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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#98 (part 1)
Common Name: Pine
Latin Name: Pinus albicaulis, P. aristata,  P. banksiana, P. cembroides, P. discolor, ,P. echinata, P. edulis,   P. flexilis,  P. lambertiana, P. monophylla, P. monticola,
Family: Pinaceae
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIAL California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming, in Canada- British Columbia and Alberta (Pinus albicaulis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIAR Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico (Pinus aristata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIBA2  all states north of the Ohio R.  plus W. Virginia, Pennslyvania, New York, all of New England except Connecticut, plus Minnesota, N. Dakota, Missouri, all of lower Canada and Northwest Territories. (Pinus banksiana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PICE New Mexico, Texas (Pinus cembroides)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIDI3 Arizona, New Mexico (Pinus discolor)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIEC2 all states east of the Mississippi R. except Wisconsin, Indiana, Michigan and states north of New York, plus Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas and Oklahoma (Pinus echinata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIED California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado,  Wyoming, Oklahoma and Texas (Pinus edulis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIFL2 all Rocky Mountain states and west, except Washington, plus N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska and in Canada – British Columbia and Alberta. (Pinus flexilis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PILA Oregon, Nevada, California (Pinus lambertiana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIMO Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and  New Mexico (Pinus monophylla)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIMO3 California, Nevada, Utah, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana and in Canada – British Columbia and Alberta (Pinus monticola)
Photos: (Click on Latin Name after common name)
Warnings: (on all pines by PFAF website) The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people.
#98(a)
Common Name: White Bark Pine (Pinus albicaulis)
Appearance and Habitat: Tree with short, twisted or crooked trunk and irregular, spreading crown; a shrub  at timberline; foliage has sweetish taste and odor. American Indians gathered the cones and ate the seeds of this species. A bird called Clarks nutcracker tears open the cones to eat the seeds; in northern Eurasia, another nutcracker uses a similar method to obtain the seeds of a closely related species. Whitebark Pine is considered the most primitive native  pine because its cones do not open until they decay. (1)  Often found on rocky ridges and bluffs, it is reduced to a prostrate gnarled mat at the highest elevations in sheltered canyons.  Western N. America – British Columbia to California.  An evergreen tree growing to 20 m (65ft 7in) at a slow rate.  It is hardy to zone 2. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in September. (2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. They can also be ground into a powder and then used as a flavouring in soups etc or can be added to cereal flours when making bread, biscuits, cakes etc. Large and sweetly-flavoured, the oil-rich seed is up to 9 x 7mm and has a thick shell. It has a pleasant slightly resinous flavour. Eating the raw seeds in quantity can cause constipation. Inner bark. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[4]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers (4).
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=PIAL
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#98(b)
Common Name: Bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) Appearance and Habitat:  A dwarf, shrubby, picturesque tree, 12-40 ft. tall. Trunk is short and contorted, bearing stout branches. Blue-green to gray-green, aromatic needles. Bristle-like prickles at the edge of each cone scale. Tree  with very short needles crowded into mass suggesting a foxtail and a broad, irregular crown of spreading branches; a low  shrub at timberline. These ancient trees are extremely long-lived, and the oldest ones are an impressive sight, with their twisted trunks and their gnarled roots clinging to windswept mountain ridges. The Intermountain Bristlecone Pine (P. longaeva), found from Utah to Nevada and eastern California, used to be considered a variety of P. aristata. Representatives of the Intermountain species are some of the oldest individual trees known, surpassing 4,000 years. (1)  Dry rocky slopes, often in pure stands, 2250 – 3450 meters in California.  Trees grow right to the tree line, where te are no more tjhan gnarled shrubs.  South-western N. America – Colorado to New Mexico. An evergreen tree  growing to 12 m (39ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a slow rate.  It is hardy to zone 3. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October. (2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. Up to 6mm long. The oil-rich seed has a slightly resinous flavour. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. (4)
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#98(c)
Common Name: Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana)
