Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
(I am going to have to post 3 posts on Pine. I meant to finish it this time, but it is getting to be large of a post and still haven’t covered enough, or Michael Moore.)
#98 (part 2)
Common Name: Pine
Latin Name: Pinus palustris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. rigida, P. sabiniana, P. serotina, P. strobiformis, P. strobus
Family: Pinaceae
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIPA2 Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, N. and S. Carolina and Virginia (Pinus palustris)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIPO all states west of the Rocky Mountains plus N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma and Texas; in Canada- British Columbia (Pinus ponderosa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIRE N. Carolina north through New England, plus Minnesota, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana and MIchigan; in Canada- Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. (Pinus resinosa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIRI all states east of the Mississippi except Wisconsin, Michigan, Florida, Mississippi and Alabama; plus Minnesota and in Canada- Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. (Pinus rigida)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PISA2 California and Oregon (Pinus sabiniana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PISE Alabama to Florida and up the Atlantic Coast to New Jersey (Pinus serotina)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIST3 Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Texas. (Pinus strobiformis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIST all states east of the Mississippi R. except Mississippi and Florida; on the west bank of the Mississippi – Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota; in Canada – Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland  and Nova Scotia. (Pinus strobus)
Photos: (Click on latin name after common name)
Warnings: The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pin can cause dermatitis in sensitive people (PFAF website warnings apply to all pines.)
#98 (l)
Common Name: Pitch Pine, Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)
Appearance and Habitat: Longleaf pine is an 80-100 ft. tree with short, stout, spare branches forming an open, irregular crown. A new level of branches is added each year. Long, bright green needles, the longest of any eastern North American pine, occur in dense bundles of three. The cones are also the largest of any pine in eastern North America. Mature specimens provide high, airy, fragrant canopies. Seedlings pass through a grass stage for a few years, in which the stem grows in thickness rather than height and the taproot develops rapidly. Later, the elongating, unbranched stem produces very long needles, which give a bunchgrass-like appearance when theyre still close to the ground. Frequent fires caused by man or by lightning have perpetuated subclimax, pure stands of this species and in the past helped maintain a distinct Southeastern ecosystem known as Longleaf Pine Savannah, which once covered a vast area from eastern Texas to the Atlantic coast in park-like groves of massive specimens, plus associated, fire-adapted plants like Pineland Three-Awn (Aristida stricta). Longleaf Pine is a leading world producer of naval stores. The trees are tapped for turpentine and resin and then logged for construction lumber, poles and pilings, and pulpwood. (1)  Poor acid soils that are low in organic matter on sandhills, flats, and scrubland from sea level to 650 meters, but usually near the coast. Southeastern n. America – Virginia to Florida and Texas. An evergreen tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Mar to April, and the seeds ripen in October. 
(2)
Edible Uses: A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. The turpentine was formerly used in the treatment of colic, chronic diarrhoea, worms, to arrest bleeding from tooth sockets and as a rubefacient. (4)
***********************************
#98(m)
Common Name: Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) Appearance and Habitat: Ponderosa pine grows 60 – 150 ft. in cultivation (as much as 258 ft. in the wild) with a pyramidal, open crown. Old trees are devoid of branches for more than 1/2 of their height. Branches are short and pendulous, often turned up at the ends. Bark is cinnamon-brown to yellow-orange and flaky. Dark, gray-green to yellowish-green needles are long and occur in tufts of two or three at the ends of the twigs. Large to very large tree with broad, open, conical crown of spreading branches; 3 distinct geographic varieties. This is the most widely distributed and common pine in North America. The typical variety, Ponderosa Pine or Pacific Ponderosa Pine (var. ponderosa), has long needles, 3 in a bundle, and large cones, and occurs in the Pacific Coast region. Rocky Mountain Ponderosa Pine or Interior Ponderosa Pine (var. scopulorum Engelm.) with short needles, 2 in a bundle, and small cones, is found in the Rocky Mountain region. Arizona Pine or Arizona Ponderosa Pine (var.arizonica (Engelm.) Shaw), occurring mainly in southeastern Arizona, has 5 slender needles in bundle. David Douglas, the Scottish botanical explorer, found this pine in 1826 and named it for its ponderous, or heavy, wood. This valuable timber tree is the most commercially important western pine. Its lumber is especially suited for window frames and panel doors. Quail, nutcrackers, squirrels, and many other kinds of wildlife consume the seeds; and chipmunks store them in their caches, thus aiding dispersal.  (1)  Found in a variety of soils form sea level to 2800 meters though mainly inland and in drier areas. The best growth is from trees growing in deep well-drained soils. Western N. America – British Columbia to N. Mexico. An evergreen tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 7 m (23ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 4. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in October. (2)
Edible Uses: Inner bark – raw or cooked. Mucilaginous. Best harvested in the spring. The inner bark can be eaten fresh, but is more often dried, ground into a powder and either used as a thickener in soups or is mixed with flour for making bread etc. Seed – raw or cooked. Rich in oil, the seed has a slightly resinous flavour. Quite small, it is only about 8mm long. The seed can be crushed into a meal and used in making bread etc. The resin has been chewed as a gum. Young male cones have been chewed for the juice. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3) 
