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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
Common Name: Selfheal, All Heal, Woundwort
Latin Name: Prunella lanciniata, Prunella vulgaris
Family: Lamiaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PRUNE Main database, all States, all of lower Canada plus Yukon.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PRLA7 Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia. (Prunella laciniata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PRVU Same as Main database (Prunella vulgaris)
Photos: (P. laciniata) (P. vulgaris)

Appearance and Habitat: This low, perennial is easily recognized by its erect, many-flowered spikes and associated, overlapping, hairy bracts. The square stem has dense, cylindrical, terminal spikes of purple flowers; the spikes elongate after flowering. It is often considered a weed of lawns and moist shady spots. A form that flowers when only 2 (5 cm) tall has become common in lawns. Its common name derives from wide use as a herbal remedy for throat ailments.  (1)Waste ground, grassland, and woodland edges etc., usually on basic and neutral soils. Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to N. Africa and temperate Asia. It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.(2)A plant found the world over and member of the mint family. It grows from 4 inches to a foot in height has long oval leaves. The leaves are mostly basal, with some on the flowering stalks. The flowers are bright lavender-pink with brown tinging on some plants. The plants propagate mainly by there rootstock that creeps along underground. In the west, look for it from 3,000 feet to 10,000- feet. When you find one, you will find several near by. (3)
Warnings: None (4)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw or cooked. They can be used in salads, soups, stews etc. Somewhat bitter due to the presence of tannin in the leaves, though this can be removed by washing the leaves. A cold water infusion of the freshly chopped or dried and powdered leaves is used as a refreshing beverage. Very tasty.(5)
Medicinal Uses :Self heal has a long history of folk use, especially in the treatment of wounds, ulcers, sores etc. It was also taken internally as a tea in the treatment of fevers, diarrhoea, sore mouth, internal bleeding etc. In Korea it is used to treat oedema, nephritis, scrofula and goitre. The whole plant is alterative, antibacterial, antipyretic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, febrifuge, hypotensive, stomachic, styptic, tonic, vermifuge and vulnerary. It has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Pseudomonas, Bacillus typhi, E. coli, Mycobacterium tuberculi etc. It can be used fresh or dried, for drying it is best harvested in mid-summer. The plant is experimentally antibiotic and hypotensive.(6)  Collect the stem between the root and flowers. They can be dried in a paper sack, or in a short cardboard box. The plants can also be juiced went fresh, just wrap them in a plastic bag, bring them home, wash them and juice them. You can freeze the juice to use it later, adding 25 percent vodka. The ice cubes made from the juice are ouchless for treating children’s wounds. The fresh plant makes a good poultice for scrapes and bruises. The tincture or tea treats gum inflammations, mild fevers and sore throats. For the tincture use 1 part fresh plant to 2 parts water. It is a great treatment for an upset stomach, mild dysentery to either take it has tea or tincture. The plant has an anti-inflammatory effect, as do many mints. The flower spikes are astringent and anti-inflammatory for treating bites and scratches.(7)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=PRVU

Foot Notes: (2, 4, 5, 6)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunella+vulgaris
Foot Notes: ( 3, 7) Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, page 231-232, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5
(Blog Master’s Note:  There is very little data on Prunella laciniata {Cut-Leaf Selfheal} it can probably be used in the same manner if that is your only access to the plant.)
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#145
Common Name: Clover
Latin Name: Trifolium bifidum, T. dubium, T. fucatum,T. hybridum, T. macrocephalum, T. obtusiflorum, T. pratense, T. repens, T. subterraneum,T. variegatum,
Family: Leguminosae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRIFO
All of North America, except Nunavut. This is the main database.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRBI Washington, Oregon and California (Trifolium bifidum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRDU2 All States except Nevada, Utah, Colorado, S. Dakota, Vermont and New Hampshire; In Canada; British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia (Trifolium dubium)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRFU Washington, Oregon, California and Michigan (Trifolium fucatum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRHY All States except Texas; All Canadian Provinces except Nunavut.(Trifolium hybridum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRMA3 Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California and Nevada. (Trifolium macrocephalum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TROB2 Oregon and California (Trifolium obtusiflorum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRPR2 All States, all of Canadian Provinces except Nunavut. (Trifolium pratense)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRRE3 All States, all of Canada except Nunavut.(Trifolium repens)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRSU3 Washington, Oregon, Hawaii, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, S. and N. Carolina, New Jersey and Massachusetts.(Trifolium subterraneum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRVA All States west of the Rocky Mountains except Colorado and New Mexico, plus Alaska; In Canada; British Columbia. (Trifolium variegatum)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
Warnings: None (Some on White and Red Clover on PFAF)
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#145(a)
Common Name: Notchleaf Clover, Pinole Clover (Trifolium bifidum )

Appearance and Habitat:
Open ground, grassy fields and open woodland in South-western N. America. An annual growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in).
Edible Uses: Leaves – raw or cooked. Eaten sparingly when young. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be used as a piñole. The seed can be sprouted and added to salads or it can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickener in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread etc.
Medicinal Uses :
None
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium+bifidum
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#145(b)
Common Name: Suckling Clover (Trifolium dubium )

