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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#115
Common Name: Crab Apple, Squaw Apple, Sweet Crab Apple, Prairie Crab Apple, Oregon Crab Apple, Wild Crab Apple
Latin Name: Malus angustifolia, M. ioensis, M. coronaria, M. fusca, M. sulvestris, Peraphyllum ramosissimum
Family: Rosaceae
Range:http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAAN3
all States east of the Mississippi R. and south of the Ohio R., plus Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey (Malus angustifolia)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MACO5all States east of the Mississippi except, States north of New York, Mississippi and Florida – west of the Mississippi R.-Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Colorado; in Canada – Quebec (Malus coronaria)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAFUBritish Columbia, Alaska, Washington, Oregon and California (Malus fusca)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAIO east of the Mississippi R.- Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky- west of the Mississippi R. Minnesota to Louisiana and North Dakota to Texas (Malus ioensis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAPR New Brunwick, Nova Scotia south to New York, then Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina, Illinois and Minnesota (Malus prunifolia)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PERA4 New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Idaho, Oregon and California (Peraphyllum ramosissimum)
Warnings: All members of this genus contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide in their seeds and possibly in their leaves, but not in their fruits.  Hydrogen cyanide is the substance that almonds their charasteristic taste but should only be consumed in very small quantities.  Apple seeds do not normally contain very high quantities of hydrogen cyanide but, even so, should not be consumed in large quantities.  In small quantities hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be a benefit in the treatment of cancer.  In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death. 
Photos: (Click on latin name after common name)
#115(a)
Common Name: Southern Crab (Malus angustifolia )

Appearance and Habitat: A small tree, 25-30 ft. tall, commonly forming thickets from root sprouts, spreading branches, and broad, open crown. Branches are usually spreading and form a rounded crown. Profuse pink flowers make a beautiful, fragrant show in early spring. Leaves are red when they emerge in early spring and are highlighted against colorful, scaly bark. Yellow-green fruit is not showy by ornamental standards. This is the crab apple that grows at low altitudes in the Southeast, often forming thickets. Quantities of the fruit are consumed by bobwhites, grouse, pheasants, rabbits, squirrels, opossums, raccoons, skunks, and foxes. The hard, heavy wood has been used to make tool handles.(1)Woods ad thickets, especially along river banks in Eastern N. America-Maryland to Florida, west to Texas and Louisiana. A deciduous tree growing to 7 m (23ft). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A fragrant aroma, but the fruit is harsh and acid. The hard sour fruits are often used for making preserves, cider, jellies etc. The fruit is about 25mm in diameter and is slightly pear-shaped. (3)
Medicinal Uses: None
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MAAN3
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Malus+angustifolia
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#115(b)
Common Name: Sweet Crabapple (Malus coronaria )
Appearance and Habitat:
A 20-30 ft. tree with a short trunk and wide-spreading head. Flowers are white, tinged with rose. Yellow-green fruit is not showy by ornamental standards. The common crabapple of the Ohio Valley, it is sometimes planted as an ornamental. Double-flowered varieties have a greater number of larger and deeper pink flowers. The fruit can be made into preserves and cider.
(1)Bottoms, wooded slopes, thickets and clearings in most soil types and moisture levels. Eastern N. America – New York to South Carolina, west to Kansas. A deciduous tree growing to 7 m (23ft) by 7 m (23ft). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Fairly large, it is up to 5cm in diameter. Harsh and acid, it is mainly used for jellies but can be eaten raw when it is fully ripe. The fruits can be buried in the ground overwinter and will have lost much of their acidity by the spring. The fruit can also be dried and stored for later use. Rich in pectin, so it can be added to pectin-low fruits when making jams or jellies. Pectin is also said to protect the body against radiation.
(3)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the bark has been used to ease a difficult birth and also in the treatment of gallstones, piles and as a wash for sore mouths. A cold infusion of the bark has been used as a wash for black eyes, sore eyes and snow blindness. A decoction of the root has been used to treat suppressed menses and so can cause an abortion, especially early in the pregnancy.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MACO5
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Malus+coronaria
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#115(c)
Common Name: Oregon Crabapple (Malus fusca)
Appearance and Habitat: Small tree, often with several trunks and many branches, or a thicket-forming shrub; sometimes spiny. The only western species of crabapple has oblong fruit; the three eastern species have round fruit. The strong wood can be made into superior tool handles. The fruit is used for jellies and preserves and was once eaten by Indians; grouse and other birds consume the crabapples in quantity.
(1)Moist woods, stream banks, swamps and bogs in deep rich soils, usually occuring in dense pure thickets in Western N. America – Alaska to California. A deciduous tree growing to 12 m (39ft 4in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Up to 2cm in diameter. An agreeable sub-acid taste, it can be eaten out of hand or made into jellies, preserves etc. The fruit can be left on the tree until there have been some autumn frosts, this will soften the fruit and make it somewhat less acid. The fruit is rich in pectin so it can be added to pectin-low fruits when making jams or jellies. Pectin is also said to protect the body against radiation.
(3)
Medicinal Uses: Oregon crab was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints. In particular, it gained a reputation with some tribes as a heal-all, especially useful for treating any of the internal organs. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The trunk, bark and inner bark are antirheumatic, astringent, blood purifier, cardiac, diuretic, laxative and tonic. A decoction has been used in the treatment of coughs, stomach ulcers, dysentery, diarrhoea, rheumatism and consumption. The shredded bark has been used to treat blood spitting. A poultice of the chewed bark has been applied to wounds. An infusion of the bark is used as an eyewash. a decoction of the bark is used as a wash on cuts, eczema and other skin problems. An infusion of the bark, combined with wild cherry bark (Prunus sp.) has been used as a cure-all tonic. The juice scraped from the peeled trunk has been used as an eye medicine. The soaked leaves have been chewed in the treatment of lung problems.
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MAFU
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#115(d)
Common Name: Prairie Crabapple, Iowa Crabapple(Malus ioensis )
Appearance and Habitat: A miniature apple tree in most respects, prairie crabapple grows to 35 ft. with a dense, irregular form. A sometimes spiny shrub or small tree, with spreading branches and broad, open crown. Exfoliating bark reveals silvery-gray inner bark. The large, white or pink, flowers grow in clusters that cover the tree. A yellow-green, apple-like berry is not ornamental by crabapple standards. If the foliage has escaped premature defoliation from fungus disease, it can develop a deep crimson color in fall. This is the crabapple of the eastern prairie region in the upper Mississippi Valley. A handsome double-flowered variety is grown as an ornamental. Numerous species of birds, including bobwhites and pheasants, and squirrels, rabbits, and other mammals consume the fruit. (1)Open woods, thickets, pastures, along streams etc, with a preference for calcareous soils. Central N. America-Indiana to Minnesota, south to Texas and Louisiana. A deciduous tree growing to 5 m (16ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Up to 4cm in diameter. Harsh and astringent, it is best baked or made into preserves. It makes excellent jellies and cider. (3)
Medicinal Uses: None
(4)
Foot Notes:
(1)
http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MAIO

