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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#145
Common Name: Oregon Grape, Holly Grape, Creeping Barberry, Yerba de Sangre, Barberry 
Latin Name: Mahonia aquifolium, M. bealei, M. fremontii, M. haematocarpa, M. nervosa, M. pinnata, m. repens, M. swaseyi, M. trifoliolata, M. wilcoxii
Family: Berberidaceae
Range:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAHON
All of the lower 48 States except Wisconsin, Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma, Iowa south through Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, West Virginia, and New England north of New York; In Canada; found in British Columbia, Alberta, Onatrio and Quebec. This is the main database.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAAQ2 Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Montana, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Georgia, New York and New Jersey; In Canada: British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. (Mahonia aquifolium)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MABE2 Maryland south to Florida and Alabama. (Mahonia bealei)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAFR3 California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico. (Mahonia fremontii)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAHA4 California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. (Mahonia haematocarpa)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MANE2 Idaho, California, Oregon, Washington, South Carolina; In Canada; British Columbia. (Mahonia nervosa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAPI2 Oregon and California (Mahonia pinnata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MARE11 All States west of the Rocky Mountains, plus N. and S. Dakota, Minnesota, Nebraska, Texas, Indiana, Pennsylvania and Delaware; In Canada; British Columbia, Alberta and Ontario (Mahonia repens) 
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
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#145(a)
Common Name: Hollyleaved Barberry, Oregon Grape (Mahonia aquifolium )

Appearance and Habitat: Holly-leaf Oregon-grape is a 3 – 6 ft., mound shaped, broadleaf evergreen shrub with pinnately compound, glossy, leathery leaves. The 5 – 9 dark green leaflets are armed with spiny teeth and turn reddish in fall. Terminal clusters of bright-yellow, bell-shaped flowers are followed by clusters of tiny blue, grape-like fruits. The bronzy copper color or the new growth in spring is an added bonus. This stout shrub is the state flower of Oregon. The berries of this and other Oregon-grape species are eaten by wildlife and make good jelly. Native Americans made a yellow dye from the bark and wood of this shrubby species. Several are used as ornamental garden plants; in the nursery trade some of them are known by the common name Mahonia. (1) Mixed coniferous woods to 2000 meters. It is found in woods and hedgerows in Britain. Evergreen, upright or spreading, to 2-10 ft. Inner bark and roots bright Yellow. Pinnately compund leaves with 5-11 shiny, green, hollylike leaflets. Leathery, oblong leaflets flat to strongly wavy with sharp, spine-tipped teeth. Western N America and naturalized in Britain. (2)
Warnings: Barberry, goldenseal, oregon grape and other plants containing Berberine should be avoided during pregnany and breastfeeding. Avoid if over active thyriod grald. High doses cause vomiting, lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate, lethargy, nose bleed, eye irritation and kidney infection. Liquorice as Glycyrrhiza species nullify berberine effects. (3)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is almost as large as a blackcurrant and is produced in large bunches so it is easy to harvest. It has an acid flavour, but it is rather nice raw and is especially good when added to a porridge or muesli. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds, though some plants have larger and juicier fruits. The cooked fruit tastes somewhat like blackcurrants. The fruit can also be dried and stored for later use. Flowers – raw. They can also be used to make a lemonade-like drink.
(4)
Medicinal Uses :Oregon grape was often used by several native North American Indian tribes to treat loss of appetite and debility. Its current herbal use is mainly in the treatment of gastritis and general digestive weakness, to stimulate the kidney and gallbladder function and to reduce catarrhal problems. The root and root bark is alterative, blood tonic, cholagogue, diuretic, laxative and tonic. It improves the digestion and absorption and is taken internally in the treatment of psoriasis, syphilis, haemorrhages, stomach complaints and impure blood conditions. Externally, it has been used as a gargle for sore throats and as a wash for blurry or bloodshot eyes. The roots are harvested in late autumn or early spring and dried for later use. The fruit is an excellent gentle and safe laxative. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn.
(5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MAAQ2
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Mahonia+aquifolium
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#145(b)
Common Name: Beale’s Barberry (Mahonia bealei )

