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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
#81
Common Name: Blueberry, Huckleberry, Cranberry, Whortleberry, Bilberry,
Latin Name: Vaccinium spp.
Family: Ericaceae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VACCI main database all of the States except Nebraska and North Dakota, all of Canada.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VACO all states east of the Mississippi except Florida, plus Washington, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, in Canada, British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec. (Vaccinium corymbosum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VAFU all states east of the Mississippi R. except Wisconsin, Illinois, West Virginia, plus Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma. (Vaccinium fuscatum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VAME all states west of the Rocky Mountains except New Mexico, Alaska and Nevada; plus South Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan.  In Canada, Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories (Vaccinium membranaceum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VADE British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California (Vaccinium deliciosum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VAOV2 British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California (Vaccinium ovatum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VAPA4 all states east of the Mississippi except Florida, plus Minnesota, Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Oklahoma; in Canada- Ontario (Vaccinium pallidum/Vaccinium constablaei)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VAPA same as above, plus Alaska (Vaccinium parvifolium)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VAST all states east of the Mississippi R. except Wisconsin, Michigan and New Hampshire, plus Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas; in Canada- Ontario. (Vaccinium stamineum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VATE3  east coast states from Virginia to Mississippi.  (Vaccinium tenellum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VAMY2 all states from the Rocky Mountains west, except California , plus British Columbia and Alberta. (Vaccinium myrtillus)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VASC all states west of the Rocky Mountains except Arizona and Alaska, plus South Dakota.  In Canada – British Columbia and Alberta. (Vaccinium scoparium)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VAMA all states and provinces on the west coast, all states north of the Ohio R. plus Minnesota, West Virginia, Tennessee, all states north of North Carolina.  In Canada- Nothwest Territories, Ontairo, Quebec, New Foundland. (Vaccinium macrocarpon)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VAOX all of Canada, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Minnesota, all states north of the Ohio R. plus Virginia north to New England (Vaccinium oxycoccos)
Photos: (Click on latin name after Common Name)
#81(a)
Common Name: Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)
Appearance and Habitat: This blueberry species is a 6-12 ft. high and wide, deciduous shrub  with numerous upright stems and twiggy branches forming a rounded, compact outline. Reddish-green spring leaves turn blue-green in summer and red, yellow, orange and purple in fall. White or pink, bell-shaped flowers in drooping clusters are followed by edible, blue fruit. A multi-stemmed shrub with green, or often red, twigs and terminal clusters of small, urn-shaped white flowers. Our cultivated blueberries have been derived from the tall-growing shrub. It is often found in wet areas, but closely related growths occur in dry sites. These plants are very important to wildlife: their berries are relished by songbirds, game birds, bear, and small mammals; the twigs and foliage are eaten by deer and rabbits. Because of their food value and spectacular red fall foliage, these shrubs are excellent for naturalized landscaping. (1) Swamps, low wet woods, pine barrens and dry uplands, in Eastern North America – Nova Scotia to Quebec and south to Florida.  A deciduous shrub growing to 2 m (6ft) by 2 m (6ft).  It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in August. (2)
Warnings: None (3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. It is usually sweet and juicy, though the flavour can be variable. It can be used in pies, pastries, cereals, jellies etc. The fruit can also be dried and used like raisins. The fruit is rich in vitamin C. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter. A tea is made from the leaves and dried fruit. (4)Medicinal Uses: Astringent, pectoral. (5)
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vaccinium+corymbosum
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#81(b)
Common Name: Black Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium fuscatum)
Appearance and Habitat: Swamps and pine barrens, wet woods and edges of lakes in Eastern N. America – New Hampshire, Ontario and Indiana south to Florida and Arkansas.  A deciduous shrub  growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in).  It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower from Mar to May.
Warnings: None
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Large, sweet, juicy and very flavourful. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter.