Appearance and Habitat: An irregular, conical to flat-topped evergreen,  50-75 ft. tall. Short, stiff, olive-green needles grow in pairs from the rough, scaly twigs. Open-crowned tree  with spreading branches and very short needles; sometimes a shrub. Variable-shaped cones remain closed until exposed to fire. Jack Pine is a pioneer after fires and logging, although it is damaged or killed by fires. The cones usually remain closed for many years until opened by heat of fires or exposure after cutting. The northernmost New World pine, it extends beyond 65-degrees northern latitude in Mackenzie and nearly to the limit of trees eastward. Kirtlands warbler is dependent upon Jack Pine; this rare bird breeds only in north-central Michigan, where it is confined to dense stands of young pines following forest fires. (1) Barren sandy or rocky soils sometimes forming extexsive forests.  Fire seccessional in boreal forests, tundra transition, dry flats, and hills, sandy soils, sea level to 800 meters.  Northern N. America – Alaska to Northwest Territory, south to NewYork, Illinois and Minnesota.  An evergreen tree growing to 12 m (39ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate.  It is hardy to zone 2. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jan to February(2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. Rich in oil with a slightly resinous flavour. They are very small and fiddly to utilize, being only 2 – 3mm long. Young cones – cooked. Inner bark. No more information is given, but the bark can usually be eaten raw or cooked. It can also be dried, then ground into a powder and used as a thickener in soups or can be mixed with cereal flours when making bread etc. A refreshing drink is made from the leaves. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3) 
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. A poultice of the inner bark has been used in the treatment of deep cuts. The leaves have been used in a herbal steam bath to clear congested lungs. They have also been used as a fumigant to revive a comatose patient. (4)
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#98 (d)
Common Name: Mexican Pinyon (Pinus cembroides)
Appearance and Habitat: Mexican pinyon is a small, bushy evergreen 15-30 ft. tall with a compact rounded crown and rich blue green needles occurring in bundles of three.  Small resinous tree with short trunk and spreading crown of low, horizontal branches and thick-walled, edible seeds; often shrubby. The hard seeds are the main commercial pinyon nuts (pinones) of Mexico. However, in the United States this species has limited distribution and usually bears light cone crops; other species with thin-walled seeds are more common. Rodents, especially packrats, eat the seeds. (1) Hot arid mountain slopes above 2000 meters, with juniper and scrub oak.  Usually in poor, shallow. rocky, or gravelly soils in Southern N. America -Arizona to Texas, south to Mexico.  An evergreen tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a slow rate.  It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in October. (2)
Edible Uses: Seed – the oily seed kernel is eaten raw, roasted, ground into a powder for making bread, cakes etc or made into a nut butter. An excellent flavour. A good size, the seeds are up to 15mm long. Said to be the highest in protein and lowest in starch of all the piñons. The seed contains about 14.6% protein, 62% fat. 17.3% carbohydrate. This species provides a major source of seeds for sale in Mexico. Inner bark – only used in times of dire need. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The gum exuding from damaged areas of the tree is used to treat sore throats. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. (4)
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#98(e)
Common Name: Border Pinion (Pinus discolor)
Appearance and Habitat: Pinyon-juniper woodlands, foothills, mesas and tablelands at altitudes of 700 to 2300 meters in South-western N. America – Arizona, New Mexico and Mexico.   An evergreen tree growing to 15 m (49ft 3in). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October.
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. A reasonable size, it is about 12mm long. The oil-rich seed has a slightly resinous flavour. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood.
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers.
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#98(f)
Common Name: Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata)
Appearance and Habitat: The most widely distributed of the southern yellow pines, a large  tree with broad, open crown. This is a 50-100 ft. pine with short, spreading branches forming a pyramidal crown that opens with age. Bright green, 5 in. needles grow in tufts. Trunks of larger trees have broad, flat, reddish-brown plates.  Shortleaf Pine is native  in 21 southeastern states. An important timber species, producing lumber for construction, millwork, and many other uses, as well as plywood and veneer for containers. This and other southern pines are the major native  pulpwoods and leading woods in production of barrels. Seedlings and small trees will sprout after fire damage or injury. (1)  Old fields and woods in dry or sandy soils.  The best specimens are found on sandy loam or silt loam soils.  Eastern N. America – New York to Florida and Texas.   An evergreen tree growing to 35 m (114ft 10in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 6. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October. (2)
Edible Uses: A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. A tea made from the inner bark is emetic. A cold tea made from the buds of the plant is vermifuge. A tea made from the pitch in the trunk is laxative. It is used in the treatment of kidney ailments and TB. (4)
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#98(g)
Common Name: Pinyon Pine, Colorado Pinyon  (Pinus edulis)
Native American Name: Tuba (Paiute), Wapi (Shoshone) (1)
