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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#147 (Part 2)
Common Name: Onion/Garlic/Leeks
Latin Name: Allium drummondii, A. fistulosum, A. geyeri, A. kunthii, A. macropetalum, A. oleraceum, A. sativum, A. schoenoprasum 
Family: Liliaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALLIU
All States, except Hawaii, all of Canada, except Nunavut; this is the main database for USDA.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALDR South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, New Mexico and Texas. (Allium drummondii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALFI4 Alaska, Illinois and Vermont; In Canada; Northwest Territories. (Allium fistulosum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALGE All States west of the Rocky Mountains, except California, plus South Dakota and Texas; In Canada; British Columbia to Saskatchewan. (Allium geyeri)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALKU Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. (Allium kunthii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALMA4 Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. (Allium macropetalum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALOL Kentucky, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York and Massachusetts; In Canada; Ontario. (Allium oleraceum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALSA2 All States east of the Mississippi R., except Florida, North Carolina, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Maine; plus Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado and California; In Canada; Manitoba and Ontario. (Allium sativum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ALSC All States north of the Ohio R., plus all States north of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, plus Virginia, Maryland, Missouri, Minnesota, Alaska, Montana, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Nevada; In Canada; All Provinces except Nunavut. (Allium schoenoprasum)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
Warnings: Unless PFAF has some warnings, besides “don’t feed large quantities to dogs” I won’t list their warnings. See part 1 on PFAF warnings.
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#147(j)
Common Name: Drummond’s Onion, Prairie Onion (Allium drummondii )

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 1–5, without basal bulbels, ovoid, outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, brown, reticulate, cells fine-meshed, mostly closed in proximal 1/2 of bulb, fibrous; inner coats whitish or brownish, cells intricately contorted, walls usually not sinuous. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2–5, sheathing; blade solid, flat, channeled, 10–30 cm × 1–3(–5) mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, terete, 10–30 cm × 1–3 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact to ± loose, usually 10–25-flowered, hemispheric-globose, rarely replaced by bulbils; spathe bracts persistent, 2–3, 1-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acuminate. Flowers campanulate to ± stellate, 6–9 mm; tepals spreading, white, pink, or red, rarely greenish yellow, ovate to lanceolate, ± equal, becoming papery and rigid in fruit, margins entire, apex obtuse or acute, midribs somewhat thickened; stamens included; anthers yellow; pollen light yellow; ovary crestless; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed or obscurely lobed; pedicel 5–20 mm. Seed coat shining; cells each usually with minute, central papilla. Flowering Mar–Jun. Plains, hills, and prairies, particularly in limestone soils; 0–1600 m; Ark., Kans., Neb., N.Mex., Okla., Tex.; Mexico.(1)  Sandy or gravelly, often on limestone soils on dry prairies and hills in N. America -Texas to New Mexico, north to Nebraska. A bulb growing to 0.3 m. (1ft). It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Apr to June.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Used mainly as a condiment, the bulb is also eaten as a vegetable. The bulb is rather small, up to 25mm tall and 15mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101355
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+drummondii
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#147(k)
Common Name: Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum )

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 2–12+, borne on short rhizome, cylindric, 2–5 × 1–2.5 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, white to light brown, membranous, without reticulation; inner coats white, cells obscure, quadrate. Leaves persistent, 2–6, sheathing lower 1/4–1/3 of scape; blade terete, fistulose, 10–40 cm × 10–25 mm. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, fistulose, inflated in middle, tapering to umbel, (12–)15–70 cm × 8–25 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact, 50–100-flowered, globose to ovoid, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 1–2, 1–3-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acute. Flowers narrowly campanulate to urceolate, 6–9 mm; tepals erect, yellowish white, withering in fruit, margins entire, apex acute, outer lanceolate, inner narrowly ovate, unequal; stamens long-exserted; anthers white to yellow; pollen white; ovary crestless; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, obscurely 3-lobed; pedicel 10–30 mm. Seed coat shining; cells 4–6-angled, ± rectangular. Allium fistulosum is cultivated in Europe and Asia. It is reported to have escaped in Alaska and is established near the north end of Great Slave Lake. The species is to be expected elsewhere in Canada and the northern United States.
(1)Cultivated for over 1000 years, it is unknown in the wild. Original habitat is obscure. A bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is not frost tender. It is in flower in July.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. A strong onion flavour, it can be used in salads, as a cooked vegetable or as a flavouring in cooked foods. The bulbs are rather small, usually 10 – 25mm in diameter though they can be up to 45mm, and are sometimes used as spring onions. A nutritional analysis is available. Leaves – raw or cooked. They have a mild onion flavour and can be added to salads or cooked as a vegetable. The leaves are often available all through the winter if the weather is not too severe. They contain about 1.4% protein, 0.3% fat, 4.6% carbohydrate, 0.8% ash, some vitamin B1 and moderate levels of vitamin C. Flowers – raw. A pleasant onion flavour, but they are rather on the dry side.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The bulb contains an essential oil that is rich in sulphur compounds. It is antibacterial, antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, galactogogue, stomachic, vermifuge and vulnerary. It is used in the treatment of colds and abdominal coldness and fullness. A tea made from the roots is a children’s sedative. Use of the bulb in the diet impedes internal parasites. Externally, the bulb can be made into a poultice to drain pus from sores, boils and abscesses.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200027477
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+fistulosum
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#147(l)
Common Name: Geyer’s Onion (Allium geyeri)

Appearance and Habitat: Bulbs 2–10+, not rhizomatous, ovoid or more elongate, 1–2.5 × 0.8–2 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, gray or brown, reticulate, cells rather coarse-meshed, open, fibrous; inner coats whitish, cells vertically elongate and regular or obscure. Leaves persistent, usually green at anthesis, usually 3–5, sheathing less than 1/4 scape; blade solid, ± straight, flat, channeled, (6–)12–30 cm × 1–3(–5) mm, margins entire or denticulate. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, terete or somewhat 2-angled, 10–50 cm × 1–3 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact, 10–25-flowered, hemispheric to globose, not producing bulbils, or 0–5-flowered, largely replaced by ovoid, acuminate bulbils; spathe bracts persistent, 2–3, mostly 1-veined, ovate to lanceolate, ± equal, apex acuminate, beakless. Flowers urceolate-campanulate, (4–)6–8(–10) mm; tepals erect or spreading, pink to white, ovate to lanceolate, ± equal, not withering in fruit and permanently investing fruit, or withering if fruit not produced, midribs papillose, becoming callous-keeled, margins often obscurely toothed, apex obtuse to acuminate; stamens included; anthers yellow; pollen yellow; ovary when present, inconspicuously crested; processes 6, central, low, distinct or connate in pairs across septa, ± erect, rounded, margins entire, becoming variously developed or obsolete in fruit; style linear, ± equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed or obscurely lobed; pedicel becoming rigid and stiffly spreading in fruit, 8–13 mm. Seed coat shining; cells each with minute, central papilla.
(1)Low meadows and by streams in the Rocky Mountains in Western N. America – Washington, Texas, Oregon, New Mexico and Nevada. A bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in).  It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Used mainly as an onion-flavouring in soups etc, though they were also occasionally eaten raw. The bulbs are eaten by the Navajo Indians. The bulbs are up to 25mm long and 20mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.  
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101360
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+geyeri
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#147(m)
Common Name: Kunth’s Onion (Allium kunthii )

