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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#128 (part 1)
Common Name: Oak
Latin Name: Quercus spp.
Family: Fagacae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUERC 
Main Database-All States but Idaho and Alaska; In Canada; British Columbia to Quebec.

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUALAll States east of the Mississippi R. and all along the west bank, plus Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas; In Canada; Ontario and Quebec (Quercus alba)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUBIAll States north of the Ohio R. extenting to Maine, plus Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, W. Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, N. and S. Carolina and Alabama; In Canada; Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia (Quercus bicolor)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUCO2All States east of the Mississippi R., except Florida, plus Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana (Quercus coccinea)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?mode=sciname&keywordquery=Quercus+durata+var.+gabrielensis California (Quercus durata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUELNorth Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio; In Canada; Ontario (Quercus epillsoidalis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUEM Texas, New Mexico and Arizona (Quercus emoryi)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUFA All states east of the Mississippi R. and south of the Ohio R., plus Texas, Okalhoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Pennslyvania/New Jersey and south. (Quercus falcata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUGA South Dakota, Wyoming, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma (Quercus gambelii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUGA4 California, Oregon and Washington; In Canada; British Columbia (Quercus garryana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUIMAll States east of the Mississippi R. and south of the Ohio R., except South Carolina and Florida; plus Iowa to Louisiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Maryland, Pennslyvania, New Jersey, New York and Massachusetts (Quercus imbricaria)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
Warnings: None
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#128 (a)
Common Name: Northern White Oak, Stave Oak (Quercus alba)

Appearance and Habitat: Popular and long-lived shade tree, which grows to 100 feet (30.5 m), with a widespreading rounded crown and with numerous horizontal branches. Bark light gray, shallow furrows forming scaly ridges or plates. Twigs slender to stout, gray to reddish-green twigs with star-shaped pith; buds are reddish-brown and broadly oval and hairless. Leaves petiole 3?8 – 1 inch (10 – 25 mm) in length; obovate to elliptical leaves, 4 – 8 inches (101 – 203 mm) long, 2 3/4 – 4 3/4 inches (70 – 121 mm) wide, margin with 5 – 9 lobes that are widest beyond middle, deep sinuses extending a third or more to midrib; base acute to cuneate, apex broadly rounded; dull or shiny grayish green above, light green with slight pubescence which becomes smooth beneath as they mature. The classic eastern oak, with widespreading branches and a rounded crown, the trunk irregularly divided into spreading, often horizontal, stout branches. Northern white oak is an imposing, deciduous tree, 80-100 ft. tall, with a straight trunk and a wide (when open-grown) crown. Large, coarse, horizontal limbs are picturesque. Catkins appear just before or with the appearance of new leaves. The round-lobed leaves turn burgundy in fall. Dried leaves remain into winter. White oak is one of the most important species in the white oak group. The wood is used for furniture, flooring, and spe- cialty items such as wine and whiskey barrels. Used for shipbuilding in colonial times. Continues to be displaced in the market place by several species of red oaks. Acorns are a favorite food source for birds, squirrels, and deer. Used as medication by Native Americans. The largest known white oak specimen had a circumference of 32 feet and grew in the Wye Oak State Park, Talbot County, Maryland. It was destroyed during a storm on June 6, 2002.
(1)Dry woods, gravelly ridges, sandy plains, rich uplands and moist bottoms. The best specimens are found in deep rich well-drained loamy soils. Eastern N. America – Maine to Florida, west to Texas and Minnesota. A deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. Somewhat sweet. The seed is about 1 – 3cm long and ripens in its first year. It contains about 6% protein and 65% carbohydrates. It is low in tannin and needs little if any leaching. It is said that those seeds with red or pink blotches on the shell are the sweetest. Any bitter tannins can be leached out by thoroughly washing the dried and ground up seed in water, though many minerals will also be lost. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The seed can be roasted and then eaten, its taste is something like a cross between sunflower seeds and popcorn. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute that is free from caffeine.
(3)
Medicinal Uses: White oak was often used medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes, who valued it especially for its antiseptic and astringent properties and used it in the treatment of many complaints. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The inner bark contains 6 – 11% tannin, it has powerful antiseptic and astringent properties and is also expectorant and tonic. The bark is boiled and the liquid drunk in the treatment of bleeding piles and diarrhoea, intermittent fevers, coughs and colds, consumption, asthma, lost voice etc. The bark has been chewed as a treatment for mouth sores. Externally, it is used as a wash for skin eruptions, burns, rashes, bruises, ulcers etc and as a vaginal douche. It has also been used as a wash for muscular pains. The bark is best collected in the spring. Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.
(4)Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUAL
Foot Notes: (2 , 3, 4, )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+alba
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#128 (b)
Common Name: Swamp White Oak (Quercus bicolor)

