It tends to smooth with a waxy appearance, usually less than a foot in height. Leafs are opposite, clasp the stem and bright green in color. In some species the leaves appear to be overlapping scales. The annuals usually form a single stem with thin roots, while the perennials have several stems and a root stock or tuber. The most common color for the flowers is purple-blue. The flowers form funnel shapes, tubular shapes and bell shapes. They sometimes have a single flower or flowers growing out of several leaf axils. Gentians habitat is wet meadows or bogs in the mountains of the west. In Montana watch for them at 6,000 feet and above. While in the New Mexico, watch for them at 8,000 feet and above.
Medicinal Uses : When collecting the perennials, collect the root and allow to dry loosely. When collecting the annuals, take the root and all. Tie them is bundles of 1/2 inch diameter for drying. All Gentians contain a bitter glycoside named gentiopicrin. They usually have several water-insoluble sterols – Gentiopicrin (treat malaria) and gentisic acid (treat rheumatic inflammations). Gentian is also an excellent stomach tonic, especially so for the person with chronic indigestion. Take it 30 minutes before a meal, as either tea or tincture. Use a 1/2 teaspoon, or a bit more, of the root or dried herb, and steep in water. Drinking it when it cools down. For the tincture, use 1 part fresh root with two parts 50% vodka, or for the dried root use 1 part dried root to 5 parts 50% vodka. Take 5 – 20 drops 30 minutes before each meal. For tinctures always let them set for a week, shaking them daily. Gentian can also be used for fevers and joint inflammations. One sign that Gentian will help is if you have a dry mouth, your tongue coated and have puffy gums, try some bitters. If you use too much Gentian at one time it might cause nausea, so don’t over do it.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, pages 122-125, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 147 Onions/Leeks/Garlic (Part 3)

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West. Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. )
#147 (Part 3)
Common Name: Onion/Garlic/Leeks
Latin Name: Allium stellatum, A. textile, A. tricoccum, A. unifolium, A. validum, A. vineale, A. falcifolium 
Family: Liliaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALLIU
All States, except Hawaii, all of Canada, except Nunavut; this is the main database for USDA.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALST Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, N. and S. Dakota, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and Wyoming; In Canada; Saskatchewan to Ontario. (Allium stellatum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALTE Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota to Kansas, Montana to New Mexico, Idaho, Utah, Nevada and Washington; In Canada; Alberta to Manitoba. (Allium textile)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALTR3 All States east of the Mississippi R., except Florida, S. Carolina and Mississippi; plus Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, N. Dakota, South Dakota and Oklahoma; In Canada; Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Allium tricoccum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALUN Oregon and California. (Allium unifolium)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALVA Washington, Idaho, Oregon, Nevada and California; In Canada; British Columbia. (Allium validum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALVI All States east of the Mississippi, except New Hampshire; plus Iowa to Louisiana, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Montana, Washington, Oregon, California and Alaska; In Canada; Brtish Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. (Allium vineale)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALFA3 Oregon and California. (Allium falcifolium)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)

Warnings: Unless PFAF has some warnings, besides “don’t feed large quantities to dogs” I won’t list their warnings. See part 1 on PFAF warnings.
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#147(r)
Common Name: Autumn Onion, Prairie Onion (Allium stellatum )

Appearance and Habitat:
A 1-2 ft., chive-like perennial forming tufts of slender, solid leaves and stems. The green leaves appear in spring and die back as the flowering stalks appear. Umbels of rose-pink to lavender flowers form erect, 3-4 in. wide balls. The bulbs of wild onions have a strong flavor but can be eaten raw or parboiled. Early explorers ate them, and they were also used by settlers to treat colds, coughs, and asthma, and to repel insects. Chives (A. schoenoprasum) has hollow leaves and long, narrow, sharply pointed, lavender petals; it was introduced from Europe in the northeastern United States and in Canada from Alberta to Newfoundland.(1)  Rocky prairies, slopes, shores and ridges. Usually found on limestone soils in N. America – Illinois and Minnesota to Missouri, Nebraska and Kansas. A bulb growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in July.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulbs are eaten by the N. American Indians. They are rather small, about 4cm tall and 15mm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.(3)
Medicinal Uses :A sweetened decoction of the root has been taken, mainly by children, as a remedy for colds. Although no other specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALST
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+stellatum
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#147(s)
Common Name: Textile Onion (Allium textile )

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 1–3+, not rhizomatous, without basal bulbels, ovoid, 1.2–2.5 × 1–2 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, gray or brown, reticulate, cells fine-meshed, open, fibrous; inner coats whitish, cells vertically elongate and regular or obscure. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2, sheathing; blade solid, ± straight, channeled, semiterete, 10–40 cm × 1–3(–5) mm, margins entire or denticulate. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, ± terete, 5–30(–40) cm × 1–3 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact to ± loose, 15–30-flowered, hemispheric, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 3, usually 1-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acuminate. Flowers urceolate to campanulate, 5–7 mm; tepals erect, white or rarely pink, with red or reddish brown midribs; outer whorl broadly ovate to lanceolate, unequal, becoming callous-keeled and permanently investing capsule, margins often obscurely toothed apically, apex obtuse to acuminate; inner whorl narrower, margins entire, apex distinctly spreading; stamens included; anthers yellow; pollen yellow; ovary ± conspicuously crested; processes 6, central, distinct or connate in pairs across septa, ± erect, rounded, to 1 mm, margins entire, becoming variously developed or obsolete in fruit; style linear, equaling filaments; stigma capitate, unlobed or obscurely lobed; pedicel 5–20 mm. Seed coat shining; cells ± smooth, without central papillae. Flowering May–Jun. Dry plains and hills; 300–2400 m; Alta., Man., Sask.; Colo., Idaho, Iowa, Kans., Minn., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.Mex., N.Dak., S.Dak., Utah, Wash., Wyo.(1)  Dry prairies, calcareous rocks and open woods in N. America – Saskatchewan to South Dakota, Montana, New Mexico and Arizona. A bulb growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from May to July.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Fairly large, the bulb is up to 2cm in diameter. It is used as an onion substitute in stews etc. The bulb can be eaten fresh or can be stored for later use. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101407
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+textile
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#147(t)
Common Name: Ramp, Wild Leek, Wood Leek (Allium tricoccum )

Appearance and Habitat: Two long, glossy, oval leaves appear in early spring and wither away before the smooth, 6-10 in. flowering stalk matures. Small white flowers occur in a hemispherical, terminal cluster of creamy-white flowers; plant has a mild onion taste. In late April, before this species comes into flower, the people of the Great Smoky Mountains gather the plants for their annual Ramp Festival. The foliage and bulbs can be used in salads and soups. Native Americans treated stings with juice from the crushed bulbs.(1)  Rich woods and bottoms, preferring slopes and streamsides. Usually in beech or maple woods in Eastern N. America – Quebec, south to Virginia and Iowa. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 6-Mar It is in flower from Jun to July.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Used mainly as a flavouring in salads and savoury dishes. This is one of the best N. American wild species for sweetness and flavour. A mild sweet flavour, resembling leeks. The bulb is rather small, it is up to 12mm wide and 50mm tall and is produced in clusters on a rhizome. Leaves – raw or cooked. The unfolding leaves in spring have a mild sweet flavour, resembling leeks. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads. A hot onion flavour.(3)
Medicinal Uses :This species probably has most of the medicinal virtues of garlic (Allium sativum) but in a milder form. Traditionally the leaves were used in the treatment of colds and croup, and also as a spring tonic. The warm juice of the leaves and bulb was used externally in the treatment of earaches. A strong decoction of the root is emetic.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALTR3
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+tricoccum
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#147(u)
Common Name: Oneleaf Onion (Allium unifolium )