Medicinal Uses: Ponderosa pine was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes, who valued it especially for its antiseptic and vulnerary properties, using it to treat a range of skin problems, cuts, wounds, burns etc. It was also valued for its beneficial effect upon the respiratory system and was used to treat various chest and lung complaints. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. The branches are used in herbal steam baths as a treatment for muscular pains. A decoction of the plant tops has been used in the treatment of internal bleeding and high fevers. An infusion of the dried buds has been used as an eye wash. (4) 
*************************
#98 (n)
Common Name: Norway Pine, Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Appearance and Habitat: A common, large tree small cones and broad, irregular or rounded crown of spreading branches, 1 row added a year. Red pine, a symmetrically oval, canopy tree, usually grows 50-75 ft. but can reach 125 ft. or more. The long, straight trunk is covered with reddish-brown, scaly bark. Tufted, dark-green needles, occurring in clusters of two, are 2-5 in. long. The misleading alternate name Norway Pine for this New World species may be traced to confusion with Norway Spruce by early English explorers. Another explanation is that the name comes from the trees occurrence near Norway, Maine, founded in 1797. Because the name was in usage before this time, the former explanation is more likely. Red Pine is an ornamental and shade tree; the wood is used for general construction, planing-mill products, millwork, and pulpwood.  (1) Dry woods. The best stands are on light sandy well-drained and slightly acid soils, though it is also found on other soils including poor ones. Eastern N. America – Nova Scotia to Pennsylvania. An evergreen tree growing to 35 m (114ft 10in) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 3. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen from Oct to February. (2) 
Edible Uses: A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. A poultice of the wetted inner bark has been applied to the chest in the treatment of strong colds. The dried and powdered leaves have been used as an inhalant for people who are unconscious. A decoction of the leaves and the bark have been used in a herbal steam bath to relieve the pain of headaches and bad backs.  (4) 
********************
#98 (o)
Common Name: Northern Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida)
 
Appearance and Habitat: Pitch pine is a 40-70 ft. evergreen with an irregular, globular form; twisting, gnarled, drooping branches; and scaly, reddish-brown bark which eventually becomes black. Stiff, yellow-green needles, in clusters of three, eventually turn dark-green. Medium-sized tree often bearing tufts of needles on trunk, with a broad, rounded or irregular crown of horizontal branches. Cones occur in whorls of 3-5. Now used principally for lumber and pulpwood, Pitch Pine was once a source of resin. Colonists produced turpentine and tar used for axle grease from this species before naval stores were developed from the southern pines. Pine knots, when fastened to a pole, served as torches at night. The common name refers to the high resin content of the knotty wood. Pitch Pine is suitable for planting on dry rocky soil that other trees cannot tolerate, becoming open and irregular in shape in exposed situations. This hardy species is resistant to fire and injury, forming sprouts from roots and stumps. It is the pine at Cape Cod; and the New Jersey pine barrens are composed of dwarf sprouts of Pitch Pine following repeated fires. (1)  Sandy or barren plains nad dry gravelly uplands occasionally in cold deep swamps. It is mostaabundant in the coastal region south of Massachusetts. Eastern N. America – New Brunswick to Georgia and west to Kentucky. An evergreen tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 7 m (23ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 4. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen from Jan to February.
(2)
Edible Uses: A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers.(4)
***************************
#98 (p)
Common Name: California Foothill Pine, Digger Pine (Pinus sabiniana)
Appearance and Habitat: Digger pine is an open, airy conifer with a divided trunk and a sparsely leaved crown. It grows to 45 ft. in 15 years and can attain 75 ft. in 200 yrs. The ridged and scaly bark is dark brown, often tinged purple. The foliage is gray-green and lacy. Tree with crooked, forking trunk and branches; open, very thin, irregular, broad, or rounded crown; and very large, heavy cones. The soft, lightweight wood of this common and widespread pine is not durable; the crooked, forking trunks also make the wood impractical to use except as fuel. The former common name refers to the Digger Indians (a pioneer term grouping all California Indian tribes together, based on their practice of digging for foods such as bulbs and roots). (1)Scattered singly or in small groups on dry rocky hillsides, 150 – 1200 meters. South-western N. America – California. An evergreen tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Jan to February.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. Rich in oil. Sweet, large and slightly resinous, it makes an excellent staple food. The seed is quite large, up to 25mm long and 8mm wide with a thick shell. An important food source for local Indians. The seed contains 28% protein and 51% fatty oil. The green cones, roasted for about 20 minutes, are soft and syrupy in their centre. They are much relished by local Indians. Inner bark – raw or cooked. The inner bark can be used fresh or it can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickener in soups or can be added to cereal flours when making bread etc. An emergency food, it is only used when better foods are not available. A gummy exudation from the tree is chewed. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. The leaves are used as a tea substitute.(3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. The yellow pitch-like gum is used as a protective healing covering for burns and sores. The twigs are used in sweat-baths to treat rheumatism. They are laid over hot rocks, the patient lies on them and water is occasionally sprinkled onto the rocks so that steam plus the volatile oil from the pine are constantly given off. The patient remains for 8 – 10 hours, sweating profusely and is said to invariably be able to move without pain afterwards.(4)
*********************************
#98 (q)
Common Name: Pond Pine (Pinus serotina)
Appearance and Habitat: Medium-sized tree with open, rounded or irregular crown of stout, often crooked branches. Pocosin is an Indian name for pond or bog, alluding to this species habitat. The Latin name serotina, meaning late, refers to the cones, which remain closed for years before opening, often following a fire. After fires or other damage, seedlings and trees will produce sprouts from roots.(1)Low wet flats, pond margins, peaty swamps and sandy woods. South-eastern N. America – North Carolina to Florida. An evergreen tree growing to 30 m (98ft 5in).
