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Before consuming wild plants, contact your doctor to make sure it is safe, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West also contains a glossary of medical terms, maps, and drawings as do all of Michael Moore’s books.)
#71 
Common Name: Lambsquarters, Goosefoot, Fat Hen
Family: Chenopodiaceae
Range:http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CHAL7 all of north America including Hawaii (Chenopodium album)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CHAMA16 all states except Alaska, Montana, Wyoming, N. Dakota, Minnesota, (Chenopodium ambrosiodes)http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CHBO Utah, Iowa, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Kentucky, Pennsylvania and Maryland north except Vermont and New Hamshire (Chenopodium bonus-henricus)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CHCA4 all states west of the Rocky Mountains, all states north of the Mississippi River convergence with Ohio River, all states north of the Ohio R.  plus all of New England (Pennsylanvia and New Jersey – north) plus N. and S. Dakota, Alaska and nearly all of Canada. (Chenopodium capitatum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CHPR5 all states with the exception of Hawaii, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, W. Virginia, Arkansas, (Chenopodium pratericola)http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CHSI2 all states and most of Canada except Hawaii, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi (Chenopodium simplex)Photos: (Click on latin name after Common Name)
 #71(a)
Common Name: Fat Hen (Chenopodium album)
Appearance and Habitat: A common weed of cultivated ground, especially on rich soils and old manure heaps.  It is often one of the first weeks to appear on newly cultivated soils.  Most of Europe, including Britain, north to 71 degrees, N. and S. Africa, Asia, Australia, and North America.  An annual  growing to 0.9 m (3ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in).  It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.
Warnings: The leaves and seeds of all members of this genus are more or less edible.  However, many of the species in this genus contain saponins, though usually in quatities too small to do any harm.  Although toxic, saponins are poorly absored by the body and most pass straight through without any problems.  They are also broken down to a large extent in the cooking process.  Saponins are found in many foods, such as some beans.  Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures,sucn as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes, ect in order to stupefy for kill fish.  The plant also contain some oxalic acid, which in large quantities can lock up some of the nutrients in the food, but these plants are very nutritious vegetables in reasonable quantities.  Cooking the plant will also reduce its content of oxalic acid. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution in their diet since it can aggravate their condtion.  There is also a report that very large quantities of the leaves have cased photosensitivity in some people.  Only the raw leaves can cause problems, and then only if large quantities are consumed.  A futher report says that if the plant is grown in soils that contain too much nitrates then the plant can concentrate these substances in the leaves. Nitrates have been shown to cause many health problems including stomach cancers and blue-baby syndrome.  In nirtogen rich soils, the plants can also concentrate hydrogen cyanide.  In small quantities hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer.  In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Edible Uses: Leaves – raw or cooked. A very acceptable spinach substitute, the taste is a little bland but this can be improved by adding a few stronger-flavoured leaves. One report says that, when eaten with beans, the leaves will act as a carminative to prevent wind and bloating. he leaves are best not eaten raw, see the notes above on toxicity. The leaves are generally very nutritious but very large quantities can disturb the nervous system and cause gastric pain. The leaves contain about 3.9% protein, 0.76% fat, 8.93% carbohydrate, 3% ash. A zero moisture basis analysis is also available. Edible seed – dried and ground into a meal and eaten raw or baked into a bread. The seed can also be sprouted and added to salads. The seed is very fiddly to harvest and use due to its small size. Although it is rather small, we have found the seed very easy to harvest and simple enough to utilize. The seed should be soaked in water overnight and thoroughly rinsed before being used in order to remove any saponins. The seed contains about 49% carbohydrate, 16% protein, 7% ash, 5.88% ash. Young inflorescences – cooked. A tasty broccoli substitute
Medicinal Uses: Fat hen is not employed in herbal medicine, though it does have some gentle medicinal properties and is a very nutritious and healthy addition to the diet. The leaves are anthelmintic, antiphlogistic, antirheumatic, mildly laxative, odontalgic. An infusion is taken in the treatment of rheumatism. The leaves are applied as a wash or poultice to bug bites, sunstroke, rheumatic joints and swollen feet, whilst a decoction is used for carious teeth. The seeds are chewed in the treatment of urinary problems and are considered useful for relieving the discharge of semen through the urine. The juice of the stems is applied to freckles and sunburn. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of bloody dysentery. Food that comprises 25.5% of the powdered herb may suppress the oestrus cycle. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Chenopodium+album
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#71(b)
Common Name: Mexican Tea (Chenopodium ambrosiodides)
Appearance and Habitat: Mainly found on dry wasteland and cultivated ground.   An annual/perennial  growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.7 m (2ft 4in). It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.
Warnings: (Same as above- In addition:)The essential oil in the seed and flowering plant is highly toxic.  In excess it can cause dizziness, vomiting, convulsions and even death.  The plant can also cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions.