Native American Name: Ammo (Shoshone)(1)
Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs solitary, replaced annually by new bulbs borne terminally on secondary rhizome; rhizomes 1–3, conspicuous, to 5 cm, smooth; parent bulbs disappearing by anthesis except for still-functional roots and bulb coat, ovoid to oblique-ovoid, 1–2 × 0.8–1.5 cm; outer coats not enclosing bulbs, pale brown, delicately cellular-reticulate, membranous, cells ± rectangular, without fibers; inner coats white, cells obscure, ± transversely elongate, contorted. Leaves persistent, green or withering from tip at anthesis, 2–3, basally sheathing, sheaths not extending much above soil surface; blade solid, flattened, sometimes carinate abaxially, ± falcate, 18–50 cm × 4–10 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, solid, terete, 20–80 cm × 2–7 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, loose, 15–35-flowered, hemispheric, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 6–8-veined, lance-ovate to broadly ovate, ± equal, apex acuminate. Flowers stellate, 11–15 mm; tepals spreading, bright pink or rarely white, obovate to ovate, unequal, becoming papery and connivent over capsule, margins entire, apex acute to obtuse or emarginate, inner shorter and narrower than outer; stamens included; anthers yellow or purple; pollen yellow or gray; ovary crestless, 3-grooved, with thickened ridge on either side of groove; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, scarcely thickened, unlobed or obscurely 3-lobed; pedicel 15–40 mm. Seed coat dull; cells minutely roughened. Flowering May–Jun. Moist, clay soils, including serpentine, usually along streams; 0–1100 m; Calif., Oreg. The long, relatively thick rhizomes that develop annually from the bulbs are very characteristic of Allium unifolium and almost unique in North America. Only A. glandulosum Link & Otto and A. rhizomatum Wooton & Standley have similar rhizomes, but these species are not closely related to A. unifolium. Allium unifolium is known only from the Coast Ranges.(2)  Moist soils in pine or mixed everbgreen forests in the coastal ranges of California. South-western N America – California and Oregon. A bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 8 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July.(3)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulbs are 10 – 15mm in diameter. Together with the young shoots, they are fried and eaten. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.(4)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(5)
Foot Notes: (1) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 68, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2) http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101413
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+unifolium
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#147(v)
Common Name: Pacific Onion, Swamp Onion (Allium validum )
Appearance and Habitat: From vigorous rhizomes occur large patches of flat, upright leaves, and flowering stalks to 1-3 ft. in height. Purple-pink flowers occur in tight clusters.(1)  Swampy meadows at medium to high elevations in the mountains of South-western N. America – Idaho to California. A bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower from Jul to August.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulb is somewhat fibrous but is very acceptable as a flavouring in soups and stews. The bulb is fairly large, up to 5cm in diameter, and is produced in clusters. The plant has thick iris-like rhizomes. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALVA
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+validum
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#147(w)
Common Name: Wild Garlic, Crow Garlic (Allium vineale )

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 5–20, clustered, stipitate, hard-shelled, asymmetric, ovoid, 1–2 × 1–2 cm; outer coats enclosing bulbs, brownish to yellowish, membranous, vertically striate, splitting into parallel strips and fibers, cells arranged in ± wavy rows, vertical; inner coats white to light brown, cells obscure, vertically elongate. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2–4, sheathing at least proximal 1/2 scape; blade hollow below middle, terete, cylindric or filiform, not carinate, 20–60 cm × 2–4 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, terete, 30–120 cm × 1.5–4 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, ± compact, 0–50-flowered, subglobose to ovoid or hemispheric, flowering pedicels all or in part replaced by bulbils; bulbils sessile, basally narrowed, 4–6 × 2–3 mm; spathe bract caducous, 1, 2–several-veined, ovate, apex caudate, beaked, beak ± equaling or longer than base. Flowers campanulate, 3–4 mm; tepals erect, greenish to purple, elliptic-lanceolate, ± equal, withering in fruit, margins entire, apex obtuse; stamens exserted, outer 3 filaments without appendages, inner 3 filaments with 2 prominent lateral appendages; anthers purple; pollen white; ovary crestless; style exserted, linear, ± equaling stamen; stigma capitate, scarcely thickened, unlobed; flowering pedicel 10–20 mm. Seed coat shining; cells smooth. Flowering Jun–Aug. Disturbed areas often adjacent to agricultural lands; 0–700 m; introduced; Ont., Que.; Ala., Ark., Calif., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind. Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Va., W.Va.; Europe. Allium vineale is also expected to be found in Wisconsin and Texas; specimens were not seen. It is a noxious weed, apparently introduced from Europe in colonial times. The small, wheat-sized bulbils frequently contaminated wheat grown in infested areas. Bread made from such wheat was garlic-flavored, and cows grazing in infested pastures produce garlic-flavored milk.(1)  Fields and roadsides to elevations of 450 meters in Britain, often a serious weed of pastures. Much of Europe, including Britain, to N. Africa and Lebanon. A bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 8-Oct It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.(2)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw or cooked. Rather stringy, they are used as a garlic substitute. The leaves are available from late autumn until the following summer, when used sparingly they make a nice addition to the salad bowl. Bulb – used as a flavouring. Rather small, with a very strong flavour and odour. The bulbs are 10 – 20mm in diameter. Bulbils – raw or cooked. Rather small and fiddly, they have a strong garlic-like flavour.(3)
Medicinal Uses :The whole plant is antiasthmatic, blood purifier, carminative, cathartic, diuretic, expectorant, hypotensive, stimulant and vasodilator. A tincture is used to prevent worms and colic in children, and also as a remedy for croup. The raw root can be eaten to reduce blood pressure and also to ease shortness of breath. Although no other specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101415
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+vineale
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Bonus : ( Before leaving Onions, Leeks, and Garlic behind, I have some data on another species. Sorry it is out of alphabetical Order.)

#147(x)
Common Name: Scytheleaf Onion, Indian Garlic (Allium falcifolium )

Native American Name: Podzimo (Shoshone)(1)
Appearance and Habitat:
A very low wild onion with two thick, flat leaves only slightly exceeding the 3-5 in. flowering stems in height. Small umbels of deep rose to nearly white flowers top the flowering stems.
(2)  In the high mountains on dry rocky plains grows the dwarf pink garlic. It has blue-green sickle-shaped leaves, flat, and a pretty flower. The bulb is also a deep pink color and is very strong to the taste. (3)(meaning it is edible)
Foot Notes: (1, 3) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 14, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALFA3

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 147 Onion/Garlic/Leeks (part 2)

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#147 (Part 2)
Common Name: Onion/Garlic/Leeks
Latin Name: Allium drummondii, A. fistulosum, A. geyeri, A. kunthii, A. macropetalum, A. oleraceum, A. sativum, A. schoenoprasum 
Family: Liliaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALLIU
All States, except Hawaii, all of Canada, except Nunavut; this is the main database for USDA.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALDR South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, New Mexico and Texas. (Allium drummondii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALFI4 Alaska, Illinois and Vermont; In Canada; Northwest Territories. (Allium fistulosum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALGE All States west of the Rocky Mountains, except California, plus South Dakota and Texas; In Canada; British Columbia to Saskatchewan. (Allium geyeri)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALKU Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. (Allium kunthii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALMA4 Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. (Allium macropetalum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALOL Kentucky, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York and Massachusetts; In Canada; Ontario. (Allium oleraceum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALSA2 All States east of the Mississippi R., except Florida, North Carolina, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Maine; plus Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado and California; In Canada; Manitoba and Ontario. (Allium sativum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALSC All States north of the Ohio R., plus all States north of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, plus Virginia, Maryland, Missouri, Minnesota, Alaska, Montana, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Nevada; In Canada; All Provinces except Nunavut. (Allium schoenoprasum)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
Warnings: Unless PFAF has some warnings, besides “don’t feed large quantities to dogs” I won’t list their warnings. See part 1 on PFAF warnings.
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#147(j)
Common Name: Drummond’s Onion, Prairie Onion (Allium drummondii )

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 1–5, without basal bulbels, ovoid, outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, brown, reticulate, cells fine-meshed, mostly closed in proximal 1/2 of bulb, fibrous; inner coats whitish or brownish, cells intricately contorted, walls usually not sinuous. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2–5, sheathing; blade solid, flat, channeled, 10–30 cm × 1–3(–5) mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, terete, 10–30 cm × 1–3 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact to ± loose, usually 10–25-flowered, hemispheric-globose, rarely replaced by bulbils; spathe bracts persistent, 2–3, 1-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acuminate. Flowers campanulate to ± stellate, 6–9 mm; tepals spreading, white, pink, or red, rarely greenish yellow, ovate to lanceolate, ± equal, becoming papery and rigid in fruit, margins entire, apex obtuse or acute, midribs somewhat thickened; stamens included; anthers yellow; pollen light yellow; ovary crestless; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed or obscurely lobed; pedicel 5–20 mm. Seed coat shining; cells each usually with minute, central papilla. Flowering Mar–Jun. Plains, hills, and prairies, particularly in limestone soils; 0–1600 m; Ark., Kans., Neb., N.Mex., Okla., Tex.; Mexico.(1)  Sandy or gravelly, often on limestone soils on dry prairies and hills in N. America -Texas to New Mexico, north to Nebraska. A bulb growing to 0.3 m. (1ft). It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Apr to June.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Used mainly as a condiment, the bulb is also eaten as a vegetable. The bulb is rather small, up to 25mm tall and 15mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101355
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+drummondii
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#147(k)
Common Name: Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum )

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 2–12+, borne on short rhizome, cylindric, 2–5 × 1–2.5 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, white to light brown, membranous, without reticulation; inner coats white, cells obscure, quadrate. Leaves persistent, 2–6, sheathing lower 1/4–1/3 of scape; blade terete, fistulose, 10–40 cm × 10–25 mm. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, fistulose, inflated in middle, tapering to umbel, (12–)15–70 cm × 8–25 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact, 50–100-flowered, globose to ovoid, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 1–2, 1–3-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acute. Flowers narrowly campanulate to urceolate, 6–9 mm; tepals erect, yellowish white, withering in fruit, margins entire, apex acute, outer lanceolate, inner narrowly ovate, unequal; stamens long-exserted; anthers white to yellow; pollen white; ovary crestless; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, obscurely 3-lobed; pedicel 10–30 mm. Seed coat shining; cells 4–6-angled, ± rectangular. Allium fistulosum is cultivated in Europe and Asia. It is reported to have escaped in Alaska and is established near the north end of Great Slave Lake. The species is to be expected elsewhere in Canada and the northern United States.
(1)Cultivated for over 1000 years, it is unknown in the wild. Original habitat is obscure. A bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is not frost tender. It is in flower in July.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. A strong onion flavour, it can be used in salads, as a cooked vegetable or as a flavouring in cooked foods. The bulbs are rather small, usually 10 – 25mm in diameter though they can be up to 45mm, and are sometimes used as spring onions. A nutritional analysis is available. Leaves – raw or cooked. They have a mild onion flavour and can be added to salads or cooked as a vegetable. The leaves are often available all through the winter if the weather is not too severe. They contain about 1.4% protein, 0.3% fat, 4.6% carbohydrate, 0.8% ash, some vitamin B1 and moderate levels of vitamin C. Flowers – raw. A pleasant onion flavour, but they are rather on the dry side.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The bulb contains an essential oil that is rich in sulphur compounds. It is antibacterial, antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, galactogogue, stomachic, vermifuge and vulnerary. It is used in the treatment of colds and abdominal coldness and fullness. A tea made from the roots is a children’s sedative. Use of the bulb in the diet impedes internal parasites. Externally, the bulb can be made into a poultice to drain pus from sores, boils and abscesses.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200027477
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+fistulosum
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#147(l)
Common Name: Geyer’s Onion (Allium geyeri)

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 2–10+, not rhizomatous, ovoid or more elongate, 1–2.5 × 0.8–2 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, gray or brown, reticulate, cells rather coarse-meshed, open, fibrous; inner coats whitish, cells vertically elongate and regular or obscure. Leaves persistent, usually green at anthesis, usually 3–5, sheathing less than 1/4 scape; blade solid, ± straight, flat, channeled, (6–)12–30 cm × 1–3(–5) mm, margins entire or denticulate. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, terete or somewhat 2-angled, 10–50 cm × 1–3 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact, 10–25-flowered, hemispheric to globose, not producing bulbils, or 0–5-flowered, largely replaced by ovoid, acuminate bulbils; spathe bracts persistent, 2–3, mostly 1-veined, ovate to lanceolate, ± equal, apex acuminate, beakless. Flowers urceolate-campanulate, (4–)6–8(–10) mm; tepals erect or spreading, pink to white, ovate to lanceolate, ± equal, not withering in fruit and permanently investing fruit, or withering if fruit not produced, midribs papillose, becoming callous-keeled, margins often obscurely toothed, apex obtuse to acuminate; stamens included; anthers yellow; pollen yellow; ovary when present, inconspicuously crested; processes 6, central, low, distinct or connate in pairs across septa, ± erect, rounded, margins entire, becoming variously developed or obsolete in fruit; style linear, ± equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed or obscurely lobed; pedicel becoming rigid and stiffly spreading in fruit, 8–13 mm. Seed coat shining; cells each with minute, central papilla.
(1)Low meadows and by streams in the Rocky Mountains in Western N. America – Washington, Texas, Oregon, New Mexico and Nevada. A bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in).  It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Used mainly as an onion-flavouring in soups etc, though they were also occasionally eaten raw. The bulbs are eaten by the Navajo Indians. The bulbs are up to 25mm long and 20mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.  
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101360
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+geyeri
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#147(m)
Common Name: Kunth’s Onion (Allium kunthii )

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 1–4+, rhizomes, if present, secondary, inconspicuous, 2 cm or less including renewal bulb, ± thick, terminated by new bulb, parent bulbs disappearing by anthesis except for still-functional roots and bulb coat, not basally clustered, ovoid, 1–2 × 0.8–1.5 cm; outer coats enclosing renewal bulbs or not, grayish or brownish, with or without obscure, delicate, cellular markings, sometimes striate, membranous, cells elongate, in regular vertical rows, without fibers; inner bulb coats whitish or pinkish, cells obscure, ± quadrate or rectangular and vertically elongate. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2–5, basally sheathing, sheaths not extended much above soil surface; blade solid, flat, channeled, 10–21 cm × 1–3 mm, margins and veins sometimes denticulate. Scape persistent, solitary, occasionally 2 or more produced successively from single bulb, erect, solid, terete, 15–30 cm × 1–3 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, loose, 5–20-flowered, conic, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 3–5-veined, lanceolate, apex acuminate. Flowers stellate to campanulate, 4–8 mm; tepals ± spreading, white or pale pink (particularly on midribs), lanceolate, ± equal, becoming papery and withering in fruit, margins entire, apex acute to acuminate; stamens included; anthers yellow or purple; pollen yellow; ovary crestless; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel unequal, 10–20 mm. Seed coat dull; cells ± smooth. 2n = 14. Flowering Jul–Sep. Dry, rocky hills and mountains, usually in limestone soils; 700–3000 m; Ariz., N.Mex., Tex.; Mexico.
(1)  Dry, rocky hills and mountains, usually in limestone soils at elevations for 700 – 3000 meters in Southwestern N. America – Texas, New Mexico and Mexico. A bulb growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Jul to September.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring. The small bulbs are usually less than 2cm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.  
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101368
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+kunthii
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#147(n)
Common Name: Largeflower Onion, Desert Onion, (Allium macropetalum )

Appearance and Habitat: Large-petal or desert onion is a low, desert species with narrowly linear leaves and pink-striped, six-petaled flowers in a cluster at the top of a separate stem.
(1)Desert plains and hills at elevations from 300 to 2500 meters in South-western N. America – Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Texas and New Mexico. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 5.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. They can be dried and stored for winter use. The North American Indians would singe the bulb to reduce the strong flavour and then eat it immediately or dry it for later use. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.  
(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALMA4

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+macropetalum
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#147(o)
Common Name: Field Garlic (Allium oleraceum )

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 1 or more, not attached to rhizome, ovoid, 1.2–2 × 1–1.5 cm; outer coats enclosing bulbs, brown to grayish brown, fibrous, fibers close, ± parallel; inner coats white to light brown, not cellular. Leaves withering from tip by anthesis, 2–4, sheathing proximal 1/2+ scape; blade fistulose proximally, solid distally, terete, linear to filiform, prominently ribbed proximally, channeled distally, 1.5–2.5 cm × 0.5–5 mm, margins and veins usually scabrid with minute teeth, apex acute. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, terete, 25–100 cm × 4–8 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact to ± loose, 0–40-flowered, subglobose, with few to many bulbils or with bulbils only; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 4–9-veined, lanceolate, unequal, apex acuminate into beak, beak long, slender, to 20 cm, ± equaling or longer than base. Flowers usually aborting before capsules mature, if present, campanulate, 6–8 mm; tepals erect, whitish or pinkish to purple, outer narrowly obovate, inner ± elliptic, unequal, margins entire, apex obtuse; stamens included; anthers yellow to reddish; pollen yellow; ovary crestless; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel 15–60 mm. Seed coat unknown; capsules only rarely produced. Flowering late Jul–Aug. Roadsides and other disturbed ground; introduced; Europe. Allium oleraceum is reported from New England, where it is sometimes found on roadsides and other disturbed ground. It persists and is spread easily by the bulbils.(1)  Dry gassy places, waysides etc. Most of Europe, including Britain, east to the Caucasus. A bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Used as a garlic flavouring in soups etc. The bulbs are 10 – 20mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. The young leaves are used as a garlic flavouring in soups and stews, but are inferior to that species. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads. Used mainly as a flavouring in soups and stews. Bulbils – raw or cooked.(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101382
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+oleraceum
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#147(p)
Common Name: Cultivated Garlic (Allium sativum )