Appearance and Habitat: Swamp white oak is a large, wide, round-topped, deciduous tree. Its leaves, with their silvery undersides, are typical of those of white oak, yet swamp white oak leaves lack deeply cut lobes. Tree grows to 100 feet (30.5 m) with an irregular crown. Bark dark gray, deep furrows forming scaly or flat-ridges. Twigs smooth, light brown twigs; buds light orangish-brown, smooth, ovoid and blunt. Leaves petiole from 3/8 – 1 inch (10 – 25 mm) long; leaves are narrowly elliptical to obovate, varies up to 7 inches (178 mm) long and 4 3?8 inches (111 mm) wide; base cuneate to acute, rounded apex; margin with 10 – 20 lobes with shallow sinuses, distal half of blade may have teeth; glossy dark green above with white velvety pubescence beneath. Fall color is golden-brown to russet-red.
(1)Bottomlands, stream margins and swamps. Tolerant of poorly drained sites, it is frequently found in heavy mucky soils. Eastern N. America – Quebec to Minnesota, Georgia and Arkansas. A deciduous tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. A rather sweet flavour. The seed is quite large, about 2 – 3cm long and 15 – 20mm wide, and unlike most other oaks, is attached to the tree by a long stem. It matures in its first year. The seed can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed from some trees can contain bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. Roasted seed is a coffee substitute.
(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUBI
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+bicolor
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#128 (c)
Common Name: Scarlet Oak, Red Oak (Quercus coccinea)

Appearance and Habitat: Large tree with a rounded, open crown of glossy foliage, best known for its brilliant autumn color. Scarlet oak is a 75 ft., deciduous tree, occasionally reaching heights of 150 ft. A somewhat pyramidal crown develops from stout, ascending branches. Bark brown with fine fissures and scaly ridges, inner bark is red to orangish-pink. Twigs are smooth reddish-brown; clustered terminal buds are ovoid and reddish-brown with pubescence near the apex, 5-angled in cross section. Leaves smooth petiole 3/4 – 2 3/8 inches (19 – 60 mm) in length; leaves are elliptic to obovate, 2 3/4 – 6 1/4 inches (70 – 159 mm) long, 3 – 5 1/8 inches (76 – 130 mm) wide, margins with 5 – 9 lobes extending more than 1/2 the distance to the midrib, base truncate, apex acute; upper surface a glossy light green, with tufts of axillary tomentum beneath, secondary veins raised on both surfaces. Leaves turn rich, scarlet-red in the fall. Catkins appear just before or with the appearance of new leaves. A popular and handsome shade and street tree. The lumber is marketed as Red Oak, which differs in its shallowly lobed, dull green leaves, and acorns with a shallow cup. Black Oak (Quercus velutina) is also similar, but has yellow-green leaves with brown hairs beneath and acorns with a deep cup of loose hairy scales. This species is very susceptible to fire damage because of its thin bark. Such injuries often result in heart rot. Grows rapidly and begins to bear fruit at age 20. 
(1)Found on upland sites such as ridges and middle and upper slope, it grows in a variety of soils doing well on poor, dry, sandy, or gravelly soils. Eastern N. America – Maine and Ontario to Minnesota, North Carolina and Missouri. A deciduous tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 15 m (49ft). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed, which is up to 25mm long and 15mm wide, contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.
(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUCO2
Foot Notes: (2 , 3, 4, )>http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+coccinea
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#128 (d)
Common Name: Leather Oak, California Scrub Oak, (Quercus durata)

Appearance and Habitat: Coastal ranges. The type species is found on serpentine soils at 150 – 1500 meters, whilst var gabrielensis is found in chaparral on dry, exposed, loose slopes in nonserpentine soils at 450 meters – 1000 meters. South-western N. America – California. An evergreen shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in). It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May.
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed, which is up to 35mm long and 15mm wide, contains bitter tannins. These can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+durata
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#128 (e)
Common Name: Pin Oak, Black Oak, (Quercus ellipsoidalis)

