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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
Common Name: Sage, Silver Sage, Chia, Lanceleaf Sage, Azure Blue Sage, White Sage
Latin Name:
Salvia apiana, S. ballotiflora, S. carduacea, S. columbariae, S. microphylla, S. lyrata, S. officinalis, S. pratensis, S. sclarea
Family: Lamiaceae
All States except Alaska and New Hampshire; In Canada; British Columbia to Quebec. This is the main database for Sage.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAAP2 California. (Salvia apiana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SABA5 Texas. (Salvia ballotiflora)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SACA8 California. (Salvia carduacea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SACO6 California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. (Salvia columbariae)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAMI20 California, Arizona and New Mexico. (Salvia microphylla)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALY2 All States east of the Mississippi R., except Wisconsin, and states north of New York and Connecticut, plus Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. (Salvia lyrata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAOF2 Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, W. Virginia, Virginia, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Utah and California; In Canada; Ontario and Quebec. (Salvia officinalis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAPR2 Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Wisconsin, Illinois, S. Dakota, Kansas, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Idaho and Washington; In Canada; Ontario. (Salvia pratensis)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SASC2 Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, Michigan, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington; In Canada; Ontario. (Salvia sclarea)
Photos : (Click on Latin name after common name )
Warnings: None on PFAF website, except for Salvia officinalis
#158 (a)
Common Name: White Sage, California White Sage (Salvia apiana)
Appearance and Habitat:
A low, soft-stemmed, aromatic subshrub with long wands of whitish-lavender flowers. Silvery foliage occurs in 2 ft. mounds, subtending the 5 ft. flowering stalks. A woody shrub, with erect whitish branches. White Sage is a member of the mint family (family Lamiaceae), which includes aromatic herbs or shrubs (rarely trees or vines), usually with stems square in cross-section, four-sided.There are about 200 genera and 3,200 species, distributed nearly worldwide. The Mediterranean region, the chief area of diversity, produces many spices and flavorings, such as various mints, oregano, marjoram, thyme, sage, and basil. Catnip and lavender are in the mint family.
(1)  Dry benches and slopes below 1500 meters in south-western N. America – California. A perennial growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower from Apr to July.(2)
Edible Uses:Seed – raw or cooked. It can be ground into a powder and used as a mush. The seed has been mixed with cereals such as oats or wheat, toasted then ground into a fine powder and eaten dry. The seed can also be soaked overnight and used as a drink in water or fruit juice or eaten with cereals. The seed is also used as a spice. The leaves are used in cooking. They can be used as a flavouring in seed mushes. Stem tops. The young stalks can be eaten raw. Ripe stem tops can be peeled and eaten raw.
Medicinal Uses :An infusion of the leaves is used as a blood tonic and as a treatment for coughs and colds. The leaves can be eaten, or used as a sweat bath, in the treatment of colds. The seeds have been used as eye cleaners. No more information is given here, but in other instances the seed has been placed in the eye, it then forms a gelatinous covering to which any foreign matter in the eye adheres. The seed is washed out of the eye by the eyes own tears.
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAAP2

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+apiana
#158 (b)
Common Name: Shrubby Blue Sage, Mejorana (Salvia ballotiflora )
Appearance and Habitat:
A much-branched aromatic shrub with square stems. Leaves are opposite with serrated margins, hairy above and below. Flowers bluish-purple in elongated clusters.
(1)Dry places in coastal sage shrub in California. South-western N. America – California to Texas. An annual.(2)
Edible Uses:An infusion of the aromatic flowering tops is used as a herb tea.
Medicinal Uses :None
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SABA5

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+ballotaeflora
#158 (c)
Common Name: Thistle Sage, (Salvia carduacea)
Appearance and Habitat:
A handsome, whitish-woolly plant with vivid lavender, bilaterally symmetrical flowers in a stacked series of prickly round clusters near top of leafless stems. This is one of the most beautiful native sages; the brilliant lavender flowers are strikingly contrasted against the pale foliage, and the vermilion anthers provide color accent.
(1)  Sandy gravelly places below 1350 meters. Open nad grassy places in south-western N. America- California. An annual / perennial growing to 0.7 m (2ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower in July.(2)
Edible Uses:Seed – raw or cooked. It can be roasted, then ground into a powder and used with other seeds as a mush. The seeds can be added to wheat to improve the flavour. It can also be used as a cooling beverage.
Medicinal Uses :None
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SACA8