Appearance and Habitat: Not known in a truly wild situtation. Original habitat is obscure, possibly C. Asia. An occasional garden escape in Britain. A bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 8 and is not frost tender.
Warnings: Avoid with anticlotting medication. Breastfeeding may worsen baby’s colic. Avoid several weeks prior to surgery.
Edible Uses: Bulb – raw or cooked. Widely used, especially in southern Europe, as a flavouring in a wide range of foods, both raw and cooked. Garlic is a wonderfully nutritious and health giving addition to the diet, but it has a very strong flavour and so is mainly used in very small quantities as a flavouring in salads and cooked foods. A nutritional analysis is available. The bulbs can be up to 6cm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Chopped and used in salads, they are rather milder than the bulbs. The Chinese often cultivate garlic especially for the leaves, these can be produced in the middle of winter in mild winters. The flowering stems are used as a flavouring and are sometimes sold in Chinese shops. The sprouted seed is added to salads
Medicinal Uses : Garlic has a very long folk history of use in a wide range of ailments, particularly ailments such as ringworm, Candida and vaginitis where its fungicidal, antiseptic, tonic and parasiticidal properties have proved of benefit. The plant produces inhibitory effects on gram-negative germs of the typhoid-paratyphoid-enteritis group, indeed it possesses outstanding germicidal properties and can keep amoebic dysentery at bay. It is also said to have anticancer activity. It has also been shown that garlic aids detoxification of chronic lead poisoning. Daily use of garlic in the diet has been shown to have a very beneficial effect on the body, especially the blood system and the heart. For example, demographic studies suggest that garlic is responsible for the low incidence of arteriosclerosis in areas of Italy and Spain where consumption of the bulb is heavy. Recent research has also indicated that garlic reduces glucose metabolism in diabetics, slows the development of arteriosclerosis and lowers the risk of further heart attacks in myocardial infarct patients. Externally, the expressed juice is an excellent antiseptic for treating wounds. The fresh bulb is much more effective medicinally than stored bulbs, extended storage greatly reduces the anti-bacterial action. The bulb is said to be anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, stings, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Allium sativum for arteriosclerosis, hypertension, high cholesterol levels.
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+sativum
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#147(q)
Common Name: Wild Chives (Allium schoenoprasum )

Appearance and Habitat:
Across southern Canada and northern United States; in Washington, along the Wenatchee and Columbia Rivers. Habitat: Wet meadows, rocky or gravelly streambanks and lake shores. Scapose perennials from elongate, clustered bulbs, inner coats whitish or pinkish, outer coats grayish or brownish, minutely striate. Leaves usually 2, terete, hollow, 1-7 mm. thick, partially sheathing and shorter than the scape; scape 2-5 dm. tall, rather stout, terete. Flowers: Umbel several- to many-flowered, pedicels slender, shorter than the tepals; tepals 8-12 mm. long, elliptic to lanceolate, pointed, the tips recurved, pale to deep lilac or white; stamens 6, over the length of the tepals. Blooms April to August.(1)  Rocky pastures and damp meadows, preferring calcareous soils. Most of Europe, including Britain, east to the Himalayas and Japan. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Feb It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August.(2)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw, cooked or dried for later use. The leaves have a mild onion flavour and are an excellent addition to mixed salads, they can also be used as a flavouring in soups etc. The leaves are often available from late winter and can continue to produce leaves until early the following winter, especially if they are in a warm, sheltered position. A good source of sulphur and iron. A nutritional analysis is available. The bulbs are rather small, and rarely exceed 10mm in diameter. They can be harvested with the leaves still attached and be used as spring onions. They have a pleasant mild onion flavour. The flowers can be used as a garnish in salads etc. The flowers of this species are rather dry and less desirable than the flowers of many other species.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The whole plant has a beneficial effect on the digestive system and the blood circulation. It improves the appetite, is digestive, hypotensive and tonic. It has similar properties to garlic (A. sativum), but in a much milder form, and it is rarely used medicinally.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Allium&Species=schoenoprasum

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+schoenoprasum
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Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants 147 – Onions/Leeks/Garlic (part 1)

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#147 (part 1)
Common Name: Onion, Leeks and Garlic

Latin Name: Allium acuminatum , A. ampeloprasum, A. bisceptrum, A. bolanderi , A. brevistylum, A. canadense, A. cepa, A. cernuum, A. douglasii 
Family: Liliaceae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALLIU This is the main database. All States except Hawaii, all of Canada except Nunavut.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALAC4 All States west of the Rocky Mountains; In Canada; British Columbia. (Allium acuminatum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALAM All States east of the Mississippi R. and south of the Ohio R. except W. Virginia and Florida, plus Illinois, Ohio, New York, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas and California. (Allium ampeloprasum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALBI2 Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. (Allium bisceptrum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALBO Oregon and California. (Allium bolanderi)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALBR2 Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah and Colorado. (Allium brevistylum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALCA3 All States east of the Mississippi R. and along the west bank, plus N. Dakota through Texas and Montana; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. (Allium canadense)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALCE All States north of the Ohio R. plus Pennsylvania and New York north to Maine (except Rhode Island), Kentucky, N. and S. Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Texas, Montana, Oregon and California. (Allium cepa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALCE2 All States east of the Mississippi R., except Florida, New Jersey and states north of New York, all States along the west bank of the Mississippi R. except Louisiana, plus S. Dakota, Nebraska, Texas and all states west of the Rocky Mountains except Nevada and California; In Canada; British Columbia to Saskatchewan and Ontario. (Allium cernuum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALDO Washington, Oregon and Idaho.(Allium douglasii)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
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#147(a)
Common Name: Tapertip Onion, Hooker’s Onion (Allium acuminatum)

Native American Name: Aukipi satsi nikim (Blackfoot), Bostick (Washoe) Gunk (Shoshone)(1)
Appearance and Habitat:
An umbel of pink or deep pink flowers grows at the top of a leafless stalk. Plant has a strong onion odor. One of the most common of the many western Wild Onions, all of which have edible bulbs, though some are extremely potent or unpalatable. In the early days of the West, Indians saved at least one exploration party from scurvy by alerting the ill explorers to the curative properties of Wild Onion. (2)  Amongst dry sunny rocks on hills and plains in Western N. America – Washington to N. California. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from May to June.  (3)
Warnings: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.  (4)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Eaten in spring and early summer. A strong flavour. The bulb is 10 – 15mm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a relish. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads. The seed heads can be placed in hot ashes for a few minutes, then the seeds extracted and eaten. (5)  These grow along streams in the mountains.  They are gathered in May and June and eaten as they are found, both the onions and leaves are eaten after washing in water.  (6)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.  (7)
Foot Notes: (1, 6) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 33, 68, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALAC4
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 7 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+acuminatum
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#147(b)
Common Name: Wild Leek, Broadleaf Wild Leek (Allium ampeloprasum)