Medicinal Uses: None
#81(c)
Common Name: Mountain Huckleberry, Square-twig Blueberry (Vaccinium membranaceum)
Native American Name: We woono wash (Warmsprings Ore.) (1)
Appearance and Habitat: A spreading shrub, 1 1/2-6 ft. tall, with small oval  leaves and single, pale yellowish-pink flowers hanging on short pedicels from leaf axils. The tubular flowers are followed by edible, purple or purplish-red berries. This is an important and nutritious food source for Black and Grizzly Bears, which consume not only the berries but also other plant parts, as well as deer, Elk, Moose, and Ruffed Grouse. (2) Thickets and woodland edges.  Moist woods in Western N. America – Michigan and Alaska to California.  A deciduous shrub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in).  It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jun to July.  (3)
Warnings: None (4)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A sweet but rather acid flavour. Sour but delicious according to other reports. A reasonable source of vitamin C. This fruit is amongst the largest and best flavoured of all the wild blueberries. The native North Americans would often dry the fruit for use in the winter. (5)  Huckleberry Feasts were held in early Fall, when the Huckleberries ripened. (6)
Medicinal Uses: Antiseptic, astringent, carminative, hypoglycaemic. An infusion of the roots and stems has been used in the treatment of heart troubles, arthritis and rheumatism. Hypoglycaemic. (7)
Foot Notes: (1, 6) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Murphey, pages 18, 67,  Publisher: Meyerbooks Copy right 1990; ISBN 0-916638-15-4.
Foot Notes: (3, 4, 5, 7) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vaccinium+membranaceum
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#81(d)
Common Name: Cascade Bilberry, Cascade Blueberry, (Vaccinium deliciosum)
Appearance and Habitat: The Cascades Blueberry is a member of the heath family (family Ericaceae) which is widespread, especially on acid soils, with about 1500 species, mostly shrubs, sometimes trees; 15 native tree  and many native shrub species in North America.  Bloom color is pink. (1)  Montane regions in Western N. America – Washington and Oregon.   A deciduous shrub growing to 0.3 m (1ft).  It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from May to June. (2)
Warnings: None (3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. When fully ripe it is sugary sweet with a delightful aroma and a full rich flavour. Best eaten out of hand, the fruit can also be dried for later use. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter. (4)
Medicinal Uses: None. (5)
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#81(e)
Common Name: California Huckleberry, Evergreen Blueberry, Evergreen Huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum)
Appearance and Habitat: Evergreen blueberry is an elegant, much-branched,  evergreen shrub, 2-6 ft. tall, with a neat habit and attractive leaves. The leathery leaves are oval and shiny above, paler beneath.  Axillary racemes of pink, bell-shaped flowers are followed by dark, edible berries. New growth in the spring is coppery red. Birds and mammals eat the berries, which resemble blueberries. (1)  Dry slopes and sandy heathy places from near sea to 800 meters in Western N. America – British Columbia to California.  An evergreen shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in). It is frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Oct to December.  (2)Warnings: None. (3) 
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw, cooked or dried for later use. Somewhat sweet but slightly dry. The fruit is quite palatable but is nothing special. A strong flavour, they are usually cooked in pies, preserves etc. The fruit will often hang on the bush until early winter. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter. A tea is made from the leaves and dried fruit. (4)Medicinal Uses: The leaves are antiseptic, astringent, carminative and hypoglycaemic. An infusion of the leaves and sugar have been given to a mother after childbirth to help her regain her strength. A decoction of the leaves has been used in the treatment of diabetes. (5)Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=VAOV2
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vaccinium+ovatum
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#81(f)
Common Name: Blue Ridge Blueberry, Early lowbush blueberry, Hillside Blueberry (Vaccinium pallidum/Vaccinium constablaei)
Appearance and Habitat: The fruit is edible and the bloom color is white, red or pink. (1) Woods in mountains. Eastern N. America – Virginia to South Carolina.  A deciduous shrub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in August. (2)
Warnings: None. (3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A delicious flavour, it is the best tasting of all the blueberries. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter. (4)
Medicinal Uses: None. (5)
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#81(g)
Common Name: Red Blueberry, Red Huckleberry, Red Bilberry (Vaccinium parvifolium)
Appearance and Habitat: A graceful, somewhat straggling shrub with slim branches, bright yellow-green leaves and sparkling-red berries. The plant generally is 3-12 ft. high but can reach 20 ft. The reddish, edible  berry is preceded by white to greenish flowers in ones or twos. Reddish leaves cling to the bright green branches well into fall. (1) Coastal forests in Western N. America – Alaska to California.  A deciduous shrub  growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 1.8 m (6ft).  It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from May to June. (2)
Warnings: None. (3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked and used in making jams, pies, jellies etc. The fruit can also be dried for later use. An acid flavour, but it is very palatable. The fruit makes a very superior jelly. The fruit is about 12mm in diameter. A tea is made from the dried fruit and leaves. (4)
Medicinal Uses: Antiseptic, astringent, carminative, hypoglycaemic. A decoction of the bark has been used in the treatment of colds. (5)
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#81(h)
Common Name: Deerberry (Vaccinium stamineum)
Appearance and Habitat: A much-branched, globular-shaped  shrub,  6-12 ft. Foliage turns a variety of colors through the seasons Nodding, greenish-white, pink tinged, bell-shaped flowers. Greenish to blue-black berries often have a whitish bloom. Birds and mammals eat berries. This is a variable species, due, most likely, to hybridization with other species. (1)  Dry woods thickets and clearings in Eastern N. America -Maine to Indiana and Missouri, south to Georgia and Louisiana.  A deciduous shrub  growing to 3 m (9ft 10in).  It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower from May to June. (2)
Warnings: None. (3) 
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Unpalatable. The quality varies from shrub to shrub. When cooked and served cold they are considered to be delicious with a flavour suggesting gooseberry and cranberry sauce with the slightly bitter aftertaste of grapefruit marmalade. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter. (4)
Medicinal Uses: None. (5)
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#81 (i)
Common Name: Small-Cluster Blueberry (Vaccinium tenellum)
Appearance and Habitat: Dry woods in South=eastern N. America – Virginia to Georgia and Florida west to Alabama.  A deciduous shrub growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone 6.
