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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#133
Common Name: Hawthorn
Latin Name: Crataegus aestivalis, C. calpodendron, C. chrysocarpa, C. coccinoides, C. crus-galli, C. douglasii,  C. fabellata, C. laevigata, C.  macrosperma,  C. mollis, C. phaenopyrum
Family: Rosacea
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=crata
All States except Hawaii, all of lower Canada; British Columbia to New Foundland. Main data base.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRAE Southern coastal States from Virginia to Mississippi (Crataegus aestivalis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRCA All States east of the Mississippi R. except states north of New York, Delaware, Florida and S. Carolina; all States along the western bank of the Mississippi R. plus Nebraska, Kansas, Olahoma and Texas; In Canada; Ontario. (Crataegus calpodendron)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRCH All States north, and including Virginia(exception Delaware), Kentucky, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Utah, Idaho and Oregon; In Canada; British Columbia to New Foundland (Crataegus chrysocarpa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRCO2 Oklahoma, Kansas, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Illinois and Wisconsin; In Canada; Ontario and Quebec (Crataegus coccinioides)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRCR2 All States east of the Mississippi R. except Vermont, all States along the west bank of the Mississippi R. plus Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. (Crataegus crus-galli)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRDO2 Alaska, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washinton, Idaho, Wyoming, Montana, N. and S. Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan; In Canada; British Columbia to Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec. (Crataegus douglasii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRFL All States east of the Mississippi, except Florida, plus Minnesota, Arkansas and Louisiana; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec, New Bruswick and Nova Scotia. (Crataegus flabellata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRLA80 Washington, Wisconsin and Michigan; In Canada; Ontario and Quebec (Crataegus laevigata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRMA3 All States east of the MIssisspi R. except Alabama and Florida; plus Minnesota, Arkansas and Louisiana; In Canada; Ontario and Quebec. (Crataegus macrosperma)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRMO2 All States east of the Mississippi R. except New Jersey, N. and S. Carolina and Florida, all States on the west bank of the Mssissippi R. plus North Dakota to Texas; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. (Crataegus mollis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRPH All States east of the Mississippi R. and south of the Ohio R., plus Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Pennslyvia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Maine; In Canada; Ontario. ( Crataegus phaenopyrum)
Warnings: None (PFAF)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
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#133 (a)
Common Name: Mayhaw, May Hawthorn (Crataegus aestivalis)

Appearance and Habitat: May hawthorn is a small tree to 40 ft. or, less commonly, a shrub with crooked, usually spiny, branches. Clusters of white flowers are followed by edible, red fruit. Unusual among Crataegus spp. in having fruits ripen early, from April to July.(1)Found on the outer coastal plain in seasonally flooded depressions, in floodplains or in uplands. It is commonly found in river swamps, pond areas, and along stream banks in South-eastern N. America – North Carolina to Mississippi. A deciduous shrub growing to 9 m (29ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen from May to June.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Juicy and acid with a pleasant flavour. It is up to 2cm in diameter. The fruit is frequently used and much prized in parts of southern N. America where it is often gathered in quantity from the wild. Its acid flavour makes it a favourite for preserves and jellies. The fruit can also be dried for later use. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.(3)
Medicinal Uses: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CRAE
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+aestivalis
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#133 (b)
Common Name: Pear Hawthorn (Crataegus calpodendron )

Appearance and Habitat: Open woods and thickets, especially by small rocky streams in Eastern N. America – Ontario to central United States. A deciduous tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in).
It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in October.

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Sweet and succulent. The fruit can be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the root bark has been used as a stimulant to treat cases of general debility. An infusion of the twigs has been used to treat pains in the side and bladder problems. Although no other specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.
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#133 (c)
Common Name: Fireberry Hawthorn (Crataegus chrysocarpa )

Appearance and Habitat: Many-branched shrub or sall tree with a broad, rounded crown.(1)Thickets and rocky ground along streams in North-eastern N. America – Newfoundland to Pennsylvania, west to the Rocky Mountains. A deciduous tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in September. (2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Used mainly as a famine food. A very pleasant flavour when ripe, with the added bonus of ripening in late summer before most other members of the genus. The fruit can be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. It is about 1cm in diameter and borne in small clusters. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed. A tea can be made from the twigs. (This probably means the young shoots with leaves.(3)
Medicinal Uses: A decoction of the dried berries has been used as a mild laxative. A compound decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea. Although no other specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CRCH
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+chrysocarpa
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#133 (d)
Common Name: Kansas Hawthorn (Crataegus coccinoides )

