anticoagulant, better blood circulation, Duchesnea indica, edible cotoneaster, edible firethorn, edible fruits, edible herbs, field medicine, Fragaria braceata, Fragaria chiloensis, Fragaria glauca, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria vesca braceata, Fragaria virginiana, home remedies, militia supply, natural anticoagulant, natural antiseptic, natural astringent, natural diuretic, preppers plants, Pyracantha coccinea, treat abscesses, treat boils, treat burns, treat diarrhea, treat dysentery, treat gonnorrhoea, treat lung ailments, treat ringworm, treat vaginitis, treatment for acute tonsillitis, treatment for burns, treatment for laryngitis, treatment for snake bite, treatment for sore gums
Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West. Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. )
Common Name: Firethorn, Cottoneaster
Latin Name: Pyracantha coccinea
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PYCO2 New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, Tennessee, N. and S. Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico, Utah, California and Oregon: in Canada; British Columbia (Pyrocantha coccinea)
(The usda plant database is not correct on this plant, Firethorns were not uncommon in Southrn Nevada, yet Nevada is not listed.)
Photos: (Pyracantha coccinea)
Appearance and Habitat: Woods and hedges in S. Europe. Occasionally found more or less naturalized in Britian. An evergreen shrub growing to 4 m (13ft) by 4 m (13ft). It is hardy to zone 6. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in June.
Warnings: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hyrdogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do harm but any bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities hyrdogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess however, it can cause respiratory failure and death.
Edible Uses: Fruit – cooked. Used for making jellies, marmalade and sauces.
Medicinal Uses: None
Common Name: Strawberry
Latin Name: Fragaria braceata, F. chiloensis, F. glauca, F. vesca, F. virginiana, Duchesnea indica
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=FRAGA main database-all of North America and Hawaii.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=FRVEB2Rocky Mountain States and west, excluding Nevada, including Texas; in Canada; British Columbia and Alberta (Fragaria vesca braceata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=FRCHAlaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California and Hawaii (Fragaria chiloensis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=FRVIG2Alaska, all of Canada, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, N. and S. Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, New York and north through Maine. (Fragaria virginiana glauca)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=FRVEall States west of the Rocky Mountains, except Nevada, plus Hawaii, N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Texas, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, W. Virgina, all States north of the Ohio R., Pennslyvania and Maryland north to Maine; in Canada; British Columbia to Newfoundland and Northwest Territory (Fragaria vesca)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=FRVI all of North America (Fragaria virginiana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=DUIN all States east of the Mississippi R. except those north of New York and Connecticut, plus Iowa to Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, Nebraska, California, Oregon and Washington; in Canada; British Columbia and Ontario. (Duchesnea indica)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after Common Name.)
Common Name: Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria bracteata)
Appearance and Habitat: Moist woods, stream banks and sandy meadows in Western N. America – British Columbia to California. A perennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw. Sweet and succulent, they are eaten as a delicacy. The leaves are a tea substitute.
Medicinal Uses: None
Common Name: Beach Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis)
Appearance and Habitat: Shiny, dark-green, trifoliate leaves arise from the creeping, horizontal runners or this large-flowered, wild strawberry. A low plant connected to others by runners, at least when young, often growing in patches, with white flowers on stalks slightly shorter than leaves. The white, five-petaled flowers are followed on the female plants by large, red berries. Beach strawberry or coast strawberry is a perennial. The word strawberry comes from the Anglo-Saxon streawberige, referring to the berries strewing their runners out over the ground. This plant also grows in South America; Chilean plants of this species were the parents in the production of hybrid domestic strawberries. Several species of wild strawberries in the West strongly resemble Beach Strawberry but have thin leaflets.(1)Grows in the scrub near the coast from Chile to western N. America. A perennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit-raw or cooked. Large, sweet and succulent with a delicate flavor. A delicious treat. The berries can be used to make jam, preserves, etc. A tea can be make from the leaves.(3)
Medicinal Uses: The plant is antiseptic, astringent, emmenagogue, galactogogue and odontalgic. It has been used to regulate the menstrual cycle. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been used to treat burns.(4)
Foot Notes: (1) (http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=FRCH
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fragaria+chiloensis
Common Name: Rocky Mountain Strawberry (Fragaria glauca) Appearance and Habitat: Coniferous forests in Arizona. Found at 2100 – 3300 meters in the Rockies. South-western N. America. A perennial growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July.
Edible Uses: Fruit-raw or cooked or used in preserves ect. Small but tasty. The fruit can also be dried for later use. The dried leaves are a tea substitute.