Appearance and Habitat: Sparsely pubescent annual, the stems 1-several, 1-5 dm. long, prostrate or ascending to erect. Leaves: Leaves trifoliate, short-petiolate; leaflets obovate to obcordate, 5-20 mm. long, denticulate above mid-length; stipules 3-5 mm. long, acuminate, entire. Flowers: Inflorescence of 3- to 20-flowered heads, 6-7 mm. broad, on short, axillary peduncles; flowers pea-like, yellow, reflexed, 3-3.5 mm. long; calyx glabrous, 5-nerved, half as long as the corolla, the 5 teeth narrowly lanceolate, entire, the upper 2 broader than and half as long as the lower 3; banner hood-like, folded, nearly hiding the shorter wings and keel.(1) Grassy places throughout Britain, Europe, from Sweden south and east to Spain and the Caucasus.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to October, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October.
(2)
Edible Uses:None(3)
Medicinal Uses :
The plant is haemostatic. A poultice of the chopped plant has been applied to cuts to stop the bleeding.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Trifolium&Species=dubium
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium+dubium
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#145(c)
Common Name: Bull Clover, Bear Clover, Sour Clover (Trifolium fucatum )

Appearance and Habitat: A Clover with several stout, hollow stems that may lean or lie on the ground, and usually swollen pea-flowers, clustered in heads. The enlargement of the corolla into a papery bladder is unusual, but occurs also in two other species that have smaller flowers, Bladder Campion (T. amplectens) and Balloon Clover (T. depanpuratum).(1)  Grassy places, moist places below 1000 meters in Western N. America – California. An annual growing to 0.6 m (2ft).(2)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw or cooked. Seeds – raw. Flowers and young seedpods – raw or cooked.(3)A Clover in Northern California was eagerly eaten by Indians. It was called Bear Clover by some. Its tendecy to bloat was offset by dipping the leaves and flowers into salt water.(4)
Medicinal Uses :
None.(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=TRFU
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium+fucatum
Foot Notes: ( 4) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 23, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
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#145(d)
Common Name: Alsike Clover (Trifolium hybridum)

Appearance and Habitat:
An introduced clover erect, perennial, 1′-3′ tall forb; not rooting from the stems. Flowers – white when young then turning pink with age, 5-parted, 1/4″-1/3″ long, distinctly stalked, calyx 2-lipped; inflorescence of many round, long-stalked, head-like clusters; blooms May-Sept. Leaf- 3-parted into oval leaflets, It grows on disturbed ground.(1)Roadsides in Britain, Europe, naturalized in Britain. A perennial growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is in flower from Jun to September.(2)
Edible Uses:Leaves and flower heads – raw or cooked. Boiled, or after soaking for several hours in salty water. A delightful and healthful tea is made from the dried flower heads. They are usually mixed with other teas. The dried flower heads and seeds can be ground into a nutritious flour.(3)
Medicinal Uses :
A cold infusion of the plant has been used as a wash on the breasts of a nursing mother in order to increase the milk flow.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=TRIHYB
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium+hybridum
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#145(e)
Common Name: Big-Head Clover (Trifolium macrocephalum)

Appearance and Habitat: An unusual low clover with large round heads of red to deep pink pea flowers. The large red heads of two-tone flowers make this one of the prettiest of Clovers. The name Trifolium, referring to the trio of leaflets, is contradicted in this species, which usually has 6-9.(1)  Dry, often rocky soils, usually amongst sagebrush or under yellow pine in Western N. America. A perennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 4.(2)
Edible Uses:Leaves – cooked and used as a greens(3)
Medicinal Uses :
None (4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=TRMA3
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium+macrocephalum
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#145(f)
Common Name: Clammy Clover (Trifolium obtusiflorum )

Appearance and Habitat: Moist places below 1600 meters in South Western N. America. An annual growing to 1 m (3ft 3in).
Edible Uses: Leaves – raw or cooked. The leaves have been eaten after an acid exudation has been washed away. Seed – raw or cooked. The seed can be sprouted and added to salads or it can be dried, ground into powder and used as a thickener in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread etc.
Medicinal Uses : None.
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium+obtusiflorum
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#145(g)
Common Name: Red Clover (Trifolium pratense )