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 1–4+, rhizomes, if present, secondary, inconspicuous, 2 cm or less including renewal bulb, ± thick, terminated by new bulb, parent bulbs disappearing by anthesis except for still-functional roots and bulb coat, not basally clustered, ovoid, 1–2 × 0.8–1.5 cm; outer coats enclosing renewal bulbs or not, grayish or brownish, with or without obscure, delicate, cellular markings, sometimes striate, membranous, cells elongate, in regular vertical rows, without fibers; inner bulb coats whitish or pinkish, cells obscure, ± quadrate or rectangular and vertically elongate. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2–5, basally sheathing, sheaths not extended much above soil surface; blade solid, flat, channeled, 10–21 cm × 1–3 mm, margins and veins sometimes denticulate. Scape persistent, solitary, occasionally 2 or more produced successively from single bulb, erect, solid, terete, 15–30 cm × 1–3 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, loose, 5–20-flowered, conic, bulbils unknown; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 3–5-veined, lanceolate, apex acuminate. Flowers stellate to campanulate, 4–8 mm; tepals ± spreading, white or pale pink (particularly on midribs), lanceolate, ± equal, becoming papery and withering in fruit, margins entire, apex acute to acuminate; stamens included; anthers yellow or purple; pollen yellow; ovary crestless; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel unequal, 10–20 mm. Seed coat dull; cells ± smooth. 2n = 14. Flowering Jul–Sep. Dry, rocky hills and mountains, usually in limestone soils; 700–3000 m; Ariz., N.Mex., Tex.; Mexico.
(1)  Dry, rocky hills and mountains, usually in limestone soils at elevations for 700 – 3000 meters in Southwestern N. America – Texas, New Mexico and Mexico. A bulb growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Jul to September.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring. The small bulbs are usually less than 2cm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.  
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101368
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+kunthii
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#147(n)
Common Name: Largeflower Onion, Desert Onion, (Allium macropetalum )

Appearance and Habitat: Large-petal or desert onion is a low, desert species with narrowly linear leaves and pink-striped, six-petaled flowers in a cluster at the top of a separate stem.
(1)Desert plains and hills at elevations from 300 to 2500 meters in South-western N. America – Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Texas and New Mexico. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 5.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. They can be dried and stored for winter use. The North American Indians would singe the bulb to reduce the strong flavour and then eat it immediately or dry it for later use. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.  
(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ALMA4

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+macropetalum
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#147(o)
Common Name: Field Garlic (Allium oleraceum )

Appearance and Habitat:
Bulbs 1 or more, not attached to rhizome, ovoid, 1.2–2 × 1–1.5 cm; outer coats enclosing bulbs, brown to grayish brown, fibrous, fibers close, ± parallel; inner coats white to light brown, not cellular. Leaves withering from tip by anthesis, 2–4, sheathing proximal 1/2+ scape; blade fistulose proximally, solid distally, terete, linear to filiform, prominently ribbed proximally, channeled distally, 1.5–2.5 cm × 0.5–5 mm, margins and veins usually scabrid with minute teeth, apex acute. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, terete, 25–100 cm × 4–8 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact to ± loose, 0–40-flowered, subglobose, with few to many bulbils or with bulbils only; spathe bracts persistent, 2, 4–9-veined, lanceolate, unequal, apex acuminate into beak, beak long, slender, to 20 cm, ± equaling or longer than base. Flowers usually aborting before capsules mature, if present, campanulate, 6–8 mm; tepals erect, whitish or pinkish to purple, outer narrowly obovate, inner ± elliptic, unequal, margins entire, apex obtuse; stamens included; anthers yellow to reddish; pollen yellow; ovary crestless; style linear, equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel 15–60 mm. Seed coat unknown; capsules only rarely produced. Flowering late Jul–Aug. Roadsides and other disturbed ground; introduced; Europe. Allium oleraceum is reported from New England, where it is sometimes found on roadsides and other disturbed ground. It persists and is spread easily by the bulbils.(1)  Dry gassy places, waysides etc. Most of Europe, including Britain, east to the Caucasus. A bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.(2)
Edible Uses:Bulb – raw or cooked. Used as a garlic flavouring in soups etc. The bulbs are 10 – 20mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. The young leaves are used as a garlic flavouring in soups and stews, but are inferior to that species. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads. Used mainly as a flavouring in soups and stews. Bulbils – raw or cooked.(3)
Medicinal Uses :Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101382
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+oleraceum
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#147(p)
Common Name: Cultivated Garlic (Allium sativum )

