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Medical disclaimer: always check with a physician before consuming wild plants, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore also has a glossary of medical terms in his books, and maps in later editions. ) 
# 79
Common Name: Stillingia, Queens Root, Yaw Root, Queen’s Delight, Pavil (1)
Latin Name: Stillingia sylvatica, S. linearifolia, S. spinulosa, S. texana 
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Photos: (Click on latin name after range)
Appearance and Habitat: Sandy prairies, open woods, and open ground.  A perennial  growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female,  but both sexes can be found on the same plant. (2) We have two major groups of Stillingias in our deserts, one is a group found in Texas and eastern New Mexico, the other is found in the Colorado Desert and the deserts of Arizona.  The eastern group includes Stillingia sylvatica and S. texana.  Both are found in sandy high flood plains and open limestone gravel, from Arkansas west to Roswell, New Mexico.  They are especially found in the Pecos and Canadian River systems.  They are  2 to 3 feet tall, many branches, and emit caustic milky sap when broken. The leaves are thick, stem-clasping, and elongate.  The flowers are yellow and at the tips of the branches. 
The three lobed capsules grow right underneath the flowers, until all are capsules.  The roots are long, tapered, reddish brown to pink-brown.  In both the Colorado and Arizona deserts grows S. paucidentata and S.  linearifolia the growth is similar to the first group, but they are usually under a foot in height.  The flowers are mauve-purple to dark green and the root is usually single and deep.  The whole plant smells rather bad. It is found in the lower areas of the Mojave Desert to below sea level near Mecca, California.  S. linearifolia grows in washes along the edges of the Mojave and most of the Colorado Desert.  It has slender stems is 1 foot to 1 1/2 foot tall and has yellow-green flowers.  The flowering-fruiting stems usually extend above the leaf stems.  The root is usually thicker, single, woody, and not as deep. (3)
Warnings: The latex in the sap can cause blistering on the skin.  Large doese of the plant are said to be toxic. (4)
Edible Uses: None (5)
Medicinal Uses: The root is antiemetic, astringent. A decoction has been used to treat bird sickness, diarrhoea, vomiting and appetite loss in children and in adults. It has also been used to treat menstruation sickness, yellow eyes and skin weakness. A decoction or tincture of the root has been used to treat the worst forms of venereal disease. (6)  Collect the roots and slice them length wise and into quarters while still fresh.  After drying cut them into small sections before tincturing.   Try to harvest the roots before they are 6 months old as the quality deteriorates rapidly.  For the tincture use 1 part dried root to 5 parts 50% alcohol.  Allow them to rest for a month and use 1 to 2 teaspoons a day for arthritis, eczema, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic allergies, and mild autoimmune conditions.  It also works well for smokers’ cough and bronchial conditions.  Most skin eruptions such as eczema an dermatitis respond well, especially when the lymph nodes that drain the irritated skin are slightly enlarged.  Long time fungal infections may also be helped.  Too much Stillingia can cause nausea  and loose stools, so use it conservatively. (7)
Foot Notes: ( 1, 3, 7)  Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West by Michael Moore;pages 116- 118,  publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press, Copyright 1989; ISBN 0-89013-182-1 
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#80
Common Name: Buffalo Berry, Bull Berry, Russet Buffalo Berry,  Russian Olive
Latin Name: Elaeagnus and  Shepherdia
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Native American Names: Wea pu wi (Paiute), Auch ha hay be na (Arapaho), Soopolallie (Oregon Tribes), Wehumb (Shoshone), Me e Nixen (Blackfeet)
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ELAEA main data base, all of North America and Hawaii
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ELAN all of lower Canada, all states west of the Mississippi R. , except Arkansas and Louisiana; on the east side of the Mississippi R. all states except Indiana, West Virginia, New Hampshire and the deep south Mississippi to South Carolina. (Elaeagnus angustifolia)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ELCO all of Canada, except Nova Scotia, in the U.S. – Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, N. and S. Dakota, Texas, Minnesota, Kentucky, Maryland and Connecticut. (Elaeagnus communtata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ELPU2 Massachusetts, Louisiana, Kentucky – Virginia and all south. (Elaeagnus pungens)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ELUM all states east of the Mississippi R., on the west bank of the river from Iowa – Louisiana, plus Washington, Oregon, Montana, Nebraska, Kansas, Hawaii and Ontario, Canada. (Elaeagnus umbellata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SHCA all states west of the Rocky Mountains, all of Canada, N. and S. Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, all states north of the Ohio R., Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont and Maine (Shepherdia canadensis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SHAR all states west of the Rocky Mountains except Washington and Alaska, plus Nebraska-North Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, New York and in Canada- British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba (Shepherdia argentea)