Appearance and Habitat: A medium-sized oak to 75 ft. with many forked branches forming a crown 3/4 the height. Bark dark gray-brown with shallow fissures producing thin plates, inner bark orange in color. Twigs are first covered with hairs and then become smooth and reddish-brown; terminal buds are a shiny reddishbrown with scales ciliated along the margin, slightly angled in cross section. Leaves smooth petiole 3/4 – 2 inches (19 – 51 mm); leaves are elliptical, 2 3/4 – 5 1/8 inches (70 – 130 mm) long, and 2 – 4 inches (51 – 101 mm) wide, the base is truncate and the apex is acute, margins have 5 – 7 deep lobes extending more than 1/2 the distance to midrib with bristlepointed teeth, upper surface is a shiny light green and paler below with minute axillary tufts of tomentum along the midvein. Leaves a scarlet red in the fall. Dried leaves remain through winter. Commonly this oak grows with the beautiful pin oak, but it has none of the same elegance. Perhaps the easiest way to identify it is to discover its yellow inner bark, a trait which it shares with few other oaks. Northern pin oak is reduced to shrubby growth at the edge of its range. (1) Dry to moist siliceous to argillaceous woods. Prairies and sandy hills in dry soils. The best specimens are found in rich well-drained soils, especially those containing clay. Northern Central N. America – west and north of the Great Lakes. A deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 13 m (42ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed, which is up to 2cm long, contains bitter tannins – these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. A decoction of the inner bark has been used to treat suppressed menses caused by cold.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUEL
Foot Notes: (2 , 3, 4, )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+ellipsoidalis
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#128 (f)
Common Name: Emory Oak, Holly Oak, Black Oak, Desert Live Oak, Bellota, Roble Negro (Quercus emoryi

Appearance and Habitat: Emory oak is a 30-60 ft. oak with a round crown, very roughly furrowed black bark and nearly evergreen leaves. Glossy, leathery leaves, arranged in whorls, resemble holly leaves. They drop gradually in the spring with the new foliage appearing soon thereafter. Red acorns with have a yellow cap. Medium-sized evergreen tree with straight trunk, rough black bark, rounded crown, and shiny yellow-green leaves. Emory Oak is the most characteristic tree of the oak woodland in mountains along the Mexican border. The acorns (bellotas in Spanish) are only slightly bitter and are gathered and eaten locally. They are also consumed in quantities by quail, wild turkeys, squirrels, and other wildlife. The foliage is browsed by deer and, to a lesser extent, by livestock. (1) Canyons, dry foothills and mountain slopes, 1350 – 2350 meters, growing best in sheltered valleys. South-western N. America – W. Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and northern Mexico. An evergreen tree growing to 12 m (39ft 4in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in September.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. A sweet taste, it is an important item of food for the Indians in S. Arizona and northern Mexico and is sold in the local markets there. The seed is up to 2cm long and 1cm thick. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. If the seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. (3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)<http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUEM
Foot Notes:
(2 , 3, 4, )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+emoryi
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#128 (g)
Common Name: Southern Red Oak, Spanish Oak (Quercus falcata)

Appearance and Habitat: Southern red oak is a medium-sized, straight-trunked oak which, in time, develops long, spreading branches, giving the top an even, well-formed appearance. Its smooth gray bark becomes dark and furrowed, eventually becoming black. Thin, papery, lobed, bristle-tipped deciduous leaves turn reddish-brown in fall. Twigs pubescent reddish-brown twig with star shaped pith; reddish-brown terminal bud is ovoid and pubescent. Leaf petiole 3/4 – 2 3/8 inches (19 – 60 mm) in length, smooth to sparsely pubescent; leaves are elliptical to ovate, 4 – 11 3/4 inches (101 – 298 mm) long and 2 3/8 – 6 1/4 inches (60 – 159 mm) wide, u-shaped base, margin has 3 – 7 deeply divided lobes with 1 – 3 bristle-tipped teeth, apex longer than lateral lobes; upper surface a glossy green often with some pubescence along midrib, lower surface covered with gray or tawny pubescence, secondary veins raised on both surfaces. Often called Spanish Oak, possibly because it commonly occurs in areas of the early Spanish colonies. It is unlike any oaks native to Spain. The lumber is marketed as Red Oak. Cherrybark Oak (Q. pagoda Raf.) is sometimes considered a variety of Q. falcata (Q. falcata var. pagodifolia Ell). The lobes of its leaves taper to points that remind some people of the graduated roofs of pagodas. The leaves have 5-11 broad shallow lobes and whitish hairs beneath, and the bark is smooth and cherry-like with short ridges. (1)Dry sandy or clay upland soils, to 600 meters. It is also occasioall found on moister fertile bottomlands or near streams, where it achieves its greatest size. Eastern N. America – New York to Florida, west to Texas. A deciduous tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. The seed is about 12mm long, it can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.(3)
Medicinal Uses: bark is antiseptic, astringent, febrifuge and tonic. An infusion has been used in the treatment of chronic dysentery, indigestion, asthma, lost voice and intermittent fevers. The bark has been chewed as a treatment for mouth sores. An infusion of the bark has been used as a wash on sore, chapped skin. Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUFA
Foot Notes:
(2 , 3, 4, )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+falcata
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#128 (h)
Common Name: Gambel Oak, Rocy Mountain White Oak (Quercus gambelii)