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+carduacea
#158 (d)
Common Name: Chia, California Sage, Golden Chia, (Salvia columbariae)
Appearance and Habitat:
Tiny, blue flowers are aggregated in several balls along the square stems of this 4-20 in. annual. The leaves are mostly basal, once or twice pinnate and velvety. California sage smells distinctly skunky. Chia (pronounced chee-ah) is the common name for several Salvia species from which Indians made pinole; a meal ground from parched seeds. When steeped in water the seeds also produced a thick, mucilaginous drink.
(1)  Dry open places below 1200 meters in south-western N. America. An annual / perennial growing to 0.7 m (2ft 4in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.(2)
Edible Uses: Seeds roasted, ground into meal, water added to make gruel. Native American messenger runner’s carried ripe seeds in belt pouches and ate them on route. Pomo Indians ground the seeds for pinole. Chia is the Spanish name for this plant. Cortez found Mexican natives using these seeds parched and ground into meal.(3)  Seed – raw or cooked. Usually ground into a powder and used as piñole or made into dark-coloured cakes and loaves, it has a nutty flavour. It can also be mixed with corn meal when making mush or with ground wheat for gruel. Rich in niacin, thiamine, zinc, calcium and manganese, it is also a good source of protein and easily digested fats. It has a high food value and is easily digested. The sprouted seeds can be added to salads and sandwiches. A refreshing drink can be made by steeping the seed in cold water. Alternatively, the seed can be roasted and ground into a powder then mixed with water when it soon becomes a copious gelatinous mass. It is very palatable and nutritious. The seed has been used to render water palatable by removing the alkalis. The leaves are occasionally used as a sage-like seasoning.(4)
Medicinal Uses :Mission fathers used an infusion of the seeds for fevers and for cooling drinks. The ’49ers used the seeds for gunshot wounds, in a poultice.
(5)  The seed is digestive, disinfectant, febrifuge and ophthalmic. An infusion can be used in the treatment of fevers. A poultice of the seed mush can be applied to infections. The seeds have been kept in the mouth, and chewed during long journeys on foot, in order to give strength. The seeds have been used to cleanse the eyes or remove foreign matter from the eyes. No more information is given here, but in other instances the seed has been placed in the eye, it then forms a gelatinous covering to which any foreign matter in the eye adheres. The seed is washed out of the eye by the eyes own tears.(6)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SACO6

Foot Notes: (2, 4, 6 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+columbariae
Foot Notes: ( 3, 5 ) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 28, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4

#158 (e)
Common Name: Lyreleaf Sage, Cancer Weed, (Salvia lyrata)
Appearance and Habitat:
Lyreleaf sage is a strictly upright, hairy perennial, 1-2 ft. tall with a rosette of leaves at the base. The leaves are deeply 3-lobed, with a few simple leaves higher up on the stem. Large basal leaves are purple-tinged in the winter. This species has the typical square stem and 2-lipped blossom of the mints. Its pale-blue to violet, tubular flowers are arranged in whorls around the stem forming an interrupted, terminal spike. Each blossom is about 1 inch long. The 2-lobed lower lip is much longer than the upper, which has 3 lobes, the middle one forming a sort of hood. The sepals are purplish-brown. Lyreleaf sage makes a great evergreen groundcover, with somewhat ajuga-like foliage and showy blue flowers in spring. It will reseed easily in loose, sandy soils and can form a solid cover with regular watering. It even takes mowing and can be walked on. The exposed lower lip of this and other salvias provides an excellent landing platform for bees. When a bee lands, the two stamens are tipped, and the insect is doused with pollen.
(1)  Sandy soils and lawns in Eastern N. America – Pennsylvania to Florida, west to Texas and Illinois. A perennial growing 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower from Jul to August.(2)
Edible Uses:None(3)
Medicinal Uses :The plant is diaphoretic and mildly laxative. It can be used in the treatment of diarrhoea, coughs and colds. The fresh leaves are applied to remove warts. The plant is also a folk remedy for cancer. The leaves and seeds are made into an ointment to cure wounds and sores. The root can be used to make a salve for sores.(4)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SALY2

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salvia+lyrata
#158 (f)
Common Name: Baby Sage, Blackcurrant Sage, (Salvia microphylla)
Appearance and Habitat:
Southern N. America -Mexico to Guatemala. An evergreen perennial growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Aug to October.
Edible Uses: The leaves have a pleasant scent of blackcurrant and can be used fresh or dried as a flavouring. A herbal tea, called ‘mirot de montes’, is made from the leaves.
Medicinal Uses : An infusion of the flowers and leaves have been used in the treatment of fevers.