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Malus+ioensis
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#115(e)
Common Name: Paradise Apple, European Crabapple
(Malus sylvestris )
Appearance and Habitat: Not known in the wild found in Europe. (Utah) A deciduous tree growing to 5 m (16ft 5in). It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit can be up to 6cm in diameter.
Medicinal Uses: None
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#115(f)
Common Name: Squaw Apple, Wild Crabapple
(Peraphyllum ramosissimum )

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Sour when unripe, the fruits are slightly bitter as they ripen and when fully ripe are sweetish but with a bitter after-taste. Those fruits that have fully ripened and dried on the plant are the sweetest and most desirable. Ripe fruits can also be used in making jellies or prepared like spiced crab apples. Fruits are rarely borne in Britain
Medicinal Uses: None
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Other Foot Notes on Crabapples: This fruit is common in the United States, temperate Asia, and Europe. Look for it in open woodlands, on the edge of woods, or in fields. The fruit can be cut into thin slices and dried for a food reserve. The U.S. Armed Forces Survival Manual page 147, ISBN 0-89256-200-5, Copyright 1980 by John Boswell

Recipes provided by : The Encyclopedia of Country Living by Carla Emery, page 433-34, copyright 1994 by Carla Emery, Publisher: Sasquatch Books, ISBN 0-912365-95-1
Sweet Pickled Crab Apples: Wash the crab apples and remove the blossom ends.  You will need a peck, about 2 gallons.  Make a syrup of 1 quart vinegar, 3 lbs of brown sugar, 1 teaspoon of whole cloves, and  1 stick of cinnamon.  Boil.  Add apples and cook them in this syrup.  Remove the apples, putting them in canning jars, pour the syrup over them and seal. 

