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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West. Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. )
#145 (part 2)
Common Name: Oregon Grape, Holly Grape, Creeping Barberry, Yerba de Sangre, Barberry
Latin Name: Mahonia aquifolium, M. bealei, M. fremontii, M. haematocarpa, M. nervosa, M. pinnata, m. repens, M. swaseyi, M. trifoliolata, M. wilcoxii
Family: Berberidaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAHON
 All of the lower 48 States except Wisconsin, Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma, Iowa south through Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, West Virginia, and New England north of New York; In Canada; found in British Columbia, Alberta, Onatrio and Quebec. This is the main database.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MASW Texas. (Mahonia swaseyi)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MATR3 Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. (Mahonia trifoliolata)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
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#145(h)
Common Name: Texas Barberry (Mahonia swaseyi )

Appearance and Habitat:
Shrubs , evergreen, 1-2 m. Stems ± dimorphic, with elongate primary and short or somewhat elongate axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems purple, glabrous. Bud scales 1.5-4 mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves 5-9-foliolate (basal pair of leaflets sometimes reduced to bristles); petioles 0.1-0.5 cm. Leaflet blades thin or thick and rigid; surfaces abaxially dull, papillose, adaxially dull, somewhat glaucous; terminal leaflet stalked (sessile in a few leaves), blades 1.8-3.5 × 0.7-1.7 cm, 1.3-4.7 times as long as wide; lateral leaflets oblong to elliptic or lanceolate, 1-veined from base, base truncate to obtuse, rarely acute, margins plane or undulate, toothed, each with 3-8 teeth 0.5-2 mm high tipped with spines to 0.6-1.2 × 0.1-0.2 mm, apex rounded to acuminate. Inflorescences racemose, lax, 2-6-flowered, 4-6 cm; bracteoles leathery, apex spinose-acuminate, sometimes with proximal bracteoles as described, distal membranous and acuminate. Flowers: anther filaments with distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries white or red and somewhat glaucous, spheric, 9-16 mm, dry or juicy, hollow. Flowering winter-spring (Feb-Apr). Limestone ridges and canyons; 150-600 m; Tex.  (1)Beside rocky streams in Texas. Edemic to the Edwards Plateau in Texas, where it grows on limestone ridges and canyons at elevations of 150 to 600 meters. An evergreen shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in).  It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May.  (2)
Warnings: None(3)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw but more usually cooked in preserves. Pleasantly acid, it can also be dried and used as raisins. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. The fruit, which can be dry or juicy, is up to 15mm in diameter. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. (4)
Medicinal Uses :Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn.(5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500241
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mahonia+swaseyi
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#145(i)
Common Name: Agarita, Laredo Mahonia, Laredo Oregon Grape, Mexican Barberry (Mahonia trifoliolata )