Edible Uses: Leaves – cooked. The tender leaves are sometimes used as a potherb. Used as a condiment in soups etc, they are said to reduce flatulence if eaten with beans. The leaves have a rank taste due to the presence of resinous dots and sticky hairs. The raw leaves should only be eaten in small quantities, see the notes above on toxicity. Seed – cooked. The seed is small and fiddly, it should be soaked in water overnight and thoroughly rinsed before it is used in order to remove any saponins. An infusion of the leaves is a tea substitute.
Medicinal Uses: Mexican tea is a Central American herb that has been used for centuries to expel parasitic worms from the body. The whole plant is analgesic, antiasthmatic, carminative, stomachic and vermifuge. An infusion can be used as a digestive remedy, being taken to settle a wide range of problems such colic and stomach pains. Externally, it has been used as a wash for haemorrhoids, as a poultice to detoxify snake bites and other poisons and is thought to have wound-healing properties. Use with caution and preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. This remedy should not be prescribed for pregnant women. See also the notes above on toxicity. Until fairly recently, this was one of the most commonly used vermifuges, though it has now been largely replaced by synthetic drugs. The seed, or an essential oil expressed from the seed, was used. It is very effective against most parasites, including the amoeba that causes dysentery, but is less effective against tapeworm. Fasting should not precede its use and there have occasionally been cases of poisoning caused by this treatment. The oil is used externally to treat athlete’s foot and insect bites. One report says that it is an essential oil that is utilised. This is obtained from the seed or the flowering stems, it is at its highest concentration in the flowering stems before seed is set, these contain around 0.7% essential oil of which almost 50% is the active vermifuge ascaridol. The essential oil is of similar quality from plants cultivated in warm climates and those in cool climates. The leaves are added in small quantities as a flavouring for various cooked bean dishes because their carminative activity can reduce flatulence.
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#71(c)
Common Name: Good King Henry (Chenopodium bonus-henricus)
Appearance and Habitat: Rich pastures, farmyards, roadsides etc..  Most of Europe, including Britain, north to Sacndavavia, W. Asia, and N. America.  A perennial  growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in).  It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from Jun to August.
Warnings: (Same as for Chenopodium album)
Edible Uses: Young leaves – raw or cooked. The leaves wilt quickly after picking and so they need to be used as soon after harvesting as possible. They can be used as a potherb. The leaves are best in spring and early summer, the older leaves become tough and bitter. The raw leaves should only be eaten in small quantities, see the notes above on toxicity. Young leaves can be chopped and used as a small part of mixed salads, though we are not enamoured by their flavour. The cooked leaves make an acceptable spinach substitute, but are best mixed with nicer leaves. The leaves are a good source of iron. Young flowering shoots – cooked. When grown on good soil, the shoots can be as thick as a pencil. When about 12cm long, they are cut just under the ground, peeled and used like asparagus. A very pleasant spring vegetable. The plant is sometimes blanched by excluding the light in order to produce a longer and more succulent shoot, though this practice also reduces the quantity of vitamins in the shots. Young flower buds – cooked. Considered to be a gourmet food], though they are rather small and harvesting any quantity takes quite a while. Seed – ground and mixed with flour then used in making bread etc. The seed is small and fiddly but is easily harvested. It should be soaked in water overnight and thoroughly rinsed before it is used in order to remove any saponins.
Medicinal Uses: The herb is emollient, laxative and vermifuge. This remedy should not be used by people suffering from kidney complaints or rheumatis. A poultice of the leaves has been used to cleanse and heal chronic sores, boils and abscesses. The seed is a gentle laxative that is suitable for children.
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#71(d)
Common Name: Strawberry Blite (Chenopodium capitatum)
Appearance and Habitat: Rubbish tips etc. in Britain.  Europe.  A rare casual in Britain.  An annual  growing to 0.6 m (2ft).  It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. (It is listed on Lady Bird Johnson’s website as a native plant but no other information.  It grows in my yard in New Mexico.)
Warnings:(Same as for Chenopodium album)
Edible Uses: Leaves – raw or cooked. Used like spinach, they are a good source of vitamins C and A. The young leaves are best. Poor quality. The raw leaves have been used in salad mixtures, but should only be eaten in small quantities, see the notes above on toxicity. Fruit – raw or cooked. An insipid but sweet flavour, they can be added to salads. The fruit is about 12mm in diameter. A red food colouring can be obtained from the fruit. Seed – cooked. It can be ground into a meal and mixed with cereal flours in making bread etc. The seed is small and fiddly, it should be soaked in water overnight and thoroughly rinsed before it is used in order to remove any saponins.
Medicinal Uses: The plant has been used as a lotion for treating black eyes and head bruises. The juice of the seeds and an infusion of the plant has been used to treat lung congestion.