Appearance and Habitat: Two-needle pine or pinyon pine is a 10-30 ft., picturesque, gnarled evergreen  with a compact, globose crown. Curving, dark-green needles occur in twos.  The edible seeds, known as pinyon nuts, Indian nuts, pine nuts, and pinones (Spanish), are a wild, commercial nut  crop. Eaten raw, roasted, and in candies, they were once a staple food of southwestern Indians. Pinyon ranks first among the native nut  trees of the United States that are not also cultivated. Every autumn, local residents, especially Navajo Indians and Spanish-Americans, harvest quantities for the local and gourmet markets. However, most of these oily seeds are promptly devoured by pinyon jays, wild turkeys, woodrats or packrats, bears, deer, and other wildlife. Small pinyons are popular Christmas trees. This species is the most common tree  on the south rim of Grand Canyon National Park. The species name edulis describes the edible large seeds. (2)  Eastern foothills of the outer reaches of the Rockies on arid mesas in pure stands or with junipers.  South-western N. America – Rocky Mountains.  An evergreen tree growing to 15 m (49ft 3in) at a slow rate.  It is hardy to zone 5. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October. (3)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. A slightly resinous flavour, but delicious raw or cooked. The seed can be ground into a meal and used in stews, making bread, cakes etc and in making nut butter. The seed is up to 25mm long. Rich in oil, protein and thiamine. The seed contains about 15% protein. An important item of food for the local Indians, it is also sold in local markets of Colorado and New Mexico. About 450,000 kilos of the seeds are sold in American markets each year. The leaves can be brewed into a tea. Immature female cones – roasted. The soft centre forms a sweet syrupy food. Inner bark – cooked. A sweet flavour, it is cut into strips and cooked like spaghetti. Inner bark can also be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in soups or can be mixed with cereal flours when making bread etc. The pitch from the trunk can be hardened and used as a chewing gum. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (4) The nuts are small and soft-shelled.  Nuts of the Digger Pine (covered in part 2) are hard shelled and larger than pinyons.  These nuts mean much to the Indians who gather them for sale, and they form a large part of the Indian diet.  Especially is pine nut harvest a season of great rejoicing.  Families camp out for weeks at a time gathering not only pine-nuts but various other plant medicines which ripen at the same time.  The pinyon cones are usually roasted before the nuts are eaten, and nut surplus is buried until needed.  The life of many a motherless Indian baby has been saved by feeding it pine nut soup, used as milk would be.  (5) (personal note, if I eat too many nuts when they are raw I get a stomach ache, they are best roasted.  Placing the unopened cone in the fire makes them open up for easy harvest.  The heat from the fire will also roast them.)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy in the treatment of kidney, bladder and rheumatic affections, and also in diseases of the mucous membranes and the treatment of respiratory complaints. Externally it is used in the form of liniment plasters and poultices on cuts, boils, burns and various skin problems. The heated pitch has been applied to the face to remove facial hair. The gum is used as a plaster on cuts and sores. An infusion of the leaves has been used as an emetic to cleanse the stomach. The leaves have been chewed in the treatment of venereal diseases. The leaves have been burnt and the smoke inhaled as a treatment for colds. The inner bark is expectorant. (6)  Chew the pitch for a sore throat, resin blisters on bark is best.  (7)
Foot Notes: (1, 5, 7) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Van Allen Murphy, pages 25, 38, Publisher: Meyerbooks, Copyright 1990, ISBN 0-916638-25-4
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98(h)
Common Name: Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis)
Appearance and Habitat: This is a 30-60 ft. pine with a short trunk and dark blue-green needles in clusters of five. Irregular branching and tapering limbs create a broad, flat-topped tree at maturity. It is pyramidal in youth. Medium-sized tree with short trunk and broad, rounded crown of annual rows of stout branches nearly down to ground; or a windswept, deformed shrub  at timberline. Cones are long.  The names refer to the very tough and flexible twigs, which can sometimes be twisted into a knot. Plants on exposed ridges and at timberline are shaped by the wind into stunted shrubs with crooked or twisted branches that are bent over and are longer on one side. Birds and mammals, especially squirrels, consume the large seeds. (1) Often forming open forests in the sub alpine zones, often in semi-arid areas.  Usually found on dry rocky ridges and peaks.  Western N. America – Alberta to California.  An evergreen tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a medium rate.  It is hardy to zone 3. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October.  (2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. The oil-rich seed has a delicious flavour with a hint of resin. The seeds can also be ground into a powder and used in making bread, biscuits, as a thickener in soups etc. A reasonable size, the seed is up to 11mm x 9mm, with a thick shell. Inner bark. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood.  (3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. (4)
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#98 (i)
Common Name: Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana)
Appearance and Habitat: The largest of all pines, this species can grow more than 200 ft. tall. When young, the crown is narrow. With age the branches are well-spaced and wide-spreading, creating a flat-topped crown. Older bark  is reddish-brown with plate-like ridges. Cones can be up to 18 in. long. Needles are in groups of five. Large, very tall tree  with a straight trunk unbranched for a long span and open, conical crown of long, nearly horizontal branches, bearing giant cones near the ends; becoming flat-topped.  A major lumber species, Sugar Pine is one of the most beautiful and largest pines and has been called the king of pines. The trunk diameter occasionally reaches 6-8 (1.8-2.4 m); the current champion is 10 (3 m) in diameter, and the tallest tree  recorded was 241 (73.5 m) high. No other conifer has such long cones, reaching a maximum of 21 (53 cm). Sugar Pine provided early settlers of California with wood for their houses, especially shingles or shakes, and with fences. Forty-niners made ample use of the wood for flumes, sluice boxes, bridges, and mine timbers. American Indians gathered and ate the large, sweet seeds. The common name refers to the sweetish resin that exudes from cut or burned heartwood which was also eaten by Indians. (1) Cool, usually fairly moist, mixed coniferous woods in mountainous areas, growing best on deep well drained soils.  