Appearance and Habitat:
This 3-6 ft. evergreen shrub, can reach 8 ft. in favorable conditions. The rigid, spreading branches often form thickets. Gray-green to blue-gray, trifoliate, holly-like leaves are alternate, 2–4 inches long, divided into three leaflets which have 3–7 lobes ending in sharp spines. Wood bright yellow. Flowers numerous, yellow, up to 1/2 inch wide with 6 petals and 6 sepals, which are similar, forming a cup shape around the stamens and pistils. Flowers appearing in February and March, their fragrance often filling the air where they are plentiful. Fruit a red berry, edible appearing from May to July.(1)Shrubs , evergreen, 1-3.5 m. Stems ± dimorphic, with elongate primary and short axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems gray or grayish purple, glabrous. Bud scales 2-3 mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves 3-foliolate; petioles 0.8-5.4 cm. Leaflet blades thick and rigid; surfaces abaxially dull, papillose, adaxially dull, ± glaucous; terminal leaflet sessile, blade 2.3-5.8 × 0.9-2 cm, 1.6-3.1 times as long as wide; lateral leaflet blades narrowly lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 1-veined from base, base acute or acuminate, rarely rounded-acute, margins plane, toothed or lobed, with 1-3 teeth or lobes 3-7 mm high tipped with spines to 1-2 × 0.2-0.3 mm, apex narrowly acute or acuminate. Inflorescences racemose, lax, 1-8-flowered, 0.5-3 cm; bracteoles membranous, apex acuminate. Flowers: anther filaments without distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries red, sometimes glaucous, spheric, 6-11 mm, juicy, solid. Flowering winter-spring (Feb-Apr). Slopes and flats in grassland, shrubland, and sometimes open woodland; 0-2000 m; Ariz., N.Mex., Tex.; Northern Mexico.  (2)  Dry calcareous soils, slopes and flat grassland, shrubland, and sometimes open woodland at elevations from 0 to 2000 meters. In South-western N. America – Texas, Arizona and Mexico. It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May.  (3)
Warnings: None(4)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw or cooked. An acid flavour but nice, especially when added to porridges or muesli. A subtle tart flavour, it is pleasant to eat raw. Unfortunately there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. The fruit is also used to make preserves. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. (5)
Medicinal Uses :Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn.(6)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MATR3
Foot Notes: (2)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500243
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mahonia+trifoliolata
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(Now for Michael Moore who covers all of them in the west and ( Mahonia wilcoxii) )
Appearance and Habitat:
On all species the leaves as pinnate, on some, such as M. aquifolium, M. pinnata, M. wilcoxii, M. nervosa and M. repens the leaves are broad and ivy like with prickles on the edges. They are also a darker green above, and lighter below. There are usually 7 – 9 pairs of leaves along a thin and tough stem. Mohania wilcoxii is found in southeasten Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. It lives in the Sonora desert. Mahonia repens and M. nervosa are creeping growth plants, who’s stems are seldom more than an inch or two above the ground and spread by thin rootlets forming colonies. M. repens leaves turn red in the fall. All have bright green leaves, with M. nervosa almost looking plastic in appearance. M. fremontii, M. haematocarpa and M. trioliolata are spiney bushes found along dry hillsides in their range. They are covered with sharp edged thin leaves with 3-5 leaves along the stems. Regardless of species they always have yellow flowers that grow in clusters. The flowers mature into dark blue or red berries. The branches, roots and stems all have a yellow center from the presence of berberine, an orange alkaloid. You will find M. pinnata growing along the coastal ranges of California. In the north it hybridizes with M. aquifolium, which grows into Canada. M. repens is quite common in the Great Basin, the Rocky Mountains and south into Mexico then eastward to the Great Lakes. Look for M. trifoliolata along the southern Rio Grande and into Chihuahua in Mexico.
Medicinal Uses : Collect the roots and stems at any time and dry them in a paper bag breaking them as small as possible while still fresh. For tea collect the leaves and dry them in a paper sack. The leaves can be crushed and put in #00 capsules, taken 3 times a day. The leaves can also be made into tea by using 32 parts boiling water to one part plant, taking the water off the heat source once it boils and allow to cool. After cooling return the level of water to 32 parts. Grinding the stems and roots can be a problem, they will damage a blender, so best to grind them in a solidly placed hand grinder. A fresh tincture can also be made of the roots and stems at 1 part plant to 2 parts 50% vodka, or a dry tincture at 1 part dried plant to 5 parts 50% vodka. Both tinctures can be taken at 10 to 60 drops daily. All Mahonia species work well for treating chronic liver malfunctions internally, and externally for treating staph infections. They also inhibit cocci bacteria, like E. coli, aerobacter, klebstiella, proteus, pseudomas and shigella. It is a good treatment for Candida albicans infections as well as amoebic dysentary. This goes, even the drug resistant strains of staphylococcus aureus. It is also an antioxident and will lessen the stress from lipid free radicals which cause chronic autoimmune diseases. Topically it will treat psoriasis as well.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, page 179-183, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5
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#146
Common Name: Pennyroyal, American Pennyroyal, False Pennyroyal, Dwarf Pennyroyal, Coyote Mint
Latin Name: Hedeoma oblongifolium, Mentha pulegium, Mondarella odoratissma, Mondarella pulegioids, Mondarella villosa
Family: Labiatae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=HEOB
 Arizona and New Mexico (Hedeoma oblongifolia)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=HEPU All States east of the Mississippi R., except Florida, plus all states on the west bank of the Mississippi R., except Louisiana, plus North Dakota to Oklahoma; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. (Hedeoma pulegioides)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MEPU Washington, Oregon, California, Hawaii, Pennsylvania, Maryland and New Jersey; In Canada: Brisish Columbia. (Mentha pulegium)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MOOD Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Nevada and California; In Canada; British Columbia. ( Monardella odoratissima)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MOVI2 Oregon and California.
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
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#146(a)
Common Name: American False Pennyroyal, American Pennyroyal (Hedeoma pulegioides )