Medicinal Uses: None
Common Name: Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria vesca)
Appearance and Habitat: The Woodland Strawberry is a member of the rose family (family Rosaceae) which includes herbs, shrubs, and trees with mostly prickly stems. There are about 100 genera and 3,000 species in this worldwide family. Apples, pears, quinces, cherries, plums, peaches, apricots, loquats, blackberries, raspberries, and strawberries are important fruits.(1) Shaded, fairly damp places in woodland. South-western N. America – California. A perennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw. Aromatic, sweet and succulent. The fruit can also be dried for later use. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter. The fresh or dried leaves are used to brew an excellent tea.(3)
Medicinal Uses: The leaves are astringent. A decoction has been used in the treatment of dysentery (4)
Foot Notes: (1)( http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=FRVE
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)>http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fragaria+vesca
Common Name: Virginia Strawberry, Wild Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)
Appearance and Habitat: Virginia strawberry or wild strawberry is a ground-hugging plant rising from a fibrous, perennial root system. Hairy leaf petioles, up to 6 in. long, each bear a single trifoliate leaf. The hairy flower stalk gives rise to a loose cluster of small, five-petaled flowers followed by tasty, wild strawberries. Found in patches in fields and dry openings, this plant produces the finest, sweetest, wild strawberry. The edible portion of the strawberry is actually the central portion of the flower (receptacle) which enlarges greatly with maturity and is covered with the embedded, dried, seed-like fruit. Cultivated Strawberries are hybrids developed from this native species and the South American one. The similar Wood Strawberry (F. vesca) has seed-like fruit on the surface, not embedded, and sepals that point backwards.(1)Fields, open slopes and woodland edges in Eastern N. America – Newfoundland to South Dakota, south to Florida and Oklahoma. A perennial growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July.(2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw, cooked or made into preserves. Sweet and succulent. Small but delicious. The fruit is up to 20mm in diameter. The dried leaves are a very pleasant tea substitute. Rich in vitamin C.(3)
Medicinal Uses: The whole plant is antiseptic, astringent, emmenagogue, galactogogue and odontalgic. It has been used to regulate the menstrual cycle. A tea made from the leaves has been used as a nerve tonic and is slightly astringent. A poultice made from the dried powdered leaves mixed with oil has been used to treat open sores. A tea made from the roots is diuretic. It has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea, irregular menses, gonorrhoea, stomach and lung ailments.(4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=FRVI
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fragaria+virginiana
Common Name: Mock Strawberry, Indian Strawberry (Duchesnea indica)
Appearance and Habitat: Shady places in woods, grassy slopes, ravines in low mountains, all over Japan. E. Asia – China, Japan, Himalayas. An occassional garden escape in Britain. An evergreen perennialgrowing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to October, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw. Dry and insipid. Certainly rather tasteless, but it is not dry. A flavour somewhat like a water melon according to some people, but this is possibly the product of a strained imagination.The fruit contains about 3.4% sugar, 1.5% protein, 1.6% ash. Vitamin C is 6.3mg per 100ml of juice. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter with the appearance and texture of a strawberry but very little flavour. A clump 2.5m² yields about 150g of fruit annually. Leaves – cooked.
Medicinal Uses: The whole plant is anticoagulant, antiseptic, depurative and febrifuge. It can be used in decoction or the fresh leaves can be crushed and applied externally as a poultice. It is used in the treatment of boils and abscesses, weeping eczema, ringworm, stomatitis, laryngitis, acute tonsillitis, snake and insect bites and traumatic injuries. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of swellings. An infusion of the flowers is used to activate the blood circulation. The fruit is used to cure skin diseases. A decoction of the plant is used as a poultice for abscesses, boils, burns etc. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Duchesnea+indica
(Now for Michael Moore on all but Duchesnea indica)
Appearance and Habitat: A Three – lobed leaves, that are sometimes fuzzy and sometimes smooth. They have white or yellow flowers. The plants have pink runners that go along on top of the ground to form new plants. In California look for them between 5,000 and 7,000 feet. In New Mexico and Arizona they are found above 7,000 feet, usually above the Ponderosa belt. Look in wet meadows and along the northern slopes, the plants like rich and shady areas.
Medicinal Uses: Gather leaves and roots in late spring and dry them in a cheesecloth pocket hung in the shade. Make a stardard infusion of the leaves by using 1 part dried leaves to 32 parts of water. Bring the water to boil, remove from heat and place the leaves in the solution. I usually use a coffee filter to hold the material rather than straining it out later. Let it sit over-night, and return the water level to 32 parts. Or you can just use the leaves to make a cup of hot tea. The tea is mildly astringent, perfect during pregnancy or for stomach sensitivity. It is also diuretic. The tea can also be used as a douche for vaginitis or as an enema for diarrhea. The roots can be used for tea when you have obstinate dysentary. The roots can also be used by placing a piece of it against sore gums; it has a tendency to shrink the inflammation.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore, 2nd Edition pages 239-241, Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 2003, ISBN 978-0-89013-454-2