Crab Apple Preserves:Core crab apples with a sharp knife through the blossom end. Use 1 lb of white sugar and 1 cup of water for every pound of fruit. Boil the water to dissolve the sugar. Skim and drop the apples in. Let them gently boil until clear and the skins begin the break. Take the apples out with a perforated skimmer and pack them in jars. Pour the syrup over the and seal. 
(Processing times were not mentioned in the recipes, check with your local County Extension Agent)
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#116
Common Name: Coral Root, Summer Coral Root, Autumn Coral Root, Crawley
Latin Name: Corallorhiza maculata, C. odontorhiza
Family: Orchidaceae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=COMA25
all of lower Canada, all States except Hawaii, Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida (Corallorhiza maculata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=COOD7 all States east of the Mississippi R. on the west bank-Minnesota to Louisiana and North Dakota to Texas. (Corallorhiza odontorhiza)
Photos: (Corallorhiza maculata) (Corallorhiza odontorhiza)Warnings: None Known
#116(a)
Common Name: Summer Coral Root, (C. maculata)
Appearance and Habitat:
A mycotrophic Orchid with 10-30 purplish-brown to yellowish bilaterally symmetrical flowers in loose racemes along a yellowish or brownish, leafless floral stalk that has several sheaths toward the base. The specific epithet, maculata, means spotted and is given for the purple spots on the lip of the flower. This northern orchid is the most common and largest coralroot. Clumps of stems often occur in extensive colonies. It lacks chlorophyll and gets its nourishment from fungi in its coral-like underground stem. Several smaller species differ in color and in the nature of the lip. Five species occur in the East, among them: Wisters Coralroot (C. Wisteriana), which flowers from March to May, before any of the others and Late or Autumn Coralroot (C. odontorhiza), with flowers less than 1/5 (5 mm) long, the last to flower, appearing from late August to October.
(1)On leaf mold in woods. Moist to dry coniferous and deciduous woods, and conifer plantations, often in florests with little other herbaceous cover at elevations of 0 – 3700 meters. N. America – Nova Scotia to British Columbia, south to Florida, New Mexico and California. A perennial growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is in flower from Jun to August.(2)This is an exotic little saprophytic orchid, lacking chlorophyll and having a light-orange to brownish color. The leaves are a few sheathing scales and otherwise is bare stemmed below the flowers. It seldom reaches a foot in height. The flowers are brownish purple with dark flecks and are distinctively orchid. They have a spotted lower lip, two side spurs, two upper petals, and another spur behind the flowers. It is found frequently in small amounts in the west above the ponderosa belt. It is basically parasitic on leaf mold and pine mulch. It can form stands of a dozen plants in one location. It is usually not found at campsites or along well traveled trails.(3)
Edible Uses: None(4)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the plant has been used as a lotion in the treatment of ringworm and skin diseases. An infusion of the dried, whole plant bits has been used in the treatment of colds. A decoction of the stalks has been used to ‘build up the blood’ of people suffering from pneumonia.
(5)Although it has no Native American name, at Owyhee and Pyramid Lake, Nevada the whole plant is dried and tea is made out of bits for colds. It is said to be of supernatural origins.(6)Only dig one of four visible plants, to keep from plundering a complete watershed. The grey convoluted roots resemble coral growths or mutant brains, that is what you are after, so use a shovel. The roots extend about 6 inches below the mulch. Put the clump in a bag and carry it home to wash and dry. Use only small pieces of the roots making a scant teaspoon and boil in water for ten minutes. It is one of the best treatments for nervous disorders and nervous fevers. It will reduce a fever reliably and has a strong sensible sedative effect. It is an important first aid for high fevers after a childbirth. This is not a home cure, but it will relax the mother until a physician can apply appropriate therapies.(7)
Foot Notes:
(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=COMA25
Foot Notes:
(2, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Corallorhiza+maculata
Foot Notes: (3 , 7) Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, 1st Edition, page 63, publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press ; copy right 1979 ISBN 0-89013-104-X
Foot Notes:
(6) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Murphey, page 37, Publisher: Meyerbooks Copy right 1990; ISBN 0-916638-15-4
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#116(b)
Common Name: Autumn Coral Root, (C. odontorhiza)
Appearance and Habitat:
Rich woods, parasitic on the roots of trees. Dry woodland. Rich deciduous woods, mixed woods, and conifer plantations at elevations of 0-2800 meters. In Eastern N. America – S.W. Maine to Minnesota and southwards. A perennial growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in). It is in flower from Jul to October.
Edible Uses: None
Medicinal Uses: The root is diaphoretic, febrifuge and sedative. It is one of the most certain, quick and powerful diaphoretics, but it is a scarce plant and therefore a very expensive medicine to obtain.
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Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
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