Appearance and Habitat: Shrubs , evergreen, 1-2 m. Stems monomorphic, without short axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems tan, glabrous. Bud scales 11-13 mm, persistent. Spines absent. Leaves 5-9-foliolate; petioles 2-8 cm. Leaflet blades thick and rigid; surfaces abaxially smooth, shiny, adaxially dull, gray-green; terminal leaflet stalked, blade 6.5-9.3 × 4-7 cm, 1.3-2.3 times as long as wide; lateral leaflet blades ovate or lance-ovate, 4-6-veined from base, base truncate or weakly cordate, margins plane, toothed, with 2-7 teeth 3-8 mm tipped with spines to 1.4-4 × 0.3-0.6 mm, apex acuminate. Inflorescences racemose, dense, 70-150-flowered, 5-17 cm; bracteoles ± corky, apex rounded to acute. Berries dark blue, glaucous, oblong-ovoid, 9-12 mm, juicy, solid. Flowering fall-winter (Dec-Mar). Open woodlands and shrublands; 100-500 m; introduced; Ala., Ga., N.C., Va.; native, Asia (China). (1) Damp woodlands in uplands around 2000 meters in E. Asia – W. China in Hupeh, Hubei, Sichuan and Taiwan. An evergreen shrub growing to 2 m (6ft) by 2 m (6ft). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jan to March, and the seeds ripen from Apr to May.(2)
Warnings: None (3)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw or cooked. A pleasant acid flavour, it is nice when added to muesli or porridge. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. The fruit is about 10mm long and 6mm wide, it ripens in April/May and if the plant is in a sheltered position the crops can be fairly heavy. (4)
Medicinal Uses :The leaf is febrifuge and tonic. A decoction of the root and stems is antiphlogistic, antirheumatic, depurative and febrifuge. A decoction is used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, recurring fever and cough in rundown body systems, rheumatoid arthritis, backache, weak knees, dysentery and enteritis. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.  (5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500224
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mahonia+bealei
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#145(c)
Common Name: Desert Oregon Grape, Fremont Barberry (Mahonia fremontii )

Appearance and Habitat: A roundish shrub, 3-8 ft. with stiff, erect branches; showy yellow flowers; blue-green, prickly foliage and yellow to red berries. This plant is susceptible to diseases and so is considered undesirable in agricultural areas, where it can spread disease to crop plants. (1)Shrubs evergreen, 1-4.5 m. Stems ± dimorphic, with elongate primary and short or somewhat elongate axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems light brown or grayish purple, glabrous. Bud scales 2-4 mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves 5-9(-11)-foliolate; petioles 0.2-0.8(-3) cm. Leaflet blades thick and rigid; surfaces abaxially dull, papillose, adaxially dull, glaucous; terminal leaflet stalked in most or all leaves, blade 1-2.6(-4) × 0.7-1.8(-2.5) cm, 1-2.5 times as long as wide; lateral leaflet blades elliptic to ovate or orbiculate, 1-3-veined from base, base obtuse or truncate, margins strongly crispate, toothed or lobed, with 2-5 teeth 2-6 mm high tipped with spines to 0.8-2.2 × 0.2-0.3 mm, apex obtuse to acuminate. Inflorescences racemose, lax, 3-6-flowered, 2.5-6.5 cm; bracteoles membranous, apex acuminate. Flowers: anther filaments with distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries yellow or red to brown, ± glaucous, spheric, 12-18 mm, dry, inflated. Flowering spring (Apr-Jun). Slopes and flats in desert grassland and pinyon-juniper woodland; 1100-2400(-3400) m; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Nev., N.Mex., Utah.(2)Dry rocky places, especially in pinon-juniper woods, often on gravelly soils, 900 – 1500 meters in California. It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May.(3)
Warnings: None 
(4)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw or cooked. It is usually cooked. An acid flavour but it is rather nice raw, especially when added to muesli or porridge. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. A beverage has been made from the fruit. The ovoid fruit is about 15mm long. 
(5)
Medicinal Uses :The plant has been used as an aid for the gums. The roots are bitter tonic, hepatic and laxative. An infusion has been used to promote digestion. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn. 
(6)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MAFR3

Foot Notes: (2) http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500229
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 ) http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mahonia+fremontii
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#145(d)
Common Name: Red Barberry, Mexican Barberry (Mahonia haematocarpa )