Warnings: None.  
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A poor taste and texture. The fruit is about 6 – 8mm in diameter.
Medicinal Uses: None.
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#81(j)
Common Name: Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus)
Appearance and Habitat: Heaths, moors and woods on acid soils to 1250 meters.  Europe, including Britain, form Iceland south and east to Spain, Macedonia, the Caucasus and N. Asia.  A deciduous shrub growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft).  It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Apr to June, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. (Not native to just N. America and will be covered by Michael Moore.)Warnings: High tannin content may cause digestive disorders – avoid prolonged use or high doses.  Avoid in pregnacy.  Aviod if on anticoagulant therapy.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Sweet and very tasty, they make an excellent preserve, their small seeds making them suitable for jam. A slightly acid flavour when eaten raw. The fruit can be dried and used like currants. The fruit is up to 10mm in diameter. A tea is made from the leaves.  
Medicinal Uses: The dried leaves of bilberries are used in the treatment of a variety of complaints. These leaves should be harvested in early autumn, only green leaves being selected, and then dried in gentle heat. The leaves should not be used medicinally for more than 3 weeks at a time. A tea made from the dried leaves is strongly astringent, diuretic, tonic and an antiseptic for the urinary tract. It is also a remedy for diabetes if taken for a prolonged period. Another report says that the leaves can be helpful in pre-diabetic states but that they are not an alternative to conventional treatment. The leaves contain glucoquinones, which reduce the levels of sugar in the blood. A decoction of the leaves or bark is applied locally in the treatment of ulcers and in ulceration of the mouth and throat. A distilled water made from the leaves is an excellent eyewash for soothing inflamed or sore eyes. Whilst the fresh fruit has a slightly laxative effect upon the body, when dried it is astringent and is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhoea etc. The dried fruit is also antibacterial and a decoction is useful for treating diarrhoea in children. The skin of the fruits contains anthocyanin and is specific in the treatment of hemeralopia (day-blindness). The fruit is a rich source of anthocyanosides, which have been shown experimentally to dilate the blood vessels, this makes it a potentially valuable treatment for varicose veins, haemorrhoids and capillary fragility.