Appearance and Habitat:
It forms a thick, fleshy structure like a large green onion plant without a bulb. It is attractive in appearance with its silvery base and green top. The leaves of some varieties are blue-green, while others are yellow-green. The leaves are flat, in contrast to the round ones of the onion, and are arranged in a fan-like manner. The thick leaf bases and slightly developed bulb are eaten as a cooked vegetable or raw with or without attached leaves. The green leaves may be eaten and have a pungent odor and acrid taste.(1)  Rocky places near the coast in S.W. England and Wales, S. Europe to W. Asia. A bulb growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 8-Oct It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen in August.(2)
Warnings: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible. (3)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. The small bulbs can vary considerably in size from 2 – 6cm, they have a fairly strong leek to garlic flavour and are nice as a flavouring in cooked foods. The bulbs of selected cultivars are very large with a mild garlic flavour. Leaves – raw or cooked. A pleasant mild to strong garlic flavour, they are available from late autumn to the spring though they can become rather tough and fibrous as they get older. Flowers – raw. A similar flavour to the leaves but they have a somewhat dry texture and are best used as a flavouring in cooked foods. The bulbils have a mild garlic flavour and make a nice flavouring in salads and cooked foods. Although produced abundantly, they are quite fiddly to use because they are small. They can also be pickled.  (4)
Medicinal Uses :This species has the same medicinal virtues as garlic, but in a much milder and less effective form. These virtues are as follows:- Garlic has a very long folk history of use in a wide range of ailments, particularly ailments such as ringworm, Candida and vaginitis where its fungicidal, antiseptic, tonic and parasiticidal properties have proved of benefit. It is also said to have anticancer activity. Daily use of garlic in the diet has been shown to have a very beneficial effect on the body, especially the blood system and the heart. For example, demographic studies suggest that garlic is responsible for the low incidence of arteriosclerosis in areas of Italy and Spain where consumption of the bulb is heavy. The bulb is said to be anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator. The crushed bulb may be applied as a poultice to ease the pain of bites, stings etc.   (5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mv087
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+ampeloprasum
(Growing Tip: If you grow Leeks in your garden, you can get longer white bulbs if you do what I do. Start them in a trench that is 6″ inches deep, as the plants grow, slowly fill it in to become a mounded row.)
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#147(c)
Common Name: Palmer’s Onion, Twincrest Onion, Two Stemmed Onion (Allium biceptrum)

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 1–7+, commonly producing either cluster of stalked, basal bulbels or filiform rhizomes to 1 dm, terminated by bulbels, rhizomes generally lost when specimens are collected, ovoid, 1–2 × 0.6–1.8 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, light brown to gray, membranous, obscurely cellular-reticulate, cells rectangular, walls minutely sinuous, vertical, varying to irregular, all sinuous, without fibers; inner coats white to pink, cells obscure, quadrate. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2–5, basally sheathing, sheaths not extending much above soil surface; blade solid, flat, broadly channeled, 8–30 cm × 1–13 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary or clustered 1–3, erect, solid, terete, 10–30(–40) cm × 1–5 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, loose, 15–40-flowered, globose, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 3–4-veined, ovate to lanceolate, ± equal, apex acuminate. Flowers stellate, 7–10 mm; tepals spreading, lilac to white, lanceolate, ± equal, becoming papery in fruit, not carinate, margins entire, apex acuminate, not involute; stamens included; anthers purple; pollen yellow; ovary conspicuously crested; processes 6, central, distinct, flattened, triangular, margins papillose-denticulate; style included, linear, ± equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel 10–20 mm, often becoming flexuous and deflexed in fruit. Seed coat shining; cells each with minute, central papilla. 2n = 14, 28. Flowering May–Jul. Meadows and aspen groves, less commonly on open slopes in mountains; 1100–3000 m; Ariz., Calif., Idaho, Nev., N.Mex., Oreg., Utah.(1)Meadows and aspen groves, occasionally on open slopes. Western N. America – Oregon to California. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower from Jul to August.(2) 
Warnings: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.(3)  (I’m going to leave of PFAF warning, unless it changes.)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. They were usually harvested in spring or early summer. The bulbs are 10 – 15mm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a relish. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads. The seed heads can be placed in hot ashes for a few minutes, then the seeds extracted and eaten.
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The plant juice has been used as an appetite restorer. Although no other specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101335

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+bisceptrum
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#147(d)
Common Name: Bolander’s Onion (Allium bolanderi)

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 1–6+, not basally clustered, replaced annually by new bulbs borne terminally on rhizomes; rhizomes 1–3, inconspicuous, slender, less than 2 cm including renewal bulb; parent bulbs disappearing by anthesis except for still-functional roots and bulb coat, oblique-ovoid to ± oblong, 0.7–1.4 × 0.5–1.2 cm; outer coats not enclosing bulbs, brown to gray-brown, ± obscurely reticulate, membranous, reticulum delicate, cells transversely elongate, V-shaped or ± wavy, forming obscure herringbone pattern, without fibers; inner coats white, cells obscure, quadrate to ± rectangular, often contorted. Leaves persistent, withering from tip at anthesis, 2–3, basally sheathing, sheaths not extending much above soil surface; blade solid, subterete to ± channeled, 9–30 cm × 1–2 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, solid, terete, 10–35 cm × 1–3 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact to loose, 10–20-flowered, hemispheric, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 4–6-veined, lanceolate to lance-ovate, ± equal, apex acuminate. Flowers conic to campanulate, 7–14 mm; tepals erect, reddish purple, rarely white, narrowly lanceolate to lance-ovate, ± equal, becoming rigid and carinate in fruit, margins finely denticulate (inner tepal more prominently so), apex acute to obtuse, becoming involute at tip and appearing acuminate; stamens included; anthers yellow; pollen yellow; ovary crested; processes 3, central, 2-lobed, minute, margins entire; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, obscurely 3-lobed, scarcely thickened; pedicel 10–20 mm. Seed coat dull; cells minutely roughened.(1)  Heavy soils and openings in brush and woods below 900 meters in South western N. America – California. A bulb growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in).
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Jul to August.
(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulb is 10 – 25mm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101336
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+bolanderi
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#147(e)
Common Name: Shortstyle Onion (Allium brevistylum)

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 2–4, terminating thick, iris-like rhizome, elongate, 2–3 × 0.6–1 cm; outer coats enclosing single bulb, grayish or brownish, membranous, minutely striate, cells in parallel vertical rows, narrow, elongate, not fibrous-reticulate, fibers persistent, parallel, few, coarse; inner coats whitish, cells narrowly vertically elongate. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2–5, basally sheathing, sheaths not extending much above soil level; blade solid, flat, 10–40 cm × 2–8 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, solid, flattened and narrowly winged distally, 20–60 cm × 1.5–4 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, loose, 7–20-flowered, subhemispheric, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 3–5-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acute. Flowers narrowly urceolate, 10–13 mm; tepals erect, pink, lanceolate, ± equal, withering in fruit, margins entire, apex acuminate, midribs somewhat thickened; stamens included, ca. 1/2 as long as tepals; anthers yellow; pollen light yellow; ovary crestless; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, distinctly 3-lobed; pedicel 8–35 mm, elongating and becoming stout and curved in fruit. Seed coat dull or shining; cells each with minute, central papilla, or obscurely and minutely roughened. 2n = 14. Flowering Jun–Aug. Swampy meadows and along streams, rarely on wooded slopes; 2200–3400 m; Colo., Idaho, Mont., N.Mex., Utah, Wyo.(1)  Swampy meadows and stream sides at mediium to high elevations in Western N. America – Rocky Mountains from Montana and Idaho to Utah and Colorado. A bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower from Jul to August.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. The plant has thick iris-like rhizomes. The bulb is up to 3cm long and 1cm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. The young and succulent leaves are relished by many animals. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.(3)
Medicinal Uses :A poultice of the ground root and stems, or an infusion of them, is used as a wash for carbuncles. Although no other specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101338
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+brevistylum
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#147(f)
Common Name: Meadow Garlic, Canadian Garlic (Allium canadense)

Appearance and Habitat: Meadow garlic or wild garlic’s sparse cluster of grass-like leaves and its 8-12 in. flowering stalk grow from a bulb. From between narrow, grass-like leaves, which originate near its base, rises a stem topped by a dome-like cluster of star-shaped, pink or whitish flowers; plant has strong, onion-like odor. This antive perennial has a brown, fibrous skin on an edible bulb that tastes like onion. (1)  Sandy soils in low woods, thickets and meadows in N. America – New Brunswick to Minnesota, south to Florida and Colorado. A bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. It can be used as a vegetable, or as a flavouring in soups and stews, and can also be pickled. The bulb is up to 30mm in diameter, it is crisp, mild and with a pleasant flavour. Used as a leek substitute according to one report, it is a garlic substitute according to others. Leaves – raw or cooked. A delicious mild flavour, they are available from early spring until the autumn. They make a very acceptable salad and can also be used as a greens or as a flavouring in cooked foods. Flowers – raw. A little bit stronger flavour than the leaves, especially as the seeds begin to form, they can be used as a flavouring and garnish on salads. Some forms of this species produce bulbils. These top-setting bulbils make a fine onion flavoured pickle. They are said to have a superior flavour to other pickled onions.(3)
Medicinal Uses :The plant is antiasthmatic, carminative, cathartic, diuretic, expectorant and stimulant. A tincture is used to prevent worms and colic in children, and also as a remedy for croup. Although no other specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.  (4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALCA3
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+canadense
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#147(g)
Common Name: Garden Onion (Allium cepa)