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#71 (e)
Common Name: Desert Goosefoot (Chenopodium pratericola
Appearance and Habitat: Stream banks, disturbed soils and sandy soils.  A casual on rubbish tips and near buildings and docks in Britain.  N. America – in moist areas.  An annual growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.
Warnings: (Same as for Chenopodium album)
Edible Uses: Leaves and young shoots – cooked and eaten like spinach.  Seed – cooked.  It can be ground into powder and mixed with wheat or other cereals in making bread etc.  The seed is small and fiddly, it should be soaked in water overnight to remove any saponins.
Medicinal Uses: None
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#71(f)
Common Name: Mapleleaf Goosefoot (Chenopodium simplex )
Appearance and Habitat: Woods, thickets, hardwood slopes, wooded tallus, nutrient rich woods, sometimes in waste places and fields from sea level to 1800 meters.  Much of N. America except the far north, west and south.  An annual growing  to 1.2 m (4ft). It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.
Warnings: (Same as for Chenopodium album)
Edible Uses: Leaves – cooked and used like spinach. The raw leaves should only be eaten in small quantities, see the notes above on toxicity. Seed – cooked. Ground into a powder and used with wheat or other cereals in making bread etc. The seed is small and fiddly, it should be soaked in water overnight and thoroughly rinsed before it is used in order to remove any saponins
Medicinal Uses: None
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#72
Common Name: Currant, Gooseberry, Flowering Currant 
Latin Name: Ribes spp.
Family: Grossulariaceae
Native American Names:  Golden Currant – Bogumbe (Shoshone), Pokops (Paiute), Mobabuwi (Yerington Paiute)
Black Currant – Owa pawump (Shoshone), Non hal wa (Washoe) Wax Currant or Bear Currant – Tsapuwi (Paiute), Skee yap (Warm Springs, Ore), Wood un de kan (Shoshone), Dembogem (Southern Shoshone) 
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RIBES all states, except Hawaii, Mississippi, all of Canada (main database)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RIAM2 all states north of New Mexico, Nebraska, Missouri, Kentucky, Virginia on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains plus corresponding lower Canadian Provinces. (Ribes americanum)
 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RIAU all states west of the Mississippi R., all states north of the Ohio R., plus Pennslyvania, Maryland, New York, Conneticut, Vermont, Massachusetts, Tennessee. (Ribes aureum) 
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RICE all states west of the Rocky Mountains, plus N. and S. Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma (Ribes cereum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RICY all states east of the Mississippi, except Mississippi and Florida, plus all states on the western banks of the Mississippi north of Arkansas, plus N. and S. Dakota,  Oklahoma, Quebec and Ontario. (Ribes cynosbati)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RIHU  California, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Alaska, all Canadian Provinces, plus Minnesota, Iowa, Michigan, (Ribes hudsonianum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RIMI East of the Rocky Mountains and north of Oklahoma, Arkansas, Tennessee, Virginia, plus Montana, Ontario,  Connecticut, and except Michigan, New York and northwards. (Ribes missouriense)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RIMO2 all states west of the Rocky Mountains. (Ribes montigenum)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RIOX all states and Canadian Provinces, north of Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio, and Maine. (Ribes oxyacanthoides)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RITR all states north of Oregon, Montana, S. Dakota, Minnesota, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennslyvania, New Jersey, all of Canada, plus Virginia, West Virginia (Ribes triste)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RIVI3 all states west of the Rocky Mountains, except New Mexico, plus Alberta and British Columbia, (Ribes viscosissimum)
Photos: (click on latin name after common name)
Warnings: None on any species.