Appearance and Habitat: Dry thickets and calcareous hills in Central N. America – Illinios and Missouri to Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. A deciduous tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Firm and sub-acid. The fruit can be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. The fruit is borne in small clusters and is up to 17mm in diameter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed
Medicinal Uses: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.
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#133 (e)
Common Name: Cockspur Hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli )

Appearance and Habitat: Cock-spur hawthorn is a small, globular, deciduous tree with a short trunk; exfoliating bark; horizontal, thorny branches which sweep the ground; and thick, glossy foliage which turns bright orange or red in fall. Profuse clusters of white flowers are followed by small, red apples, persistent until January. Small, spiny, thicket-forming tree with short, stout trunk and broad, dense crown of spreading and horizontal branches; hairless throughout. The tree grows 20-35 ft. tall with an equal spread. The common and Latin species names both describe the numerous and extremely long spines, which are used locally as pins. The long spines and shiny dark green spoon-shaped leaves make this one of the most easily recognized hawthorns. Common and widespread, it has been planted for ornament and as a hedge since colonial times.(1)Thickets and open ground, especially in dry or rocky places. Usually found on the slopes of low hills in rich soils. Eastern N. America – Quebec to Georgia, west to Louisiana. Locally naturalized in Europe. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A dry flesh, it is used in jellies. The fruit is about 1cm in diameter and is borne in small clusters. It often persists on the tree until spring. This suggests that it does not make very good eating. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.(3)
Medicinal Uses: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CRCR2
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+crus-galli
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#133 (f)
Common Name: Black Hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii )

Appearance and Habitat: A thorny, mucj branched shrub or small tree from 6 – 30 feet in height. Small tree with compact, rounded crown of stout, spreading branches; often a thicket-forming shrub. Twigs are reddish and bear thick, oval, toothed leaves. White flowers occur in dense, terminal clusters and are followed by blue-black berries. This species is a handsome ornamental with showy white flowers, glossy foliage, and odd, shiny black fruits. It is named for its discoverer, David Douglas (1798-1834), the Scottish botanical explorer. Cattle and sheep browse the foliage; pheasants, partridges, quail, and other birds consume the berries. The most widespread western member of its genus, Black Hawthorn is also the only species north to southeastern Alaska.(1)Open woods, banks of mountain streams and rocky banks in Western N. America – British Columbia to Michigan, south to California. A deciduous tree growing to 9 m (29ft 6in). It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in September.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A very pleasant flavour with a sweet and juicy succulent flesh, it makes an excellent dessert fruit and can be eaten in quantity. The fruit can also be used for making pies, preserves etc, and can be dried for later use. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and is borne in small clusters. The fruits I have eaten have been considerably larger than this. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.(3)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the shoots has been used to treat diarrhoea in children and sores in babies mouths. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been applied to swellings. An infusion of the bark has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. An infusion of the sapwood, bark and roots has been used as a stomach medicine. The thorns have been used as a treatment for arthritis.The point of the thorn was used to pierce an area affected by arthritic pain. The other end of the thorn was ignited and burned down to the point buried into the skin. This treatment was very painful but it was said that after a scab had formed and disappeared, the arthritic pain had also disappeared. The thorns have been used as probes for boils and ulcers. Although no other specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CRDO2
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+douglasii
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#133 (g)
Common Name: Fanleaf Hawthorn (Crataegus flabellata)

Appearance and Habitat: Thickets and open woods. Dry open places, borders of woods and margins of high banks of streams in Eastern N. America – Quebec to South Carolina, west to Louisiana. A deciduous shrub growing to 6 m (19ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A sweet but very soft and mealy flesh, it makes an acceptable dessert fruit. The fruit can be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. The fruit is up to 15mm long and 8mm wide, it is borne in small clusters. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.
Medicinal Uses
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.
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#133 (h)
Common Name: Midland Hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata)