Appearance and Habitat: A fragrant, roundish shrub, 3-8 ft. with stiff, erect branches, showy yellow flowers, green, prickly foliage purplish-red berries.(1)Shrubs , evergreen, 1-4 m. Stems ± dimorphic, with elongate primary and short or somewhat elongate axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems grayish purple, glabrous. Bud scales 2-4 mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves 3-9-foliolate; petioles 0.1-0.5 cm. Leaflet blades thick and rigid; surfaces abaxially dull, papillose, adaxially dull, glaucous; terminal leaflet stalked in most leaves, blade 1.5-3.8 × 0.5-1.1 cm, 2-5 times as long as wide; lateral leaflet blades oblong-ovate to ovate or lanceolate, 1(-3)-veined from base, base acute to obtuse, rarely subtruncate, margins undulate or crispate, toothed or lobed, with 2-4 teeth 1-4 mm high tipped with spines to 1.2-2 × 0.2-0.3 mm, apex narrowly acute or acuminate. Inflorescences racemose, lax, 3-7-flowered, 1.5–4.5 cm; bracteoles membranous, apex acuminate. Flowers: anther filaments without distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries purplish red, glaucous, spheric or short-ellipsoid, 5-8 mm, juicy, solid. Flowering winter-spring (Feb-Jun). Slopes and flats in desert shrubland, desert grassland, and dry oak woodland; 900-2300 m; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Nev., N.Mex, Tex.; Mexico (Sonora). (2)  Slopes and flats in desert shrubland, desert grassland, and dry oak woodland; 900 -2300 meters in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico. An evergreen shrub growing to 3.6 m (11ft 10in). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May. (3)
Warnings: None  (4)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw or cooked. Juicy and acidic, it is used mainly for making jams and jellies in N. America. It makes an acceptable raw fruit and is especially nice when added to porridges or muesli. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds.  (5)
Medicinal Uses :Inner wood shavings can be soaked in water to make an eyewash. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn (6)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MAHA4
Foot Notes: (2)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500230
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 ) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mahonia+haematocarpa
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#145(e)
Common Name: Oregon Grape, Cascade Barberry (Mahonia nervosa )

Appearance and Habitat:
A 1-2 ft. shrub with unbranched stems from long rootstocks. Pinnate leaves occur in terminal tufts and are glossy green with spiny teeth. Drooping racemes of yellow flowers are followed by blue berries with a grayish bloom. This shrub is usually between 4 and 24 inches tall and is often called Dwarf Oregon-grape. It used to be placed in the genus Berberis. (1)  Shrubs , evergreen, 0.1-0.8(-2) m. Stems monomorphic, without short axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems brown or yellow-brown, glabrous. Bud scales (13-)20-44 mm, persistent. Spines absent. Leaves 9-21-foliolate; petioles 2-11 cm. Leaflet blades thin and ± flexible; surfaces abaxially rather dull, smooth, adaxially dull, somewhat glaucous; terminal leaflet stalked, blade 2.9-8.4 × 1.2-4.8 cm, 1.8-3.2 times as long as wide; lateral leaflet blades lance-ovate to ovate, 4-6-veined from base, base rounded to cordate, margins plane, toothed, each with 6-13 teeth 1-2(-3) mm tipped with spines to 1-2.4 × 0.1-0.2 mm, apex acute or broadly acuminate. Inflorescences racemose, dense, 30-70-flowered, 6-17 cm; bracteoles membranous, apex acute, obtuse, or rounded. Flowers: anther filaments without distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries blue, glaucous, oblong-ovoid or globose, 8-11 mm, juicy, solid. 2 n = 56. Flowering winter-spring (Mar-Jun). Open or shaded woods, often in rocky areas; 0-1800 m; B.C.; Calif., Idaho, Oreg., Wash. Plants of Berberis nervosa are usually very low (commonly 0.1-0.3 m), but occasional plants may be considerably taller (to 2 m). One such population from north of Westport, California, has been separated as B . nervosa var. mendocinensis .(2)Light dry woods and rocky edges in North – western N. America. It is hardy to zone 6. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Feb to April.(3)
Warnings: None(4)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw or cooked. An acid flavour but it is rather nice raw, especially when added to muesli or porridge. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. Too acid for most tastes but they are very good in jams, jellies, pies etc. They can also be used to enhance the flavour of bland fruits or made into a refreshing lemon-flavoured drink. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter. Young tender leaves – cooked. Simmered in a small amount of water and eaten as a snack. (5)
Medicinal Uses :The root is alterative and tonic. It improves the digestion and absorption and is recommended in the treatment of psoriasis, syphilis and impure blood conditions. A decoction of the peeled and chopped root bark has been used as a wash in treating arthritis and as an eyewash for red itchy eyes. The fruit is an excellent safe and gentle laxative. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn.  (6) 
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MANE2
Foot Notes: (2) http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500233
Foot Notes: ( 3, 4, 5, 6 )http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mahonia+nervosa
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#145(f)
Common Name: California Barberry (Mahonia pinnata )