Appearance and Habitat: A native species, with is erect, annual, 4″-16″ tall forb, aromatic; stems square, usually branched. The flowers are pink, 5 parted, and are distinctly-spaced whorls from the leaf axils; blooms July-Sept. The leaves are opposite lance-like to oval, finely hairy, main ones stalked. It’s habitat is upland woods.(1)  Dry soils in open woods and fields from S. Quebec to Minnesota and S. Dakota, then south to Tennessee and Arkansas. An annual growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jul to September.(2)
Warnings: In large quantities this plant, especially in the form of the extracted oil, can be toxic if taken internally. Skin contact wth the pure essential oil can cause dermatitis.(3)
Edible Uses:The leaves have a very strong mint-like aroma and taste, they can be brewed into a refreshing tea that promotes good digestion, or they can be used as a culinary flavouring. An essential oil from the plant is used by the food industry as a flavouring in beverages, ice cream, baked goods etc.(4)
Medicinal Uses :American pennyroyal has a long history of medicinal use by various native North American Indian tribes and has become a traditional household remedy in North America. It is used mainly in the treatment of digestive disorders, colds, whooping cough, painful menstruation and as an aid in childbirth. A tea made from the leaves or flowering stems is carminative, rubefacient, stimulant. It is used to treat colds because it promotes perspiration A tea with brewers yeast can induce an abortion. The plants are harvested when flowering and can be used fresh or dried. The essential oil is distilled from the plants when they are in flower and used medicinally in the same ways as the leaves. Caution is advised since the pure essential oil is very toxic and ingestion can be lethal whilst skin contact can cause dermatitis.(5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=HEDPUL
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hedeoma+pulegioides
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#146(b)
Common Name: Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium )

Appearance and Habitat: A perennial, introduced from Europe. Leaves opposite, all cauline, petiolate, densely soft-pubescent, oval, nearly entire, small, with only 2-3 lateral veins. Strongly aromatic, perennial herbs from creeping rhizomes, the square stems prostrate to ascending, pubescent, 2-6 dm. tall. Flowers in compact verticels in the axils of the deflexed upper leaves, which barely surpass the flower clusters, the verticels well separated; calyx pubescent, 2.5-3 mm. long, regular, 5-lobed, the 2 lower lobes narrower, 10-nerved; corolla nearly regular, four-lobed, with a short tube, lilac, 4-7 mm. long; stamens 4, equal, exerted; style 2-parted; ovary 2-celled, superior. Southern and southwestern Washington along the Columbia River; British Columbia south to California; scattered in eastern North America.(1)  Moist meadows and sandy soils by steams in Central southern Europe, including Britain, Mediterranean region, Macronesia. It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Aug to October, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October.  (2)
Warnings: In large quantities this plant, especially in the form of the extracted oil, can cause abortions so it shouldn’t be used by pregnant women. Avoid if patient has fits or seizures and those with liver or kidney disease. Oral intake may cause abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, confusion, delirium, auditory and visual hallucinations. (3)
Edible Uses:Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring in salads or cooked foods. A spearmint-like flavour, though rather coarser, it is not used very often in Britain. A herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves. For drying, it should be harvested as the plant comes into flower.(4)
Medicinal Uses :Pennyroyal has been used for centuries in herbal medicine. Its main value is as a digestive tonic where it increases the secretion of digestive juices and relieves flatulence and colic. Pennyroyal also powerfully stimulates the uterine muscles and encourages menstruation, thus it should not be prescribed for pregnant women since it can procure abortions, this is especially the case if the essential oil is used. The herb is antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, sedative and stimulant. A tea made from the leaves has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, minor respiratory infections, digestive disorders, menstrual complaints and various minor ailments. It is occasionally used as a treatment for intestinal worms. Externally, an infusion is used to treat itchiness and formication, inflamed skin disorders such as eczema and rheumatic conditions such as gout. The leaves are harvested in the summer as the plant comes into flower and are dried for later use. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large doses.(5) 
Foot Notes: (1)http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Mentha&Species=pulegium
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mentha+pulegium
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#146(c)
Common Name: Alpine Mountainbalm, Mountain Pennyroyal, Coyote Mint (Modarella odoratissima aka Monarda odoratissima)
Native American Name: Guy mohpu (Shoshone)(1)
Appearance and Habitat:
Alpine mountainbalm or coyote mint is a variable species with many subspecies across its range. A grayish, aromatic plant with erect, bunched, leafy stems bearing opposite leaves and topped by small, whitish to pale purple or pink flowers in a dense head. In general, its stems form large mats about 1 ft. high. In bloom, these are covered with flower heads, ranging in color from near white to bright blue-purple. The paired leaves are highly fragrant. Coyote Mint has many races in the West, varying in density of foliage hairs, breadth of heads, and relative length of bracts and calyx.(2) Open wet or dry often rocky places at low to moderate elevations in Western N. America – Washington to California. A perennial growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is hardy to zone 8.  (3)
Warnings: None  (4)
Edible Uses:The fresh or dried aromatic leaves and flower heads are steeped in cold water to make a refreshing mint-like tea.  (5)
Medicinal Uses :The plant is carminative and febrifuge. A decoction of the stems and flower heads has been used in the treatment of flatulence and other digestive upsets, colds and fevers. The decoction is also used as an eye wash for sore or inflamed eyes.(6)Shoshone Tribe would make tea from the flowerheads to regulate young girls menstruation.(7)
Foot Notes: (1, 7) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 45, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MOOD
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Monardella+odoratissima
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#146(d)
Common Name: Coyote Mint (Monardella villosa)