Appearance and Habitat: Woods, hedges, thickets ect on clay and heavy loams, especially in E. Britain. Where in hedges it is oftne as a relict of ancient woodlands. Europe, including Britain, from Sweden to Spain, eastwards to Poland. A deciduous shrub growing to 6 m (19ft) by 6 m (19ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A dry and mealy texture, they are not very appetizing. The fruit can be used for jams and preserves. The fruit pulp can be dried, ground into a meal and mixed with flour in making bread etc. The fruit is about 1cm in diameter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed. Young leaves and young shoots – raw. A tasty nibble, they are nice in a salad. Young leaves are a tea substitute. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute
Medicinal Uses
Hawthorn is an extremely valuable medicinal herb. It is used mainly for treating disorders of the heart and circulation system, especially angina. Western herbalists consider it a ‘food for the heart’, it increases the blood flow to the heart muscles and restores normal heart beat. This effect is brought about by the presence of bioflavonoids in the fruit, these bioflavonoids are also strongly antioxidant, helping to prevent or reduce degeneration of the blood vessels. The fruit is antispasmodic, cardiac, diuretic, sedative, tonic and vasodilator. Both the fruits and flowers of hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure, they are also used to treat a heart muscle weakened by age, for inflammation of the heart muscle, arteriosclerosis and for nervous heart problems. Prolonged use is necessary for the treatment to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture. Hawthorn is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) to enhance poor memory, working by improving the blood supply to the brain. The bark is astringent and has been used in the treatment of malaria and other fevers. The roots are said to stimulate the arteries of the heart.
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 #133 (i)
Common Name: Fanleaf Hawthorn (Crataegus macrosperma)
Appearance and Habitat: Found in a variety of habitats, including thickets and open woods, woods and river banks in dry clay soils and rich moist soils along the margins of oak woodlands in Eastern N. America – Nova Scotia and Maine, south to North Carolina and Tennessee. A deciduous tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 8 m (26ft). It is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in September.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Fairly large with a reasonable flavour, it makes a very acceptable dessert fruit. The fruit varies quite considerably in size and quality, some forms having a thin yellow flesh that is juicy and acid whilst others have a much thicker flesh that is rather mealy but with a good flavour. The fruit can be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter, though it can be up to 20mm in diameter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed
Medicinal Uses
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.
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#133 (j)
Common Name: Downy Hawthorn, Whitethorn, Red Haw (Crataegus mollis)

Appearance and Habitat: Handsome tree with tall trunk and compact, rounded crown of spreading branches, large broad hairy leaves, many large flowers, and large scarlet fruit. Downy hawthorn is wide-spreading tree, 20-40 ft. in height, with horizontal branching and varying degrees of thorniness. The bark of the short trunk is silvery and scaly. Profuse, flat-topped clusters of white, rose-like blossoms are followed by persistent, tiny, red apples. Medium-green, fuzzy foliage is usually aborted in early fall due to infections. Little harm is done, since the species is not known for fall color. One of the largest trees of its genus, Downy Hawthorn was originally called White Thorn.(1)Open woods, usually in alluvial or fertile soils. Frequently found in limestone soils in Eastern and Central N. America – Ontario to Alabama, west to Oklahoma. A deciduous tree growing to 9 m (29ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in September.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Sub-acid, dry and mealy. The fruit is also used for making jellies and preserves. Fairly large, it is about 20 – 25mm in diameter, with a thick flesh. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed. A tea-like beverage can be made from the twigs.(3)
Medicinal Uses
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CRMO2
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+mollis
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#133 (k)
Common Name: Washington Hawthorn (Crataegus phaenopyrum)
Appearance and Habitat: This dense, round-headed tree, to 30 ft., with slender thorns up to 3 inches long. Broadly triangular, deciduous leaves turn yellow to orange or scarlet in the fall. Short trunk and regular, rounded crown of upright branches, abundant small flowers in spring, many small, round, red fruits, and brilliant autumn foliage; hairless throughout. Clusters of white, apple-like blossoms precede bright-red berries which persist into winter. Trunk bark is silvery-gray and scaly; twigs are a flaky, red-brown. There is a strong horizontal branching habit. In the early 19th century, it was introduced into Pennsylvania from Washington, D.C., as a hedge plant and is thus called Washington-thorn.(1)Thickets, open woods and banks of streams in rich soils. In South-eastern N. America – Virginia to Georgia, Illinois and Kansas. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A dry flesh. Very small, about 5mm in diameter, it often hangs on the tree all winter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.(3)
Medicinal Uses
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CRPH

To be continued . . . with Michael Moore and Edith Murphey after other species.
Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

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