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 1–3, not rhizomatous, mostly depressed-globose, varying in size from cultivar to cultivar, 5–8 × 3–10 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, yellowish brown, red, or white, membranous, without reticulation; inner coats white to pink, cells obscure to quadrate. Leaves persistent, 4–10, sheathing proximal 1/6–1/4 scape; blade fistulose, usually ± semicircular in cross section, 10–50 cm × 4–20 mm. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, fistulose, inflated below middle, 30–100 cm × 3–20 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact, to 500-flowered, globose, bulbils occasionally found; spathe bracts caducous, 2–3, 3–4-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acute to acuminate. Flowers stellate to campanulate to urceolate, 3–7 mm; tepals erect to ± spreading, white to pink with greenish midveins, withering in fruit, margins entire, apex obtuse or acute, outer ovate, inner oblong; stamens exserted; anthers white; pollen white; ovary crestless; style linear, ± equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel 10–50 mm. Seed coat not known. Flowering Jun–Aug. Disturbed sites adjacent to areas where cultivated; 0–500 m; Ark., Calif., Kans., La., Mont., Oreg., Tex., Wash.; cultivated in Europe, Asia. (1)Not known in the wild. W. Asia – Iran may be the source. An evergreen bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July.(2)
Warnings: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible. Hand eczema may occur with frequent handling. May interfere with drug control of blood sugar.(3)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. A very versatile food, the bulb can be 10cm or more in diameter and is widely used in most countries of the world. Eaten raw, it can be sliced up and used in salads, sandwich fillings etc, it can be baked or boiled as a vegetable in its own right and is also commonly used as a flavouring in soups, stews and many other cooked dishes. Some cultivars have been selected for their smaller and often hotter bulbs and these are used for making pickles. Leaves – raw or cooked. There are some cultivars, the spring onions, that have been selected for their leaves and are used in salads whilst still young and actively growing – the bulb is much smaller than in other cultivars and is usually eaten with the leaves. By successional sowing, they can be available at any time of the year. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads. The flowers are somewhat dry and are less pleasant than many other species. The seeds are sprouted and eaten. They have a delicious onion flavour.  (4)
Medicinal Uses :Although rarely used specifically as a medicinal herb, the onion has a wide range of beneficial actions on the body and when eaten (especially raw) on a regular basis will promote the general health of the body. The bulb is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, lithontripic, stomachic and tonic. When used regularly in the diet it offsets tendencies towards angina, arteriosclerosis and heart attack. It is also useful in preventing oral infection and tooth decay. Baked onions can be used as a poultice to remove pus from sores. Fresh onion juice is a very useful first aid treatment for bee and wasp stings, bites, grazes or fungal skin complaints. When warmed the juice can be dropped into the ear to treat earache. It also aids the formation of scar tissue on wounds, thus speeding up the healing process, and has been used as a cosmetic to remove freckles. Bulbs of red cultivars are harvested when mature in the summer and used to make a homeopathic remedy. This is used particularly in the treatment of people whose symptoms include running eyes and nose. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Allium cepa Onion for appetite loss, arteriosclerosis, dyspeptic complaints, fevers & colds, cough/bronchitis, hypertension, tendency to infection, inflammation of mouth and pharynx, common cold. (5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200027457
Foot Notes:(2, 3, 4, 5 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+cepa
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#147(h)
Common Name: Nodding Onion (Allium cernuum)

Appearance and Habitat: Soft, grasslike leaves and a 1-2 ft., leafless flowering stalk rise from a bulb. The stem bends so that the pink flowers, borne in a cluster at the top, nod toward the ground. An umbel of many pink or white flowers at the tip of a long, erect, leafless stalk, bent like a shepherd’s crook; a basal cluster of several long, narrow leaves. All parts of the perennial have a mild, oniony scent. This plant is closely related to the Autumn Wild Onion (A. stellatum) but differs in its unique nodding flower cluster and earlier flowering. One of the rarer Carolinian species because of its restricted habitat. It is principally found on Lake Erie islands, the southern most land in Canada. It is edible and has medicinal uses similar to garlic. (Lamb/Rhynard). Eaten sparingly by Northwest Coast First Nations. They were steamed in pits lined with cedar boughs and covered with lichen and alder boughs. After they were eaten, or dried in strings or on mats or pressed into cakes. EDIBLE PARTS: Leaves, bulbs and bulblets. Field garlic (A. vineale), introduced from Eurasia and northern Africa, is too strong for most tastes. Gather leaves during spring and fall. Gather bulbs in the second year when they are large enough to use like cultivated onions. Flower stem bulblets are collected during the summer. Use as domestic onions, for seasoning or raw in salads. Bulbs can be used raw, boiled, pickled or for seasoning. Their strong taste can be reduced by parboiling and discarding the water. To freeze onions or garlic, one should coarsely chop, blanch two minutes, drain, pat dry and place them into plastic bags. The bulbs can also be dried for use as seasoning. Use flower bulbs to flavor soup or for pickling. Attracts hairstreak butterfly. The city of Chicago gets its name from the Algonquin Indian name for this plant, chigagou.(1)  Ledges, gravels, rocky or wooded slopes and crests ascending to higher altitudes. Widely distributed on moist soils in mountainous and cool regions to 3500 meters. N. America – Canada to Mexico. A bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Feb It is in flower from Jun to July.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Strongly flavoured, it is mainly used as a flavouring. The bulb is about 50mm tall and 15mm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. A delicious, strong-onion flavour, they are very nice in salads. The leaves are available from spring until the autumn and are one of the most favourite onions we are growing on our Cornish trial grounds. Flowers – raw or cooked. A delicious strong onion flavour, somewhat stronger than the leaves especially if the seeds are starting to set. They make a very decorative and tasty addition to the salad bowl.(3)
Medicinal Uses :The whole plant has mild medicinal activity similar to the action of garlic (Allium sativum). It is used specifically as a poultice on the chest for the treatment of respiratory ailments and the juice has been used in the treatment of kidney stones. The juice of the plant is used in treating colds, croup, sore throats etc. A poultice of the plant is applied externally to various infections such as sore throats, sores, swellings, chest and pleurisy pains.(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALCE2
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+cernuum
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#147(i)
Common Name: Douglas’ Onion (Allium douglasii )

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 1–4, not clustered on stout, primary rhizomes, ovoid, 1.2–3 × 1–2 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, light brown, membranous, lacking cellular reticulation, or cells arranged in only 2–3 rows distal to roots, ± quadrate, without fibers; inner coats white, sometimes pink, cells obscure, quadrate or linear. Leaves usually persistent, green at anthesis, 2, basally sheathing, sheaths not extending much above soil surface; blade solid, flat, falcate, 9–28 cm × (2–)5–15 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, solid, terete, not expanded proximal to inflorescence, (10–)20–30(–40) cm × 1–4 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact, 25–50-flowered, hemispheric to globose, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 3, 4–6-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acute. Flowers ± stellate, (6–)7–8(–10) mm; tepals spreading, light pink to purple with prominent green midribs, narrowly lanceolate, ± equal, becoming papery in fruit, margins entire, apex acuminate; stamens equaling tepals or exserted; anthers blue-gray; pollen white to light gray; ovary crested; processes 6, 2 per lobe, low, rounded, margins entire; style exserted, linear; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel 15–30 mm. Seed coat shining; cells smooth.(1)  Low hills in shallow soil that is wet in winter but dry in summer. Western N. America – Washington to Oregon and Idaho. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is in flower from Jul to August.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. A mild and sweet flavour, it can be sliced and used in salads or used as a vegetable or flavouring in cooked foods. The bulb is up to 3cm long and 2cm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.  (3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)(http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101354
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)(http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+douglasii

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Wild Edible and Medical Plants 145 -146 Oregon Grape (part 2)- Pennyroyal