Appearance and Habitat: M. villosa is found in rocky places below 3,000 feet elevation; from Humboldt County to San Luis Obispo, California.(1)  Dry rocky gravelly places below 900 meters in scrub and pine forests in South-western N. America. A perennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 8.(2)
Warnings: None  (3)
Edible Uses:The fresh or dried aromatic leaves and flower heads are steeped in cold water (but should not be boiled) to make a refreshing clear tea. It has a sweet spicy aroma and a slightly bitter mint-like flavour.  (4)
Medicinal Uses :An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of stomach aches.  (5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org/network/ViewProtocols.aspx?ProtocolID=645
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Monardella+villosa
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(Now for Michael Moore who covers all in the west )
Appearance and Habitat:
These plants don’t look the same, the more common is Hedeoma in the southwest, a native to Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Montana, Wyoming and Mexico. There it grows in dry arroyos from 3,500 to 8,000 feet. It is a small plant, resembling thyme in appearance. It, like all mints, has opposite leaves and sends out many small stems from the central root, up to six inches in length. It is most visible along middle moutain roads and along canyons. The Monardella odoratissima species is found in California and stretches east to Nevada into the Rocky Mountains. It can be found up to 10,000 feet. They have oval or lance shaped leaves that are dark green on top and lighter below. They are usually under a foot in height with lavender or purple flowers along a square stem which is usually downy in appearance. Monardella lanceolata and M. villosa are rather common in the moist foothills of the coastal mountains. They are often bushy with lanceolate leaves along the stems. Mentha pelegium is found in sporatic patches along the pacific coast mountians fro California to British Columbia. All the species have the same minty scent of Pennyroyal.
Medicinal Uses : Collect the leaved stems and bundle them into less than 1/4 inch bundes and all them to dry. Remember the plants that are perennial should not be damaged to the point that they won’t return the next year. Hedeoma contains the same oils as H. pulegioides and is very similar to the oils found in Monardella, so they are pretty much interchangeable. All should be avoided when pregnant, but work wonders when a period is late. It should also be avoided with chronic uterine problems. It is very useful during child birth as it tends to induce contraction. The tea works great for children suffering from a stomach ache, use 1/2 teaspoon of the dried plant. Both adults (rounded teaspoon of plant) and children when there is nausea or vomiting should try Pennyroyal. After throwing repeat the process. It also works great in the beginning stages of a cold, it will relieve the fever and cause sweating to remove toxins. The leaves and flowers can be rubbed on the skin to repel mosquitoes and other biting insects. The tea is pleasant to the taste.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, page 188-191, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 0-89013-454-5

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

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