Appearance and Habitat:
An erect to drooping clover, a perennial, 1′-3′ tall forb; stems with close hairs. Flower- red to pink, 5-parted, 1/2″-3/4″ long, calyx 2-lipped; inflorescence a 1 1/8″ round head of stalkless flowers; blooms May-Sept. Leaf – 3-parted, lower leaves on long stalks, upper leaves with short stalks or stalkless. Found on disturbed ground.(1)Meadows, pastures and other grassy places, expecially on calcareous soils. Usually found on circumneutral soils, in Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to Spain and W. Asia. It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October.(2)
Edible Uses:Leaves and young flowering heads – raw or cooked. The young leaves are harvested before the plant comes into flower, and are used in salads, soups etc. On their own they can be used as a vegetable, cooked like spinach.The leaves are best cooked. They can be dried, powdered and sprinkled on foods such as boiled rice. The leaves contain 81% water, 4% protein, 0.7% fat, 2.6% fibre and 2% ash. The seed can be sprouted and used in salads. A crisp texture and more robust flavour than alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The seeds are reported as containing trypsin inhibitors. These can interfere with certain enzymes that help in the digestion of proteins, but are normally destroyed if the seed is sprouted first. Flowers and seed pods – dried, ground into a powder and used as a flour. The young flowers can also be eaten raw in salads. Root – cooked. A delicate sweet herb tea is made from the fresh or dried flowers. The dried leaves impart a vanilla flavour to cakes etc.(3)
Medicinal Uses :Red clover is safe and effective herb with a long history of medicinal usage. It is commonly used to treat skin conditions, normally in combination with other purifying herbs such as Arctium lappa and Rumex crispus. It is a folk remedy for cancer of the breast, a concentrated decoction being applied to the site of the tumour in order to encourage it to grow outwards and clear the body. Flavonoids in the flowers and leaves are oestrogenic and may be of benefit in the treatment of menopausal complaints. The flowering heads are alterative, antiscrofulous, antispasmodic, aperient, detergent, diuretic, expectorant, sedative and tonic. It has also shown anticancer activity, poultices of the herb have been used as local applications to cancerous growths. Internally, the plant is used in the treatment of skin complaints (especially eczema and psoriasis), cancers of the breast, ovaries and lymphatic system, chronic degenerative diseases, gout, whooping cough and dry coughs. The plant is normally harvested for use as it comes into flower and some reports say that only the flowers are used. The toxic indolizidine alkaloid ‘slaframine’ is often found in diseased clover (even if the clover shows no external symptoms of disease). This alkaloid is being studied for its antidiabetic and anti-AIDS activity.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=TRIPRA
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium+pratense
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#145(h)
Common Name: White Clover (Trifolium repens)

Appearance and Habitat:
Introduced to N. America, an erect or creeping, perennial forb, rooting from the stems. Flowers are all white or all pink, 5-parted, 1/4″-3/5″ long, calyx 2-lipped; inflorescence a long-stalked, head-like cluster of distinctly stalked flowers; blooms June-Aug. Leaf is 3-parted with elliptical leaflets, long stalked.(1)Grassland and lawns, preferring calcareous clay soil in Europe, including Britain, form Norway south and east to N. Africa, north and western Asia. A perennial growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October.(2)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw or cooked as a potherb. The young leaves are harvested before the plant comes into flower and are used in salads, soups etc. They can also be used as a vegetable, cooked like spinach. The leaves are best cooked. Flowers and seed pods are dried, ground into powder and used as a flour or sprinkled on cooked foods such as boiled rice. Very wholesome and nutritious. The young flowers can also be used in salads. Root – cooked. The dried leaves impart a vanilla flavour to cakes etc. Dried flowering heads are a tea substitute.(3)
Medicinal Uses :The plant is antirheumatic, antiscrophulatic, depurative, detergent and tonic. An infusion has been used in the treatment of coughs, colds, fevers and leucorrhoea. A tincture of the leaves is applied as an ointment to gout. An infusion of the flowers has been used as an eyewash.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=TRIREP
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium+repens
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#145(i)
Common Name: Subterranean Clover (Trifolium subterraneum )

Appearance and Habitat:
Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California; southeastern U.S. Pastures, prairies, roadsides and other open, disturbed areas at low elevations.(1)Sandy gravelly pastures, also on cliff tops, avoiding acid soils and shady positions in Southern and western Europe, including Britain. An annual.(2)
Edible Uses:Leaves raw or cooked.(3)
Medicinal Uses :None.(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Trifolium&Species=subterraneum
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium+subterraneum
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#145(j)
Common Name: Whitetip Clover (Trifolium variegatum )

Appearance and Habitat: Glabrous annual, the 1-several stems 1-6 dm. long, prostrate to erect. Leaves trifoliate, petiolate; leaflets obovate to elliptic oblanceolate, 5-20 mm. long, the margins sharply serrate, the serrations with needle-like tips; stipules ovate, deeply lacerate. Inflorescence of 3- to 40-flowered, involucrate heads 1-2 cm. broad on long axillary peduncles; involucres flaring and saucer-shaped, irregularly lobed and lacerate about half their length; calyx tube narrowly bell-shaped, 10-25 veined, the 5 teeth much longer than the tube, narrow and bristle-tipped; corolla pea-like, 5-20 mm. long, slightly longer than the calyx, purplish, often white-tipped, aging to purplish-brown.(1)Dry Sandy soils to moist meadows in Western N. America – British Columbia to California.(2)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw or cooked. They can be used as greens. Flowers – raw. A sweet flavour.(3)
Medicinal Uses :None.(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Trifolium&Species=variegatum
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium+variegatum

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.