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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
(Blog Masters Note: All past posts for Wild Edible And Medicinal Plants  are now located in a drop-down search below comments.)
#169 (part 2)
Common Name: Willow
Latin Name:
Salix spp
Family: Salicaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=salix
Main database for Willow; all of North America.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAEX All States west of the Rocky Mountains, plus Indiana, Kansas and Texas; In Canada; British Columbia to Saskatchewan. (Salix exigua)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAFR All States, including these States, and northward; Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, New Mexico, Utah, Idaho and Washington; plus Mississippi; In Canada; Alberta, Manitoba to Quebec, Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Salix fragilis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAGO California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. (Salix gooddingii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAHA Alaska; In Canada; Yukon and Northwest Territories. (Salix hastata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAHO Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California; In Canada; British Columbia. (Salix hookeriana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALA6 Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. (Salix lasiolepis)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALU Ohio, W. Virginia and Virginia north to New England; plus all States north of the Ohio R.; plus all States west of the Rocky Mountains, plus N. and S. Dakota, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa and Alaska; In Canada; all except for Nunavut. (Salix lucida)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )
Warnings: Only on Salix fragilis
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#169 (h)
Common Name: Coyote Willow, Narrowleaf Willow, Sandbar Willow ( Salix exigua )
Appearance and Habitat:
A small clumping, deciduous shrub (A low growing, usually less than 15 feet, woody perennial plant without a central stem.) or tree, from 4-15 ft. tall. The bark is gray and furrowed; the leaves silky-gray. Catkins appear after the leaves. This hardy species has perhaps the greatest range of all tree willows: from the Yukon River in central Alaska to the Mississippi River in southern Louisiana. A common and characteristic shrub along streams throughout the interior, especially the Great Plains and Southwest, it is drought-resistant and suitable for planting on stream bottoms to prevent surface erosion. Livestock browse the foliage; Indians made baskets from the twigs and bark.(1)  Forms thickets in estuaries and swamps. Sandy gravelly or muck soils in and along watercourses, often invading fresh sandbars in rivers and streams. N. America – Alaska to New Brusnwick, south through central N. America to Texas. It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in June.(2)
Edible Uses:The leaves have been used to make a drink like orange juice.(3)
Medicinal Uses :The bark has been used in the treatment of sore throats, coughs and certain fevers. A decoction of the dried roots has been used in the treatment of venereal diseases. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.  (4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAEX
Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+exigua
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#169 (i)
Common Name: Brittle Willow, Crack Willow ( Salix fragilis )
Appearance and Habitat:
An introduced prennial tree to 65 feet, with a trunk diameter of up to 40 inches. The leaves are narrowly lance-like coarsely toothed, dark green above, with a lighten underside.
(1)  Streams, marshes fens and wet woods in Europe, including Britain,, from Sweden south and east to Spain, Serbia and Iran. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June. (2)
Warnings: Gastrointestinal bleeding and Kidney damage possible. Avoid concurrent administration with other asprin like drugs. Avoid during pregnany. Drug interactions associated with salicylates applicable.
(3)
Edible Uses:Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable. A saccharine exudation is obtained from the leaves and young branches. Used as a food.
(4)
Medicinal Uses :The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne, astringent and febrifuge. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. A poultice of the bark has been applied to sores as a styptic and healing agent. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Salix / Willow for diseases accompanied by fever, rheumatic ailments, headaches.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=SALFRA

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+fragilis
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#169 (j)
Common Name: Gooding’s Willow, San Joaquin Willow ( Salix gooddingii )
Appearance and Habitat:
A deciduous tree 15 – 40ft. with yellow stems and ligtht green leaves. The bark of this sometimes shrubby plant is rough and dark. Catkins appear on leafy, lateral stems.
(1)   Found in desert, desert grassland and oak woodland habitats, it is most abundant on nutrient rich floodplains. Found at elevations between 60 – 1200 meters in south western N. America – California to Texas, south to Mexico. A deciduous tree growing to 10 m (32ft 10in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in May.(2)
Edible Uses:A honeydew can be obtained from the cut branches. The young shoots can be made into a tea. Leaves and the bark of twigs can be steeped to make a tea. The catkins can be eaten raw. Bark – raw or cooked. This probably refers to the inner bark.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :A decoction of the leaves and bark have been used as a febrifuge. The following uses are for the closely related S. nigra. They probably also apply to this species. The bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, sedative, tonic. It has been used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, ovarian pains and nocturnal emissions. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried. The fresh bark contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge and as an ingredient of spring tonics.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAGO

