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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 

#113
Common Name: False Solomon’s Seal, Feathery False Lily of the Valley, False Spikenard, Smilacina
Latin Name: Maianthemum racemosum (Smilacina racemosa) Maianthemum racemosum amplexicaule, Maianthemum stellata (Smilacina stellata)
Family: Liliaceae
Latin Name: Maianthemum racemosum (Smilacina racemosa) Maianthemum racemosum amplexicaule (Smilacina stellata)
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MARAR all states east of the Mississippi R.,all states along the west bank of the Mississippi R. and inland to N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and New Mexico; in Canada, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia west to Manitoba (Maianthemum racemosum)

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MARAA N. and S. Dakota, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas and west to the coast, plus Alaska, in Canada, Saskatchewan to British Columbia and Northwest Territories. (Maianthemum racemosum amplexicaule )
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=mast4 all of North America except Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, N. and S. Carolina and Nunavut.(Maianthemum stellata)
Photos: (M. racemosum) ( M. racemosum amplexicaule)
(M. stellata)

Warnings: None Known PFAP on all species
#113(a)
Common Name: False Solomon’s Seal, False Spikenard (Maianthemum racemosa)
Appearance and Habitat:
The 1-3 ft., arching, unbranched stems of this widespread perennial bear two rows of elliptic leaves. A many-flowered racemeis at the tip of the stem and is made up of tiny, white flowers. Berries ripen to a pink-red in autumn. Each branched rhizome bears one to several stems. As a landscaping plant, it is most effective when planted in groups of six or more stalks. The feathery, creamy-white masses of flowers borne at the end of the stem distinguish this species from the true Solomons seals (Polygonatum spp.), which have pendulous, axillary, bell-like flowers. The rhizome lacks the seal-like pattern of the true Solomons seals, but exhibits circular stem scars. The usual western form is var. amplexicaulis with longer flower clusters and shorter leaves than the eastern variety. A smaller species, Star-flowered Solomons Seal (M. stellatum), found throughout the East except for the coastal states from North Carolina to Texas, has a raceme of larger star-shaped flowers, 1/4 (6 mm) long, leaves clasping stem, and larger berries; at first the berries are striped with blackish red, eventually becoming completely blackish red.
(1)  Moist coniferous and deciduous woods, clearings and bluffs, preferring shaded streamsides. N. America British Columbia to Nova Scotia, south to Georgia and Missouri. A perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.6 m (2ft). It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit-raw, cooked or made into jellies and molasses. The fruit is smaller than a pea but is produced in quite large terminal clusters on the plant and so is easy to harvest. It has a delicious bitter-sweet flavour, suggesting bitter molasses. The fruit is said to store well, it certainly hangs well onthe plants and we have picked very delicious fruits in late October. Rich in vitamins, the fruit has been used to prevent scurvy. Some caution is advised since the raw fruit is said to be laxative in large quantities, though this is only if you are not used to eating this fruit. Thorough cooking removes much of this laxative element. Young leaves- raw or cooked. The young shoots, as they emerge in spring, can be cooked and used as an asparagus substitute. Root- cooked. It should be soaked in alkaline water first to get rid of a disagreeable taste. It can can be eaten like potatoes or pickled.
(3)Medicinal Uses: False spikenard was widely employed by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The plant is contraceptive and haemostatic. A decoction is used in the treatment of coughs and the spitting up of blood. Half a cup of leaf tea drunk daily for a week by a woman is said to prevent conception. a poultice of the crushed fresh leaves is applied to bleeding cuts. A tea made from the roots is drunk to regulate menstrual disorders. The root is analgesic, antirheumatic, appetizer, blood purifier, cathartic and tonic. A decoction is said to be a very strong medicine, it is used for treating rheumatism and kidney problems and, when taken several times a day it has been used successfully in treating cancer and heart complaints. The fumes from a burning root have been inhaled to treat headaches and general body pain. The fumes have also been used to restore an unconscious patient and to bring an insane person back to normal. The dried powdered root has been used in treating wounds. A poultice of the root has been applied to the severed umbilical cord of a child in order to speed the healing process and is also used to treat cuts, swellings etc. A cold infusion of the root is used as a wash for sore eyes.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)( http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MARAR
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Smilacina+racemosa