#158 (g)
Common Name: Sage, Kitchen Sage (Salvia officinalis)
Appearance and Habitat:
Dry banks and stony places, usually in limestone areas and often where there is very little soil. Southern Europe. An evergreen shrub growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September.
Warnings: The plant can be toxic when used in excesss or when taken for extended periods of time. Symptoms include: restlessness, vomiting, vertigo, tremors, seizures. Contraindicated during pregnancy. Avoid if predisposed to convulsions.
Edible Uses: Leaves and flowers – raw or cooked. A very common herb, the strongly aromatic leaves are used as a flavouring in cooked foods. They are an aid to digestion and so are often used with heavy, oily foods. They impart a sausage-like flavour to savoury dishes. The young leaves and flowers can be eaten raw, boiled, pickled or used in sandwiches. The flowers can also be sprinkled on salads to add colour and fragrance. A herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves, it is said to improve the digestion. An essential oil obtained from the plant is used commercially to flavour ice cream, sweets, baked goods etc.
Medicinal Uses : Sage has a very long history of effective medicinal use and is an important domestic herbal remedy for disorders of the digestive system. Its antiseptic qualities make it an effective gargle for the mouth where it can heal sore throats, ulcers etc. The leaves applied to an aching tooth will often relieve the pain. The whole herb is antihydrotic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cholagogue, galactofuge, stimulant, tonic and vasodilator. Sage is also used internally in the treatment of excessive lactation, night sweats, excessive salivation (as in Parkinson’s disease), profuse perspiration (as in TB), anxiety, depression, female sterility and menopausal problems. Many herbalists believe that the purple-leafed forms of this species are more potent medicinally. This remedy should not be prescribed to pregnant women or to people who have epileptic fits. The plant is toxic in excess or when taken for extended periods – though the toxic dose is very large. Externally, it is used to treat insect bites, skin, throat, mouth and gum infections and vaginal discharge. The leaves are best harvested before the plant comes into flower and are dried for later use. The essential oil from the plant is used in small doses to remove heavy collections of mucous from the respiratory organs and mixed in embrocations for treating rheumatism. In larger doses, however, it can cause epileptic fits, giddiness etc. The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is ‘Tonic’. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Salvia officinalis Sage for loss of appetite, inflammation of the mouth, excessive perspiration.

#158 (h)
Common Name: Introduced Sage, Meadow Clary (Salvia pratensis)
Appearance and Habitat:
A rare native of Britain, from scandanavia south nad east to Spain, Serbia, the Crimea, Bulgaria. A perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jul to August.
Edible Uses: The pungent, bitter flavoured herb has been used as a flavouring in beers and wines. It is also used as an adulterant of sage
Medicinal Uses : None


#158 (i)
Common Name: European Sage, Clary (Salvia sclarea)
Appearance and Habitat:
Rocky igneous slopes, mixed deciduous and coniferous woodland, shale banks and roadsides to 2000 meters in Turkey. Southern Europe to Syria. A biennial / perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.6 m (2ft). It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower in August, and the seeds ripen in September.
Edible Uses: Leaves – raw or cooked. A strong, warm, aromatic taste and odour. They are used mainly as a flavouring in cooked foods, they are similar to sage (S. officinalis). The leaves can be dipped in batter and cooked to make delicious fritters. Flowers – raw. A pleasant taste, they can be sprinkled on chopped salads, or made into a tea. The plant is sometimes used as a hop substitute in flavouring beer, imparting considerable bitterness and intoxicating properties – it either makes people dead drunk or insanely exhilarated. The leaves have also been used to adulterate wine and give it a muscatel flavour.
Medicinal Uses : Clary has been perceived both as a weaker version of sage (Salvia officinalis) and also as a significant herb in its own right. An antispasmodic and aromatic plant, it is used mainly to treat digestive problems such as wind and indigestion. It is also regarded as a tonic, calming herb that helps relieve period pain and pre-menstrual problems. Owing to its oestrogen-stimulating action, it is most effective when levels of this hormone are low. The whole plant, and especially the leaves, is antispasmodic, appetizer, aromatic, astringent, balsamic, carminative, pectoral and tonic. It is useful in treating disorders of the stomach and kidneys and is a valuable remedy for complaints associated with the menopause, particularly hot flushing. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women. The leaves can be used fresh or dried, for drying they are harvested before the plant comes into flower. The seed forms a thick mucilage when it is soaked for a few minutes in water. This is efficacious in removing small particles of dust from the eyes. The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is ‘Euphoric’.


Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.