Appearance and Habitat: Shrubs , self-supporting or clambering, 1-7 m. Leaflets thin and flexible; lateral leaflet blades lance-oblong or elliptic, margins plane or weakly undulate, marginal teeth tipped with spines to 1-1.6 × 0.1-0.2 mm. Inflorescences 6-9 cm. Flowering winter (Mar). In shade beneath trees, pine and pine-oak forest; of conservation concern; 100-450 m; Calif. (1)Rocky exposed places and woody slopes below 1200 meters in South-western N. America-California and Mexico. An evergreen shrub growing to 1.8 m (6ft). It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May.(2)
Warnings: None(3)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw or cooked. An acid flavour but rather nice raw, especially when added to muesli or porridge. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter.(4)
Medicinal Uses :The bark is antirheumatic and febrifuge. A decoction has been taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, ague, consumption and heartburn. A decoction has been used as a wash for cuts and bruises. The liquid obtained from chewing the roots has been used as a salve and to prevent swelling from wounds and abrasions. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn. (5)
Foot Notes: (1)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500236
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mahonia+pinnata
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#145(g)
Common Name: Creeping Oregon Grape, Creeping Barberry (Mahonia repens )

Native American Name: Sogo tiembuh (Shoshone), Kaw-danup (Paiute), Ch cow cow (Warm Springs, Oregon Tribe), Oti to que (Blackfoot).  (1)
Appearance and Habitat:
Creeping Oregon-grape or creeping barberry is a stoloniferous, sprawling evergreen of stiff habit with small, fragrant, yellow flowers in drooping racemes, followed by showy, purple fruit. The leathery, holly-like, compound leaves are a muted green, some turning mauve, rose, and rust-colored in winter. The plant grows 1-3 ft. in height. A beautiful foliage groundcover for shade in the western mountains of the continent, Creeping Barberry has muted green leaves that are occasionally shades of pastel pinks, purples, and oranges. It thrives in good garden soil, but does not tolerate high heat or drying wind. Its yellow spring blooms attract pollinators and its berries attract birds.(2)  Shrubs , evergreen, 0.02-0.2(-0.6) m. Stems monomorphic, usually without short axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems grayish or purplish brown, glabrous. Bud scales 3-8 mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves (3-)5-7-foliolate; petioles (1-)3-9 cm. Leaflet blades thin and flexible; surfaces abaxially dull, papillose, adaxially dull, rarely glossy, somewhat glaucous; terminal leaflet stalked, blade 3.2-9.5 × 2.3-6 cm, 1.2-2.2(-2.5) times as long as wide; lateral leaflets ovate or elliptic, 1(-3)-veined from base, base rounded to obtuse or truncate, margins plane, toothed, with 6-24 teeth 0.5-3 mm tipped with spines to 0.6-2.8 × 0.1-0.25 mm, apex rounded, rarely obtuse or even broadly acute. Inflorescences racemose, dense, 25-50-flowered, 3-10 cm; bracteoles membranous, apex rounded to obtuse or broadly acute. Anther filaments with distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries blue, glaucous, oblong-ovoid, 6-10 mm, juicy, solid. Flowering spring (Apr-Jun). Open forest, shrubland, and grassland; 200-3000 m; Alta., B.C.; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Minn., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.Mex., N.Dak., Oreg., S.Dak., Tex., Utah, Wash., Wyo. Various Native American tribes used preparations of the roots of Berberis repens to treat stomach troubles, to prevent bloody dysentary, and as a blood purifier; mixed with whiskey, it was used for bladder problems, venereal diseases, general aches, and kidney problems; and preparations made from the entire plant served as a cure-all and as a lotion for scorpion bites. (3)Hills and slopes, often in partial shade, usually on dry slopes in Western N. America. An evergreen shrub growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 2 m (6ft 7in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 6. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May.(4)
Warnings: None  (5)
Edible Uses:Fruit – raw or cooked. An acid flavour but it is rather nice raw, especially when added to muesli or porridge. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. Used for making jams. jellies etc. They can also be made into a refreshing lemonade-like beverage. When sugar is added, the fruit juice is similar to grape juice. The fruit is about 9mm in diameter.  (6)
Medicinal Uses :The root and root bark is alterative, anaphrodisiac, antiseptic, cholagogue, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, laxative and tonic. It improves the digestion and absorption and is taken internally in the treatment of coughs, fevers, psoriasis, syphilis, haemorrhages, stomach complaints, kidney problems and impure blood conditions. Externally, it is used as an antiseptic and healing wash or poultice on wounds and rheumatic joints. The roots are harvested in late autumn or early spring and dried for later use. A poultice of the fresh berries has been applied to boils. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn.  (7)The root was peeled, dried, and steeped to check rectal hemorrhage and dysentary. The roots were also boiled for stomach troubles.( 8 )
Foot Notes: (1, 8 ) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Murphy, page 42, 45, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-96638-15-4
Foot Notes: (2) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MARE11
Foot Notes: ( 3 ) http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500240
Foot Notes: ( 4, 5, 6, 7)http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Mahonia+repens

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

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