Photos: (Click on latin name after Common Name)
#80(a)
Common Name: Russian Olive, Oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia)
Appearance and Habitat: By streams and along  rivers banks to 3000 meters in Turkey.  Europe to W. Asia, extending as far north as latitude 55 in Russia.  (They are not native to this country, but watch for grey/green small trees throughout its range.  It seems to frequent alkaline soil in central Nevada along the edges of dry lake beds.  It also grows along the Humboldt River in northern Nevada.)  A deciduous shrub growing to7 m (23ft) by 7 m (23ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October.
Warnings: None
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked as a seasoning in soups. Dry, sweet and mealy. The fruit can also be made into jellies or sherbets. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The oval fruit is about 10mm long and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.
Medicinal Uses:The oil from the seeds is used with syrup as an electuary in the treatment of catarrh and bronchial affections. The juice of the flowers has been used in the treatment of malignant fevers. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.
#80(b)
Common Name: Silverberry, Wild Olive, Wolf Willow, American Silverberry (Elaeagnus communtata)
Appearance and Habitat: An rounded, twiggy shrub,  1-12 ft. tall, with narrow, silvery-scurfy leaves on grayish-red branches. Small clusters of inconspicuous, cone-shaped flowers are spicily perfumed with a heavy, sweet scent. The fruit  is a dry, mealy, whitish berry. This suckering shrub can form patches several yards in diameter. Fast-growing, long-lived and resistant to disease and insect problems and drought. Transplants well, due to a shallow root system. A very hardy species for cold climates, sometimes used as a windbreak.  (1) Dry calcareous slopes in N. America – Quebec to Alaska, south to Utah, S. Dakota and Minnesota.  A deciduous shrub growing ( 3 m (9ft) by 1.5 m (5ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. ( 2)Warnings: None (3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Dry and mealy. Good when added to soups they also make an excellent jelly. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The fruit contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous. (4)
Medicinal Uses: A strong decoction of the bark, mixed with oil, has been used as a salve for children with frostbite. A decoction of the roots, combined with sumac roots (Rhus spp.), has been used in the treatment of syphilis. This medicine was considered to be very poisonous and, if you survived it, you were likely to become sterile. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. (5)
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#80(c)
Common Name: Thorny Olive (Elaeagnus pungens)
Appearance and Habitat: Sunny slopes, road sides and thickets in lowlands, usually below 1000 meters and especially by the sea.  A native of E. Asia , China, and Japan. An evergreen shrub growing to 4 m (13ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a medium rate. 
It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Nov to February, and the seeds ripen from Apr to May.
Warnings: None
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. About the size of a large blackcurrant, though the seed is also quite large[K]. A nice sub-acid flavour when fully ripe but astringent if eaten before then[K]. Can be made into preserves, drinks etc. The oval fruit is about 15mm long[200]. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous[K]. A taste vaguely reminiscent of peanuts[K]. The seed contains 42.2% protein and 23.1% fat on a zero moisture basis. (Vitamin and MIneral chart at website.)
Medicinal Uses: The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. The leaves and the stems are concocted and used in the treatment of asthma, cough, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids etc. The seed is used to treat watery diarrhoea. The root is astringent and is applied to sores, itchy skin etc.
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#80(d)
Common Name: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) Appearance and Habitat: Thickets and thin woods in the lowlands and hills.  Not native, E. Asia – China, Japan, Himilayas.  A deciduous shrub  growing to 4.5 m (14ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a medium rate.  It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. (There was one of these in our neighbors yard in Chicago.)
Warnings: Only about it becoming one of the most troublsome adventive shrubs in central and eastern United States.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Juicy and pleasantly acid, they are tasty raw and can also be made into jams, preserves etc. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The fruit contains about 8.3% sugars, 4.5% protein, 1% ash. The vitamin C content is about 12mg per 100g. Mature bushes in the wild yield about 650g of fruit over 2 – 3 pickings. The harvested fruit stores for about 15 days at room temperature. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous
Medicinal Uses:The flowers are astringent, cardiac and stimulant. The seeds are used as a stimulant in the treatment of coughs. The expressed oil from the seeds is used in the treatment of pulmonary affections. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.
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#80 (e)
Common Name: Russet Buffaloberry, Rabbitberry, Buffalo Berry (Shepherdia canadensis)