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen from Jan to February.  
(2)
Edible Uses: A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. (4)
***************************
#98 (r)
Common Name: Limber Pine (Pinus strobiformis) 
Appearance and Habitat: Southwestern white pine grows to 80 ft. in height and can attain a trunk diameter of over 3 ft. Slender branches form a broad, rounded crown. Bark on young trees is smooth and whitish-gray; as the tree matures the bark becomes dark brown and deeply furrowed. Needles, from 2-5 in. long, are blue-green. The large seeds are consumed by wildlife and were eaten by southwestern Indians. This species of the Mexican border region was formerly considered a southern variety of Limber Pine, which has a broader, more northern distribution, is smaller, and has smooth-edged needles with white lines on all surfaces and shorter cones with thick, rounded, blunt-pointed cone-scales.(1)Moist sheltered sites, usually on rich well-drained soils. South-western N. America – Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and Mexico. An evergreen tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. They can also be ground into a powder. Rich in oil, the seed has a slightly resinous flavour and a soft texture, it makes an excellent food. The seed is about 12mm long and 10mm wide and has a harder shell than the pinyon pine seeds. Inner bark. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood.(3)Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. (4)
*******************************
#98 (s)
Common Name: Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) 
Appearance and Habitat: Eastern white pine is a stately canopy tree, 75-100 ft. tall; sometimes much taller. Gracefully plume-like in outline, white pine is very distinctive when compared to other conifers. Its branches are horizontal and tiered. Tufts of light- to bluish-green needles are borne in feathery clusters of five only toward the ends of the twigs. Cones are 6-8 in. long. The largest northeastern conifer, a magnificent evergreen tree with straight trunk and crown of horizontal branches, 1 row added a year, becoming broad and irregular. The largest conifer and formerly the most valuable tree of the Northeast, Eastern White Pine is used for construction, millwork, trim, and pulpwood. Younger trees and plantations have replaced the once seemingly inexhaustible lumber supply of virgin forests. The tall straight trunks were prized for ship masts in the colonial period. It is the state tree of Maine, the Pine Tree State; the pine cone and tassel are the states floral emblem. The seeds were introduced in England (where it is called Weymouth Pine) from Maine in 1605 by Captain George Weymouth of the British Navy.(1)Woods, especially on sandy drift soils or fertile well drained soils, sometimes on river banks and rarely in swamps. Often forming dense forests. Eastern N. America – New Foundland to Manitoba, south to Georgia. An evergreen tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate.It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October.(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. Rather small and fiddly, it is only about 6mm long. The seed is mainly used as a flavouring in cooking. The fresh needles are brewed into an aromatic tea that is rich in vitamins A and C. A refreshing drink is made from the leaves. An acceptable candy is made by boiling the tender new shoots in syrup. The sticky amber sap can be used for chewing. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. The firm unexpanded male cones can be boiled and used as a flavouring. A pleasant sweet flavour. Inner bark – raw or cooked. A sweet flavour. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread.(3)
Medicinal Uses: White pine was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for its antiseptic and vulnerary qualities, using it extensively in the treatment of skin complaints, wounds, burns, boils etc. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so was used in treating coughs, colds, influenza and so on. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. A poultice of pitch has been used to draw out toxins from boils and reduce the pain. The dried inner bark is demulcent, diuretic and expectorant. An infusion was used as a treatment for colds and it is still used as an ingredient in commercial cough syrups, where it serves to promote the expulsion of phlegm. A poultice made from the pounded inner bark is used to treat cuts, sores and wounds. The wetted inner bark can be used as a poultice on the chest in treating strong colds. The dried inner bark contains 10% tannin, some mucilage, an oleoresin, a glycoside and a volatile oil. A tea made from the young needles is used to treat sore throats. It is a good source of vitamin C and so is effective against scurvy. An infusion of the young twigs has been used in the treatment of kidney disorders and pulmonary complaints. The powdered wood has been used as a dressing on babies chaffed skin, sores and improperly healed navels.(4) 
Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
 
Advertisements