South-western N. America – California – Oregon.  An evergreen tree  growing to 75 m (246ft 1in) at a fast rate.  It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in October. (2)  (I have picked up the cones on Donner pass in the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. A good size, up to 15mm x 10mm. A pleasant sweet nutty flavour, with a hint of resin. The nut, together with the shell, can be pulverised into a nut butter. A sugar is obtained from boiling off the water in the sap. Some caution is advised since it is laxative if used in large quantities. A sweet sugar-like substance exudes from wounds made in the heartwood of the tree and also from the cones. It is sometimes used for sweetening foods, though in large quantities it is laxative. The pitch obtained from the trunk is allowed to harden and is then used as a chewing gum. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. The sap is carminative and laxative. The dried sap powder has been eaten in the treatment of stomach gas, constipation, ulcers etc. It has also been used to make eye drops to treat sore eyes. (4)
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#98(j)
Common Name: Single-leaf Pinyon (Pinus monophylla)
Appearance and Habitat: A small, bushy tree, 15-30 ft. tall, with a divided trunk and compact, rounded crown. The gray-green needles occur singly. Slow-growing, small pine with spreading, rounded, gray-green crown and low, horizontal branches; often shrubby. This species is easily recognized by the needles borne singly, instead of in bundles of 2-5, as in other native  pines. The large, edible, mealy seeds are sold locally as pinyon or pine nuts and used to be a staple food of Indians in the Great Basin region. Many kinds of birds and mammals, especially woodrats or packrats, also consume the seeds. (1) ARid slopes at low elevations, growing in pinyon-juniper woodlands.  Often forms extensive open forests at elevations of 1500 – 2100 meters in Western N. America – Utah to Nevada, Arizona, and California.  An evergreen tree growing to 10 m (32ft 10in) at a slow rate.It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October. (2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. Oily, with an agreeable almond-like flavour, they are often used in sweetmeats, pastries, etc. They are the lowest in protein and fats and the highest in starch of the piñons. The seeds are an important food source for the local Indians of Nevada and California. A good size, the seed is up to 20mm long and has a thin shell. The pitch obtained from the trunk is allowed to harden and is then used as a chewing gum. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood (3)
Medicinal Uses:Single leaf piñon was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for its antiseptic and vulnerary properties and also for its beneficial effect on the respiratory system. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints, and is used both internally and externally to treat rheumatic affections. It is also used in treating diseases of the mucous membranes, respiratory complaints, VD, TB, coughs, colds and influenza. A decoction is used to rid the body of tapeworms and other internal parasites. Externally it is used in the form of liniment plasters and inhalers. A poultice of the melted gum has been applied to cuts and sores. The heated pitch has been applied to the face as a depilatory. The pitch has also been used as a face cream to prevent sunburn. The heated pitch has been used as a poultice to treat sciatic pains and muscular soreness. The cooked pitch has been used by women to stop menstruation and thereby become infertile. It has also been given to adolescent girls to help them keep youthful and live a long life. The gum is used as a plaster on sores and cuts.(4)
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#98(k)
Common Name: Western White Pine (Pinus monticola)
Appearance and Habitat: This 45-150 ft. evergreen  forms a slender crown in thick stands or becomes more open and spreading when exposed. Branchlets are stout, bearing soft-textured, blue-green needles in groups of five.   Bark  is gray and smooth at first, becoming checked with flaking scales. An important timber tree,  Western White Pine is also a leading match wood, because of its uniformly high grade without knots, twisted grain or discoloration. It is one of the worlds largest pines; the champion near Medford, Oregon, is 239 (72.8 m) tall. White pine blister rust, caused by an introduced fungus (Cronartium ribicola), is a serious disease of this and other 5-needle white pines; a resistant strain is being developed. (1) Mountain forests.   Found on a variety of soils, though the best specimens are growing in deep well-drained, moisture-retentive soils.  Western N. America – British Columbia to California.  An evergreen tree growing to 60 m (196ft 10in) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 4. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October. (2)
Edible Uses: Seed – raw or cooked. The oil-rich seed has a resinous flavour. Rather small, the seed is only 5mm long. The seed is up to 9mm long. An edible gummy exudation from the stem is used as a chewing gum. Inner bark – raw or cooked. The inner bark can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. The roasted young cones can be eaten. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. An infusion of the bark has been used as a blood purifier and in the treatment of stomach disorders and tuberculosis. A decoction of the bark has been used as a wash on cuts and sores. A decoction of the young shoots has been used as a soak in the treatment of rheumatism. (4)
(I’ll cover Michael Moore in Part 2)
Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
 
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