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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West. Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. )
#145 (part 2)
Common Name: Oregon Grape, Holly Grape, Creeping Barberry, Yerba de Sangre, Barberry
Latin Name: Mahonia aquifolium, M. bealei, M. fremontii, M. haematocarpa, M. nervosa, M. pinnata, m. repens, M. swaseyi, M. trifoliolata, M. wilcoxii
Family: Berberidaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAHON
 All of the lower 48 States except Wisconsin, Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma, Iowa south through Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, West Virginia, and New England north of New York; In Canada; found in British Columbia, Alberta, Onatrio and Quebec. This is the main database.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MASW Texas. (Mahonia swaseyi)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MATR3 Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. (Mahonia trifoliolata)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
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#145(h)
Common Name: Texas Barberry (Mahonia swaseyi )

Appearance and Habitat:
Shrubs , evergreen, 1-2 m. Stems ± dimorphic, with elongate primary and short or somewhat elongate axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems purple, glabrous. Bud scales 1.5-4 mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves 5-9-foliolate (basal pair of leaflets sometimes reduced to bristles); petioles 0.1-0.5 cm. Leaflet blades thin or thick and rigid; surfaces abaxially dull, papillose, adaxially dull, somewhat glaucous; terminal leaflet stalked (sessile in a few leaves), blades 1.8-3.5 × 0.7-1.7 cm, 1.3-4.7 times as long as wide; lateral leaflets oblong to elliptic or lanceolate, 1-veined from base, base truncate to obtuse, rarely acute, margins plane or undulate, toothed, each with 3-8 teeth 0.5-2 mm high tipped with spines to 0.6-1.2 × 0.1-0.2 mm, apex rounded to acuminate. Inflorescences racemose, lax, 2-6-flowered, 4-6 cm; bracteoles leathery, apex spinose-acuminate, sometimes with proximal bracteoles as described, distal membranous and acuminate. Flowers: anther filaments with distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries white or red and somewhat glaucous, spheric, 9-16 mm, dry or juicy, hollow. Flowering winter-spring (Feb-Apr). Limestone ridges and canyons; 150-600 m; Tex.  (1)Beside rocky streams in Texas. Edemic to the Edwards Plateau in Texas, where it grows on limestone ridges and canyons at elevations of 150 to 600 meters. An evergreen shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in).  It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May.  (2)
Warnings: None(3)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw but more usually cooked in preserves. Pleasantly acid, it can also be dried and used as raisins. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. The fruit, which can be dry or juicy, is up to 15mm in diameter. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. (4)
Medicinal Uses :Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn.(5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500241
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mahonia+swaseyi
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#145(i)
Common Name: Agarita, Laredo Mahonia, Laredo Oregon Grape, Mexican Barberry (Mahonia trifoliolata )

Appearance and Habitat:
This 3-6 ft. evergreen shrub, can reach 8 ft. in favorable conditions. The rigid, spreading branches often form thickets. Gray-green to blue-gray, trifoliate, holly-like leaves are alternate, 2–4 inches long, divided into three leaflets which have 3–7 lobes ending in sharp spines. Wood bright yellow. Flowers numerous, yellow, up to 1/2 inch wide with 6 petals and 6 sepals, which are similar, forming a cup shape around the stamens and pistils. Flowers appearing in February and March, their fragrance often filling the air where they are plentiful. Fruit a red berry, edible appearing from May to July.(1)Shrubs , evergreen, 1-3.5 m. Stems ± dimorphic, with elongate primary and short axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems gray or grayish purple, glabrous. Bud scales 2-3 mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves 3-foliolate; petioles 0.8-5.4 cm. Leaflet blades thick and rigid; surfaces abaxially dull, papillose, adaxially dull, ± glaucous; terminal leaflet sessile, blade 2.3-5.8 × 0.9-2 cm, 1.6-3.1 times as long as wide; lateral leaflet blades narrowly lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 1-veined from base, base acute or acuminate, rarely rounded-acute, margins plane, toothed or lobed, with 1-3 teeth or lobes 3-7 mm high tipped with spines to 1-2 × 0.2-0.3 mm, apex narrowly acute or acuminate. Inflorescences racemose, lax, 1-8-flowered, 0.5-3 cm; bracteoles membranous, apex acuminate. Flowers: anther filaments without distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries red, sometimes glaucous, spheric, 6-11 mm, juicy, solid. Flowering winter-spring (Feb-Apr). Slopes and flats in grassland, shrubland, and sometimes open woodland; 0-2000 m; Ariz., N.Mex., Tex.; Northern Mexico.  (2)  Dry calcareous soils, slopes and flat grassland, shrubland, and sometimes open woodland at elevations from 0 to 2000 meters. In South-western N. America – Texas, Arizona and Mexico. It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May.  (3)
Warnings: None(4)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw or cooked. An acid flavour but nice, especially when added to porridges or muesli. A subtle tart flavour, it is pleasant to eat raw. Unfortunately there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. The fruit is also used to make preserves. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. (5)
Medicinal Uses :Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn.(6)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MATR3
Foot Notes: (2)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500243
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mahonia+trifoliolata
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(Now for Michael Moore who covers all of them in the west and ( Mahonia wilcoxii) )
Appearance and Habitat:
On all species the leaves as pinnate, on some, such as M. aquifolium, M. pinnata, M. wilcoxii, M. nervosa and M. repens the leaves are broad and ivy like with prickles on the edges. They are also a darker green above, and lighter below. There are usually 7 – 9 pairs of leaves along a thin and tough stem. Mohania wilcoxii is found in southeasten Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. It lives in the Sonora desert. Mahonia repens and M. nervosa are creeping growth plants, who’s stems are seldom more than an inch or two above the ground and spread by thin rootlets forming colonies. M. repens leaves turn red in the fall. All have bright green leaves, with M. nervosa almost looking plastic in appearance. M. fremontii, M. haematocarpa and M. trioliolata are spiney bushes found along dry hillsides in their range. They are covered with sharp edged thin leaves with 3-5 leaves along the stems. Regardless of species they always have yellow flowers that grow in clusters. The flowers mature into dark blue or red berries. The branches, roots and stems all have a yellow center from the presence of berberine, an orange alkaloid. You will find M. pinnata growing along the coastal ranges of California. In the north it hybridizes with M. aquifolium, which grows into Canada. M. repens is quite common in the Great Basin, the Rocky Mountains and south into Mexico then eastward to the Great Lakes. Look for M. trifoliolata along the southern Rio Grande and into Chihuahua in Mexico.
Medicinal Uses : Collect the roots and stems at any time and dry them in a paper bag breaking them as small as possible while still fresh. For tea collect the leaves and dry them in a paper sack. The leaves can be crushed and put in #00 capsules, taken 3 times a day. The leaves can also be made into tea by using 32 parts boiling water to one part plant, taking the water off the heat source once it boils and allow to cool. After cooling return the level of water to 32 parts. Grinding the stems and roots can be a problem, they will damage a blender, so best to grind them in a solidly placed hand grinder. A fresh tincture can also be made of the roots and stems at 1 part plant to 2 parts 50% vodka, or a dry tincture at 1 part dried plant to 5 parts 50% vodka. Both tinctures can be taken at 10 to 60 drops daily. All Mahonia species work well for treating chronic liver malfunctions internally, and externally for treating staph infections. They also inhibit cocci bacteria, like E. coli, aerobacter, klebstiella, proteus, pseudomas and shigella. It is a good treatment for Candida albicans infections as well as amoebic dysentary. This goes, even the drug resistant strains of staphylococcus aureus. It is also an antioxident and will lessen the stress from lipid free radicals which cause chronic autoimmune diseases. Topically it will treat psoriasis as well.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, page 179-183, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5
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#146
Common Name: Pennyroyal, American Pennyroyal, False Pennyroyal, Dwarf Pennyroyal, Coyote Mint
Latin Name: Hedeoma oblongifolium, Mentha pulegium, Mondarella odoratissma, Mondarella pulegioids, Mondarella villosa
Family: Labiatae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=HEOB
 Arizona and New Mexico (Hedeoma oblongifolia)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=HEPU All States east of the Mississippi R., except Florida, plus all states on the west bank of the Mississippi R., except Louisiana, plus North Dakota to Oklahoma; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Hedeoma pulegioides)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MEPU Washington, Oregon, California, Hawaii, Pennsylvania, Maryland and New Jersey; In Canada: Brisish Columbia. (Mentha pulegium)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MOOD Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Nevada and California; In Canada; British Columbia. ( Monardella odoratissima)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MOVI2 Oregon and California.
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
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#146(a)
Common Name: American False Pennyroyal, American Pennyroyal (Hedeoma pulegioides )