Appearance and Habitat: A small, round-crowned tree or clump shrub, sometimes forming thickets, Gambels oak occasionally reaches 50 ft. but is usually no taller than 30 ft. Its deeply-lobed, deciduous leaves are bright green above and paler below, turning brown or sometimes red in fall. Tree with rounded crown, often in dense groves; or a thicket-forming shrub. Gambels Oak is the common oak of the Rocky Mountains, abundant in Grand Canyon National Park. It is closely related to White Oak (Quercus alba L.) of the eastern United States. The foliage is browsed by deer and sometimes by livestock. Wild turkeys, squirrels, and other wildlife, as well as hogs and other domestic animals eat the sweetish acorns. The wood is used mainly for fenceposts and fuel.  (1)Dry foothills and lower mountain slopes, 1350 – 2800 meters in Western N. America – Rocky Mountains from Utah and Wyoming to Mexico. A deciduous shrub growing to 4.5 m (14ft 9in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. A staple food for several native North American Indian tribes. A sweet taste. The seed is about 2cm long and wide, it can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. If the seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. The acorns have been eaten to give greater sexual potency. The root bark is analgesic and cathartic. A decoction has been used to treat postpartum pain and facilitate delivery of the placenta.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUGA
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4,)http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+gambelii
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#128 (i)
Common Name: Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana)
Appearance and Habitat: An intricately branched, deciduous oak, usually 25-60ft. high but capable of reaching 90 ft. Stout, spreading branches form a wide, round crown. Bark is white and scaly. Leathery leaves are oblong, with round lobes, and are green on top, dull beneath. Tree with dense, rounded, spreading crown of stout branches; sometimes shrubby. The oak of greatest commercial importance in the West, this species is used for furniture, shipbuilding, construction, cabinetwork, interior finish, and fuel. It is the only native oak in Washington and British Columbia. The sweetish acorns, often common in alternate years, are relished by livestock and wildlife and were eaten by Indians.
(1)Dry prairies and foothills to rocky bluffs. Western N. America – British Columbia to California. A deciduous tree growing to 18 m (59ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. Up to 25mm long. Up to 32mm long and 25mm wide according to other reports, which also said that it has a sweet taste. The seed is ground into a powder and used in making bread etc, it is a good thickener for soups and stews. The seed has a high content of bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the dried and ground up seed in water, though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.
(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. A decoction of the bark has been used in the treatment of tuberculosis. An infusion of the plant has been drunk by a mother before her first baby comes. The pounded bark has been rubbed on the abdomen and sides of the mother before her first delivery.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUGA4
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4,)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+garryana

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#128 (j)
Common Name: Shingle Oak (Quercus imbricaria)

Appearance and Habitat: A handsome tree with symmetrical, conical to rounded crown. Pyramidal in youth, shingle oak assumes a broad /rounded outline in old age. The deciduous oak is usually 50-60 ft. tall, but can grow taller. Catkins appear just before or with the appearance of new leaves. Leaves are shiny and lance-shaped, lacking the deeply cut lobes of most oaks. Yellow-brown to russet-red fall foliage persists through winter. BARK: grayish-brown with shallow fissures becoming scaly ridges, pinkish inner bark. TWIGS and BUDS: twigs are smooth and brown or slightly pubescent; large terminal bud is brown and 5-angled in cross-section, scales are pubescent with ciliated edges. LEAVES: smooth petiole to 3⁄4 inch (19 mm); ovate and widest near the middle, 3 1⁄8 – 8 inches (79 – 203 mm) long, 5⁄8 – 3 inches (16 – 76 mm) wide, margin entire and may be slightly wavy and turned under, base obtuse, apex obtuse and tipped with one bristle, shiny dark green above, light whitish-green with uniform pubescence below. (1)Found in a variety of habitats from dry upland ridges to rich and moist river bank soils. Found in Eastern and Central N. America-Pennsylvania to Alabama, west to Kansas. A deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October. (2)
Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed, which is up to 18mm long and wide, contains bitter tannins – these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.(3)
Medicinal Uses: Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc. The bark is antiseptic, astringent, emetic, febrifuge and tonic. It has been used in the treatment of chronic dysentery, indigestion, asthma and intermittent fevers. The bark has been chewed in the treatment of mouth sores. An infusion of the bark has been used as a wash for sore and chapped skin.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=QUIM
Foot Notes:
(2, 3, 4,)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+imbricaria
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