****************************** #113(b)
Common Name: False Solomon’s Seal (Maianthemum racemosa amplexicaule)

Native American Name: Shapuli (Paiute) Roy (Shoshone)(1)Appearance and Habitat: A very showy plant that is usually found above the ponderosa belt in the west. It prefers rich moist soils between 5,000 and 10,000 feet. It has been known to descend lower in warm wet canyons. It usuallly forms colonies of stems without branches. The stems may be from 2 feet to 3 feet in length. The leaves are bright green, clasp the stem, and have parallel veins. Between the leaves the stems zigzag slighty. The stems end in terminal clusters of creamy white flowers. The flowers are followed by dark spotted red berries. The root is horizontal and creeps below the ground. The root is covered with round scars and nodules and along the root it sprouts more leafing stems. M. stellata grows in similar areas but has a smaller root, it can be used the same as M. racemosa.(2)
Medicinal Uses: Collect the roots at any time and dry them in a cheesecloth, after forming a pocket, hang them in the shade. Chop them for storage. The root is effective as a demulcent and expectorant during stages of inflammatory lung infections, flu,colds, and etc. The tea from the root is used to relieve frontal headaches caused by indigestion. The tea can be made using a rounded teaspoon of the dried and ground up root. Boil this in cup of water for 15 minutes, allow to cool and drink after it has cooled. The root can also be used as a poultice, use a teaspoon full soaked in warm water.
(3) Native Americans used the tea, made from the root, for female problems and internal pains.(4)
Foot Notes:
(1, 4)  Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Allen Murphey, page 47, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-916638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2, 3,)
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain  West by Michael Moore, 2nd Edition page 114-115, Publisher: Museum of  New Mexico Press, Copyright 1989, ISBN 978-089013182-4
*************************
#113(c)
Common Name: Starry False Lily of the Valley, Starry False Solomon’s Seal (Maianthemum stellata)
Native American Name: Wambona (Shoshone), Tahn-suv (Moapa Paiute)
(1) 
Appearance and Habitat:
Starry false solomon’s-seal is a dainty perennial with a single, unbranched, arching stem, bearing a small, terminal cluster of white, star-shaped flowers. Dark-green, oval leaves line the 8-10 in. stem. Dark berries follow the flowers.
(2)  Woods, thickets and open meadows, on gravell and alluvial soils. Sand dunes, marginal woodlands, oak and openings from sea level to 3200 meters. N. America-British Columbia to California and east to Virginia and Newfoundland. A perennial growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.(3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is about the size of a pea  and is produced in small terminal clusters of about 2 – 8 berries. It has a nice bitter-sweet flavour that is somewhat reminiscent of treacle. The fruit is a good source of vitamin C, it has been used to prevent scurvy. The fruit is said to be laxative in large quantities when eaten raw, especially if you are not used to eating it, though thorough cooking removes this laxative effect. Young leaves -raw or cooked. The young shoots, as they emerge in spring, can be used as an asparagus substitute. The young shoots and leaves are cooked as greens. Root-cooked. It should be soaked in alkaline water first to get rid of a disagreeable taste. It can be eaten like potatoes.
(4)
Medicinal Uses: Star-flowered lily of the valley was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. A tea made from the roots is drunk to regulate menstrual disorders. A decoction of the leaves is taken 2 – 3 times a day in the treatment of rheumatism and colds. Half a cup of leaf tea drunk daily for a week by a woman is said to prevent conception. The root is analgesic, antiseptic, haemostatic, ophthalmic, stomachic and vulnerary. An infusion has been used in the treatment of stomach complaints, internal pains and to regulate menstrual disorders. The dried powdered root has been used in treating wounds and bleeding. The crushed root has been used as a poultice on sprains, boils, swellings and limbs affected by rheumatism. The pulped root has been used as ear drops to treat ear aches. An infusion of the roots has been used as a wash for inflamed eyes.
(5)  The slender round root is gathered in the fall, and dried, after cutting it cross-ways, in little ring. It is then threaded and hung up, so when a wound will not stop bleeding, this root is pounded ito powder and thrown on it. Blood clots almost immediately.(6) 
Foot Notes:
(1, 6) Native American Names were from Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Allen Murphey, page 39, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-916638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MAST4
Foot Notes:
(3 , 4, 5, )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Smilacina+stellata

********************************************
#114
Common Name: Nut Grass
Latin Name: Cyperus rotundus
Family: Cyperaceae
Native American Name: Toboose (Paiute)
(1) 
Range: Hawaii, California, Oregon, Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Minnesota, Kentucky and Virginia south to Florida, plus New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and  Pennsylvania.

Photos: (here)
Appearance and Habitat: Roadsides, sandy fields and cultivated ground in Eastern North America. Plants are usually found in damp places. S. and W. Europe, Tropical areas. A perennial growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is in flower from Mar to July.(2)
Warnings: None Known(3)
Edible Uses: Tuber – raw or cooked. A very strong flavour when freshly harvested, said to resemble ‘Vick’s VapoRub’, the tubers become milder if they are allowed to dry. A pleasant nutty flavour according to another report whilst another says that the roots are very unpalatable raw and a little better but still not very palatable when cooked. The dried roots can be ground into a powder and used as a cereal. Seed. A famine food, used when all else fails. It is very small and would be fiddly to use.(4) On the rootlets of the sedge are small black tubers, size of dried currants. These are called “Taboose,” and are hard and crisp wgeb eaten raw. It tastes between fresh cocoanut and raisins. When reduced to meal and cooked as cereal, it is both nourishing and appetizing.(5)
Medicinal Uses: Nut grass is a pungent bitter-sweet herb that relieves spasms and pain, acting mainly on the digestive system and uterus. The roots and tubers are analgesic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, antitussive, aromatic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, litholytic, sedative, skin, stimulant, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge. They are used internally in the treatment of digestive problems and menstrual complaints. They are commonly combined with black pepper (Piper nigrum) in the treatment of stomachaches. The roots are harvested in the summer or winter and are dried for later use. An essential oil in the tubers has antibiotic activity and has been shown to arrest the growth of Micrococcus pyrogenes. The plant is rated 8th amongst 250 potential antifertility plants in China. The plant is used in the treatment of cervical cancer(6)
Foot Notes:
(1, 5)  Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Allen Murphey, page 16, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-916638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 6)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cyperus+rotundus

(PS: usda is wrong on areas where this plant appears, my Aunt had trouble with them in Las Vegas, Nevada, and Paiutes live in either Nevada or Utah.)

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
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