Appearance and Habitat: Not known in a truly wild situtation. Original habitat is obscure, possibly C. Asia. An occasional garden escape in Britain. A bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 8 and is not frost tender.
Warnings: Avoid with anticlotting medication. Breastfeeding may worsen baby’s colic. Avoid several weeks prior to surgery.
Edible Uses: Bulb – raw or cooked. Widely used, especially in southern Europe, as a flavouring in a wide range of foods, both raw and cooked. Garlic is a wonderfully nutritious and health giving addition to the diet, but it has a very strong flavour and so is mainly used in very small quantities as a flavouring in salads and cooked foods. A nutritional analysis is available. The bulbs can be up to 6cm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Chopped and used in salads, they are rather milder than the bulbs. The Chinese often cultivate garlic especially for the leaves, these can be produced in the middle of winter in mild winters. The flowering stems are used as a flavouring and are sometimes sold in Chinese shops. The sprouted seed is added to salads
Medicinal Uses : Garlic has a very long folk history of use in a wide range of ailments, particularly ailments such as ringworm, Candida and vaginitis where its fungicidal, antiseptic, tonic and parasiticidal properties have proved of benefit. The plant produces inhibitory effects on gram-negative germs of the typhoid-paratyphoid-enteritis group, indeed it possesses outstanding germicidal properties and can keep amoebic dysentery at bay. It is also said to have anticancer activity. It has also been shown that garlic aids detoxification of chronic lead poisoning. Daily use of garlic in the diet has been shown to have a very beneficial effect on the body, especially the blood system and the heart. For example, demographic studies suggest that garlic is responsible for the low incidence of arteriosclerosis in areas of Italy and Spain where consumption of the bulb is heavy. Recent research has also indicated that garlic reduces glucose metabolism in diabetics, slows the development of arteriosclerosis and lowers the risk of further heart attacks in myocardial infarct patients. Externally, the expressed juice is an excellent antiseptic for treating wounds. The fresh bulb is much more effective medicinally than stored bulbs, extended storage greatly reduces the anti-bacterial action. The bulb is said to be anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, stings, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Allium sativum for arteriosclerosis, hypertension, high cholesterol levels.
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+sativum
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#147(q)
Common Name: Wild Chives (Allium schoenoprasum )

Appearance and Habitat:
Across southern Canada and northern United States; in Washington, along the Wenatchee and Columbia Rivers. Habitat: Wet meadows, rocky or gravelly streambanks and lake shores. Scapose perennials from elongate, clustered bulbs, inner coats whitish or pinkish, outer coats grayish or brownish, minutely striate. Leaves usually 2, terete, hollow, 1-7 mm. thick, partially sheathing and shorter than the scape; scape 2-5 dm. tall, rather stout, terete. Flowers: Umbel several- to many-flowered, pedicels slender, shorter than the tepals; tepals 8-12 mm. long, elliptic to lanceolate, pointed, the tips recurved, pale to deep lilac or white; stamens 6, over the length of the tepals. Blooms April to August.(1)  Rocky pastures and damp meadows, preferring calcareous soils. Most of Europe, including Britain, east to the Himalayas and Japan. A bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Feb It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August.(2)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw, cooked or dried for later use. The leaves have a mild onion flavour and are an excellent addition to mixed salads, they can also be used as a flavouring in soups etc. The leaves are often available from late winter and can continue to produce leaves until early the following winter, especially if they are in a warm, sheltered position. A good source of sulphur and iron. A nutritional analysis is available. The bulbs are rather small, and rarely exceed 10mm in diameter. They can be harvested with the leaves still attached and be used as spring onions. They have a pleasant mild onion flavour. The flowers can be used as a garnish in salads etc. The flowers of this species are rather dry and less desirable than the flowers of many other species.
(3)
Medicinal Uses :The whole plant has a beneficial effect on the digestive system and the blood circulation. It improves the appetite, is digestive, hypotensive and tonic. It has similar properties to garlic (A. sativum), but in a much milder form, and it is rarely used medicinally.
(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Allium&Species=schoenoprasum

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+schoenoprasum
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Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.