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+gooddingii
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#169 (k)
Common Name: Halberd Willow, Halberd-Leaved Willow ( Salix hastata )
Appearance and Habitat:
Wet places ascending into mountains in the south of its range. In mountains of Europe – Norway south to Spain and eastward to E. Asia. A deciduous shrub growing to 2 m (6ft) by 2 m (6ft). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May.
Edible Uses: Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable
Medicinal Uses : The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+hastata
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#169 (l)
Common Name: Dune Willow, Hooker Willow ( Salix hookeriana )
Appearance and Habitat:
Shrub or small tree with many stems, broad, rounded crown, and leaves nearly half as wide as long. Hooker Willows relatively broad leaves aid in recognition. It is named after William Jackson Hooker (1785-1865), a British botanist, in whose book the original description of this species was published. He was Director of Kew Gardens from 1841-1865, wrote “Flora boreali-americana”, and many other works. He was founder and editor of “Journal of Botany”. The isolated Alaskan plants were formerly regarded as a different species, Yakutat Willow (S. amplifolia).
(1)  Borders of salt marshes and ponds, also on sandy coastal dunes. Streams, ponds and sloughs near the shore in western N. America – Alaska to California. It grows to 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in June.(2)
Edible Uses:Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable. The leaves have been used as a flavouring in cooked foods.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The leaves have been used as an antidote to shellfish poisoning. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAHO

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+hookeriana

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#169 (m)
Common Name: Arroyo Willow, Willow ( Salix lasiolepis )
Appearance and Habitat:
Usually a thicket forming shrub with clustered stems; sometimes a small tree with slender, erect branches forming narrow, irregular crown. The name White Willow may come from the light-colored bark and leaves with whitish lower surfaces. The scientific name, meaning shaggy scale, refers to the white hairs on the scales of the flowers.
(1)Well drained sandy loams to rich rocky or gravelly soils along streams at lower elevations, expecially in California where it becomes more tree like. Western N. America – Washington to California and Mexico. A deciduous tree growing to 12 m (39ft 4in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in May.(2)
Edible Uses: None
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The bark is antipruritic, astringent, diaphoretic and febrifuge. An infusion of the bark has been used in the treatment of colds, chills, fevers, measles and various diseases where sweating can be beneficial. A decoction of the bark has been used as a wash for itchy skin. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of colds and diarrhoea. A decoction of the catkins has been used in the treatment of colds. The fresh bark contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SALA6

Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+lasiolepis
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#169 (n)
Common Name: Shinning Willow ( Salix lucida )
Appearance and Habitat:
A broad shrub, shining willow grows 12-20 ft. tall, with a pyramidal form. Upright, spreading, fine-textured branches occur from a short trunk. Bark is smooth and reddish-brown. Shining willow’s finest characteristic is its smooth, glossy leaves that simmer in the sun. Fall color is a fairly insignificant yellow. Spring branches are densely flowered with green catkins. Distribution: AK , AZ , CA , CO , CT , DE , IA , ID , IL , IN , KS , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MT , ND , NH , NJ , NM , NV , NY , OH , OR , PA , RI , SD , UT , VA , VT , WA , WI , WV , WY Canada: AB , MB , NB , NL , NS , NT , ON , PE , QC , SK , YT(1)   Wet soils, especially in and along swamps, also in marshes, peat bogs ad on sandy banks along creeks. Eastern and central N. America Newfoundland to the eastern base of the Rockies. A deciduous shrub growing to 8 m (26ft 3in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May.(2)
Edible Uses: None.(3)
Medicinal Uses :The bark is analgesic, antiasthmatic, astringent and haemostatic. It is used in the treatment of bleeding and asthma. A poultice of the bark has been applied to the head to allay the pain of headaches. The poultice has also been used to treat sores and bleeding cuts. An infusion of the leaves is used as an analgesic in the treatment of headaches. The fresh bark contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SALU
Foot Notes: ( 2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+lucida

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
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