Appearance and Habitat: A native species, with is erect, annual, 4″-16″ tall forb, aromatic; stems square, usually branched. The flowers are pink, 5 parted, and are distinctly-spaced whorls from the leaf axils; blooms July-Sept. The leaves are opposite lance-like to oval, finely hairy, main ones stalked. It’s habitat is upland woods.(1)  Dry soils in open woods and fields from S. Quebec to Minnesota and S. Dakota, then south to Tennessee and Arkansas. An annual growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jul to September.(2)
Warnings: In large quantities this plant, especially in the form of the extracted oil, can be toxic if taken internally. Skin contact wth the pure essential oil can cause dermatitis.(3)
Edible Uses:The leaves have a very strong mint-like aroma and taste, they can be brewed into a refreshing tea that promotes good digestion, or they can be used as a culinary flavouring. An essential oil from the plant is used by the food industry as a flavouring in beverages, ice cream, baked goods etc.(4)
Medicinal Uses :American pennyroyal has a long history of medicinal use by various native North American Indian tribes and has become a traditional household remedy in North America. It is used mainly in the treatment of digestive disorders, colds, whooping cough, painful menstruation and as an aid in childbirth. A tea made from the leaves or flowering stems is carminative, rubefacient, stimulant. It is used to treat colds because it promotes perspiration A tea with brewers yeast can induce an abortion. The plants are harvested when flowering and can be used fresh or dried. The essential oil is distilled from the plants when they are in flower and used medicinally in the same ways as the leaves. Caution is advised since the pure essential oil is very toxic and ingestion can be lethal whilst skin contact can cause dermatitis.(5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=HEDPUL
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hedeoma+pulegioides
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#146(b)
Common Name: Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium )

Appearance and Habitat: A perennial, introduced from Europe. Leaves opposite, all cauline, petiolate, densely soft-pubescent, oval, nearly entire, small, with only 2-3 lateral veins. Strongly aromatic, perennial herbs from creeping rhizomes, the square stems prostrate to ascending, pubescent, 2-6 dm. tall. Flowers in compact verticels in the axils of the deflexed upper leaves, which barely surpass the flower clusters, the verticels well separated; calyx pubescent, 2.5-3 mm. long, regular, 5-lobed, the 2 lower lobes narrower, 10-nerved; corolla nearly regular, four-lobed, with a short tube, lilac, 4-7 mm. long; stamens 4, equal, exerted; style 2-parted; ovary 2-celled, superior. Southern and southwestern Washington along the Columbia River; British Columbia south to California; scattered in eastern North America.(1)  Moist meadows and sandy soils by steams in Central southern Europe, including Britain, Mediterranean region, Macronesia. It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Aug to October, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October.  (2)
Warnings: In large quantities this plant, especially in the form of the extracted oil, can cause abortions so it shouldn’t be used by pregnant women. Avoid if patient has fits or seizures and those with liver or kidney disease. Oral intake may cause abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, confusion, delirium, auditory and visual hallucinations. (3)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring in salads or cooked foods. A spearmint-like flavour, though rather coarser, it is not used very often in Britain. A herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves. For drying, it should be harvested as the plant comes into flower.(4)
Medicinal Uses :Pennyroyal has been used for centuries in herbal medicine. Its main value is as a digestive tonic where it increases the secretion of digestive juices and relieves flatulence and colic. Pennyroyal also powerfully stimulates the uterine muscles and encourages menstruation, thus it should not be prescribed for pregnant women since it can procure abortions, this is especially the case if the essential oil is used. The herb is antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, sedative and stimulant. A tea made from the leaves has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, minor respiratory infections, digestive disorders, menstrual complaints and various minor ailments. It is occasionally used as a treatment for intestinal worms. Externally, an infusion is used to treat itchiness and formication, inflamed skin disorders such as eczema and rheumatic conditions such as gout. The leaves are harvested in the summer as the plant comes into flower and are dried for later use. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large doses.(5) 
Foot Notes: (1)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Mentha&Species=pulegium
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mentha+pulegium
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#146(c)
Common Name: Alpine Mountainbalm, Mountain Pennyroyal, Coyote Mint (Modarella odoratissima aka Monarda odoratissima)
Native American Name: Guy mohpu (Shoshone)(1)
Appearance and Habitat:
Alpine mountainbalm or coyote mint is a variable species with many subspecies across its range. A grayish, aromatic plant with erect, bunched, leafy stems bearing opposite leaves and topped by small, whitish to pale purple or pink flowers in a dense head. In general, its stems form large mats about 1 ft. high. In bloom, these are covered with flower heads, ranging in color from near white to bright blue-purple. The paired leaves are highly fragrant. Coyote Mint has many races in the West, varying in density of foliage hairs, breadth of heads, and relative length of bracts and calyx.(2) Open wet or dry often rocky places at low to moderate elevations in Western N. America – Washington to California. A perennial growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is hardy to zone 8.  (3)
Warnings: None  (4)
Edible Uses:The fresh or dried aromatic leaves and flower heads are steeped in cold water to make a refreshing mint-like tea.  (5)
Medicinal Uses :The plant is carminative and febrifuge. A decoction of the stems and flower heads has been used in the treatment of flatulence and other digestive upsets, colds and fevers. The decoction is also used as an eye wash for sore or inflamed eyes.(6)Shoshone Tribe would make tea from the flowerheads to regulate young girls menstruation.(7)
Foot Notes: (1, 7) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 45, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MOOD
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Monardella+odoratissima
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#146(d)
Common Name: Coyote Mint (Monardella villosa)

Appearance and Habitat: M. villosa is found in rocky places below 3,000 feet elevation; from Humboldt County to San Luis Obispo, California.(1)  Dry rocky gravelly places below 900 meters in scrub and pine forests in South-western N. America. A perennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 8.(2)
Warnings: None  (3)
Edible Uses:The fresh or dried aromatic leaves and flower heads are steeped in cold water (but should not be boiled) to make a refreshing clear tea. It has a sweet spicy aroma and a slightly bitter mint-like flavour.  (4)
Medicinal Uses :An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of stomach aches.  (5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org/network/ViewProtocols.aspx?ProtocolID=645
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Monardella+villosa
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(Now for Michael Moore who covers all in the west )
Appearance and Habitat:
These plants don’t look the same, the more common is Hedeoma in the southwest, a native to Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Montana, Wyoming and Mexico. There it grows in dry arroyos from 3,500 to 8,000 feet. It is a small plant, resembling thyme in appearance. It, like all mints, has opposite leaves and sends out many small stems from the central root, up to six inches in length. It is most visible along middle moutain roads and along canyons. The Monardella odoratissima species is found in California and stretches east to Nevada into the Rocky Mountains. It can be found up to 10,000 feet. They have oval or lance shaped leaves that are dark green on top and lighter below. They are usually under a foot in height with lavender or purple flowers along a square stem which is usually downy in appearance. Monardella lanceolata and M. villosa are rather common in the moist foothills of the coastal mountains. They are often bushy with lanceolate leaves along the stems. Mentha pelegium is found in sporatic patches along the pacific coast mountians fro California to British Columbia. All the species have the same minty scent of Pennyroyal.
Medicinal Uses : Collect the leaved stems and bundle them into less than 1/4 inch bundes and all them to dry. Remember the plants that are perennial should not be damaged to the point that they won’t return the next year. Hedeoma contains the same oils as H. pulegioides and is very similar to the oils found in Monardella, so they are pretty much interchangeable. All should be avoided when pregnant, but work wonders when a period is late. It should also be avoided with chronic uterine problems. It is very useful during child birth as it tends to induce contraction. The tea works great for children suffering from a stomach ache, use 1/2 teaspoon of the dried plant. Both adults (rounded teaspoon of plant) and children when there is nausea or vomiting should try Pennyroyal. After throwing repeat the process. It also works great in the beginning stages of a cold, it will relieve the fever and cause sweating to remove toxins. The leaves and flowers can be rubbed on the skin to repel mosquitoes and other biting insects. The tea is pleasant to the taste.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, page 188-191, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.