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#81(k)
Common Name: Grouse Whortleberry, Grouseberry, (Vaccinium scoparium)
Appearance and Habitat: Bloom color is red  from Jun to July. (1) Usually found at high elevations in Western N. America – British Columbia and Alberta, south to Colorado and S. Dakota.  A deciduous shrub growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in).  It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower in May. (2)
Warnings: None. (3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked and used in pies, jellies, jams, breads, muffins etc. The dried fruits can be used to flavour other foods or to thicken soups. The fruit is about 4 – 6mm in diameter. The fresh or dried leaves can be used to make a kind of tea. (4)
Medicinal Uses: Antiseptic, astringent, carminative, hypoglycaemic. An infusion of the dried, pulverized leaves has been used in the treatment of nausea and to increase the appetite. The dried and powdered fruits have been given to children to improve their appetite. (5)
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vaccinium+scoparium
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#81 (l)
Common Name: American Cranberry, Large Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)
Appearance and Habitat: Low, prostrate mat, usually less than 1 ft. Small, glossy, leathery leaves, bronzy in spring and dark-green in summer, turn a variety of colors in fall. White to pink, tube-shaped flowers in nodding clusters and followed by a dark red, edible fruit. The ascending branches of this evergreen,  trailing shrub  have nodding, pinkish-white flowers with 4 backward- pointing petals in clusters arising in the leaf axils. Cultivated cranberry varieties developed from this native  species are grown extensively on Cape Cod and in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Small Cranberry (V. oxycoccus), a native of North America and Eurasia that occurs in mainland Canada and across the northern United States, has smaller leaves that are whiter beneath and have rolled edges. These two species were originally known as craneberries because of the resemblance of their petals and beaked anther to the head  of those wading birds; they are sometimes placed in their own genus,  Oxycoceus. Wild cranberries often form low dense masses over peaty, boggy areas. The berries are ready for picking in the fall. (1)  Acid boggy ground in Eastern N. America.  Occasionalyy naturalized in Britain.  An evergreen shrub  growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 2 m (6ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 2. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. (2)
Warnings: None. (3) 
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. It can also be dried for winter use. Rich in vitamin C, the fruit is too acid for most peoples tastes to be eaten raw, so it is mainly used in pies, preserves etc. It is said that a teaspoon of salt added to the cooking fruit can take the place of half the sugar normally used. The fruit is between 1 and 2cm in diameter. (4)Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the branches has been used as a treatment for pleurisy (5) (I can’t believe they didn’t list urinary tract infections.)
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#81(m)
Common Name: Small Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos)

Appearance and Habitat: (Native to N. America) Acid boggy land in Europe, including Britain from Scandavavia south and east to France, Rourmania, N. Asia to Japan. An evergreen shrub growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 2. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to August.
Warnings: None.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Considered by some to be the most pleasantly-flavoured of British wild fruits. The fruit is high in pectin, this means that it can be mixed with fruits that are low in pectin to help them set when making jam. Pectin has also been shown to have a valuable role in the diet, where it is said to protect the body against radiation. An acid taste, the fruits are usually cooked in preserves etc. Although smaller than the related V. macrocarpon, the fruit of this species is considered to be of superior taste. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter. A tea is made from the leaves.
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the plant has been used to treat cases of slight nausea.
No information, but native to N. America http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=VAOX
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(On to Michael Moore who only covers western species.)
Species covered: Vaccinium membranaceum, V. myrtillus, V. ovatum, V. parvifolium, V. scoparium,
Appearance and Habitat:  Fruit found in the west is generally smaller.  In the Rocky’s V. myrtillus  form large colonies in spruce forests above 8,000 ft in Arizona and New Mexico.   V.  myrtillus  is low and matty, usually not more than a foot tall.  It’s leaves are oval lanceolate and forms open foliage with many short stems.  The berries are purple but are usually eaten by birds.  Look along high mountain steep ridges.  The California Huckleberry (V. ovatum) grows in the coastal ranges on the north side San Diego, and northwards.  It is an evergreen shrub from 4 -6 feet in height with leathery, alternate leaves that have a deep indented center vein.  The leaves are also oval lanceolate, finely toothed,  and lighter underneath. As for V. scoparium it has salmon colored berries and may go un-noticed because of their small size.  It is also a rather small deciduous shrub.  Look for any of the species in the higher mountains from the Sierra Nevada range and eastward.
Medicinal Uses: Collect the leaves, use a ratio of 1 part plant to 32 parts water; place them in boiling water, and remove from heat, allow them to sit overnight and return the water level to 32 parts.  Strain and take up to 3 – 4 ounces up to 3 times a day. The tea from the leaves will lower blood sugar levels, it will alleviate both glycosuria and hperglycemia, if two cups are drunk, once in the morning and once in the evening.  This is a good  treatment  for Type I diabetes. The tea also works well for urinary tract infections, especially so for people that find cranberry juice to irritating to their stomachs. The juice of the fruit can reach the small capillaries to help with conditions of night blindness and diabetic retinopathy.  The juice of the fruit also prevents blood platelets from sticking together.  Stay away from older leaves when collecting, as they seem to gather tannins as the age.
Medicinal Plants Of the Mountain West  by Michael Moore, 1st Edition,pages 37 – 38 , publisher:  Museum of New Mexico Press ; copy right 1979  ISBN 0-89013-104-X

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