Appearance and Habitat: A small, loosely branched shrub  of rounded outline, 6-8 ft. high and equally as wide, with thick, leathery, gray-green to russet-green foliage. Small, inconspicuous, yellow flowers are followed by yellowish-red, oval-shaped fruits. The orange-dotted white bark give the branches a rusty appearance. Branches opposite; young twigs brownish, scaly. Deer and Elk consume the foliage of this shrub, while Grizzly and Black Bears consume the berries. (1) Calcareous rocks, banks and sandy shores, usually in partial shade.  N. America – Newfoundland to Alaska, south to British Columbia, New York and New Mexico.  A deciduous sbrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in) at a medium rate.   It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. (2)
Warnings: The fruit contains low concentrations of saponins. Although toxic, these substances are very poorly absorbed by the body and so tend to pass through without causing harm.  They are broken down by cooking. (3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit can also be dried and used like currants. A tart but pleasant flavour even before a frost, it becomes sweeter after frosts. Another report says that the fruit is bitter and is dried, smoked or pressed into cakes. The fruit was a favourite treat of the North American Indians, they would beat it in an equal quantity of water until a foam with a consistency of beaten eggs was formed. It was important that the berries were not allowed to come into contact with anything greasy since this would prevent it becoming foamy. The foam would then be flavoured with a sweet food such as cooked quamash bulbs or other fruits and then served as a special treat in feasts etc. The taste is bitter sweet and is not always enjoyed the first time it is eaten, though it normally grows on one. Nowadays sugar is used to sweeten it and the confection is called ‘Indian ice cream’. The fruit should be used in moderation due to the saponin content. The fruit is about 5mm in diameter. (4) Oregon tribes made a pleasant foaming drink called ” Soopalallie”.  The berries are eaten raw, made into jelly  or dried.  for cooking the berries, put over an open fire or on the stove.  After they have boiled put them through a sieve.  Add sauce, made of flour and water and sweeten to taste. (5)
Medicinal Uses:Buffalo berry was commonly employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes, who used it in the treatment of a range of complaints. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. A poultice of the bark, softened by hot water and mixed with pin cherry bark (Prunus pensylvanica), has been used to make a plaster or bandage for wrapping broken limbs. An infusion of the bark has been used as a wash for sore eyes. The roots are antihaemorrhagic and cathartic. An infusion of the roots has been used as an aid to childbirth and in the treatment of tuberculosis and the coughing up of blood. A decoction of the stems has been used as a stomach tonic (it was also used to treat stomach cancer) and also in the treatment of constipation, high blood pressure and venereal disease. A decoction of the stems and leaves has been used as a wash in the treatment of sores, cuts and swellings. A decoction of the plant has been used externally as a wash and rub for aching limbs, arthritic joints, head and face sores. The inner bark is laxative. An infusion has been used in the treatment of constipation. The berries have been eaten as a treatment for high blood pressure. The fruit juice has been drunk in the treatment of digestive disorders. It has also been applied externally in the treatment of acne and boils. (6)
Foot Notes: (5) as well as Native American Names- Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Murphey, pages 17, 21, 32  Publisher: Meyerbooks Copy right 1990; ISBN 0-916638-15-4
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#80(f)
Common Name: Silver Buffaloberry, (Shepherdia argentea)Appearance and Habitat: Silver buffalo-berry is a mound-shaped shrub, 6-20 ft. tall, which sometimes becomes nearly tree-like. The deciduous plant may be single-trunked or have a few short-trunked stems. Twigs are spiny and silvery gray. Foliage is also silvery-gray. Inconspicuous flowers precede a football-shaped berry that is red, orange or yellow.  Shrub or small tree  with silvery, scaly leaves, young twigs, berries; branches opposite; twigs often spine-tipped. The berries are edible, but sour, best after frost in November. (1) Banks of streams and open wooded areas, often on limestone and on sandy soils.  Central N. America – Manitoba to New Mexico.  A deciduous shrub growing to 4 m (13ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a medium rate.  It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen from Jul to December. (2)
Warnings: (Same as above) (3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. It can also be dried and used like currants. A tart but pleasant flavour even before a frost, it becomes sweeter after frosts. The fruit is also used for making preserves, pies etc. The fruit should be used in moderation due to the saponin content[101]. The fruit is produced singly or in clusters, it is up to 9mm long and contains a single seed. (4)
Medicinal Uses: The berries are febrifuge, laxative and stomachic. They have been eaten in the treatment of stomach complaints, constipation and fevers  (5)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SHAR

Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Shepherdia+argentea

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

 
 
 
 
 
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