#72 (a)
Common Name: Wild Black Currant ( Ribes americanum )
Appearance and Habitat: Small globular shrub, 3-6 ft. with many slender stems. Palmately-lobed foliage becomes colorful in fall. Flowers are small, bell-shaped and white, hanging in loose clusters. They are followed by purple berries. (1)  Rich thickets and slopes in Eastern N. America – Saskatchewan to New Brunswick, south to Maryland and West Virginia.  A deciduous shrub growing to 1.8 m (6ft). It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower from Apr to June. (2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. They are used in jellies, jams, pies and preserves, and can be dried for later use. Comments on the flavour of these blackcurrants vary considerably, with one report saying they are esteemed as an article of diet, another that they have a fair flavour, another that they are watery and insipid and others that they have a distinct musky flavour and are only palatable when cooked. The fruit is up to 10mm in diameter. (3)
 Medicinal Uses: A decoction of the roots has been used to treat kidney problems and also to expel worms. It has been used by women to treat uterine problems. The root bark is anthelmintic. The poulticed root bark has been applied to swellings. (4)
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#72 (b)
Common Name: Golden Currant (Ribes aureum )
Appearance and Habitat: Golden currant is a 3-6 ft., deciduous shrub with light-green, three-lobed leaves and spicy-scented racemes of yellow flowers, turning orange with age, on long, wand-like stems. Berries are either yellow, red or black when ripe. A  native of the West, Golden Currant has been planted eastward in the United States and has escaped from cultivation and naturalized in many places. (1) By streams, in ravines and on mountain slopes.  Rocky mountain slopes and sandy bluffs in western N. America.  It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. (2)
Edible Uses:  Fruit – raw or cooked. They make an acceptable dessert fruit and are also used in jellies, sauces and pies. The fruit can also be dried for winter use. Fairly large and flavourful. The fruit is about 5mm in diameter. Flowers – raw. A very sweet flavour. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The dried and pulverized inner bark has been sprinkled on sores. A decoction of the inner bark has been used in the treatment of leg swellings. (4) The Shoshones grind the second bark and use it for a poultice.  When the skin turns  yellow it is strong enough.  (5)
Foot Notes: (5 as well as all Native American Names ) Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Murphey, pages 22, 43 ,   Publisher: Meyerbooks Copy right 1990; ISBN 0-916638-15-4
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#72(c)
Common Name: Wax Currant, White Squaw Currant (Ribes cereum )
Appearance and Habitat: White squaw currant is a compact, mounded, unarmed shrub, 3-5 ft. tall and equally as wide, with cherry-like bark and tidy, light-green foliage turning yellow in fall. Clusters of light-pink, bell-shaped flowers give way to bright-red, fuzzy, feather duster-like currants. This plant is sometimes grown as an ornamental, and its bright red berries can be used in pies and preserves. (1) Canyons, dry ravines, hillsides, prairies and open woodlands in Western N. America.  A deciduous shrub growing to 1.8 m (6ft).  It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in September.  (2)
Edible Uses:  Fruit – raw or cooked. Not very nice, large quantities can cause nausea. Reports on the quality of the fruit range from insipid and rubbery to highly esteemed as an article of diet. The fruit can also be used to make pemmican, jellies, jams, sauces and pies. Fruits can also be dried for later use. Young leaves. No more details are given. Flowers – raw. A sweet flavour. (3) Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the inner bark has been used as a wash for sore eyes. The fruit has been eaten in quantity as an emetic. It has also been used to treat diarrhoea. (4)

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#72(d)
Common Name: Dogberry, Eastern Prickly Gooseberry (Ribes cynosbati )
Appearance and Habitat: The spreading branches of this erect, 2-5 ft. shrub  may be prickly or smooth; both occuring on the same plant. The purplish berry  is always bristly. The palmately lobed leaves and their petioles are hairy. Small whitish flowers occur in small clusters. Bloom color: white, yellow, green, and brown. Found in moist rich open woods.  (1) Open loamy or rocky woods in Eastern N. America – New Brunswick to North Carolina, west to Maniftoba, Alabama, and Missouri.  A deciduous shrub growing to 1.5 m (5ft).
It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April. (2)

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A pleasant sub-acid flavour, good for quenching thirst, they also make excellent pies, jellies and preserves. A gooseberry. The fruit can also be dried for later use. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter and is covered with short weak bristles. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The root or the root bark has been used in the treatment of uterine problems caused by having too many children. An infusion of the root has been used as a wash for sore eyes. (4)
Foot Notes: (1) http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=RICY

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#72 (e)
Common Name: Northern Black Currant, Hudson Bay Currant ( Ribes hudsonianum)
Appearance and Habitat: Swampy woods and rocky slopes in Northern N. America, south to British Columbia and Minnesota.  A deciduous shrub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August.

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Mainly used in jams, jellies etc. The fruit is about 5 – 10mm in diameter.
Medicinal Uses: A decoction of the stem sections, used alone or with wild gooseberry stems (Ribes spp) has been used to treat sickness after childbirth. The raw fruits have been eaten as a treatment for colds. A decoction of leaves and fruits has been used to treat sickness in general. A decoction of the stems and leaves has been used in the treatment of colds, sore throats and stomach complaints. A decoction of the roots has been taken as a general panacea to treat all types of sickness and also tuberculosis. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ribes+hudsonianum
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#72(f)
Common Name: Missouri Gooseberry (Ribes missouriense)
Appearance and Habitat: A small, upright shrub, , 4-6 ft. tall with exfoliating, red-brown bark and many stout spines and bristles. Round lobed leaves change from yellow-orange to red then purple in the fall. Flower is a greenish-white, trumpet-shaped, occurs in groups, and is followed by a small purplish black berry.  Bloom color is white or green. (1)  Dry to moist open woods, thickets, and fence rows in Central N. America – Illinios to Minnesota, South Dakota, Kansas, and Tennessee.  A deciduous shrub  growing to 2 m (6ft 7in). It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower in June. (2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A rich sub-acid vinous flavour that is very agreeable, the fruit is somewhat too acid to be eaten raw for most tastes but when fully ripe makes delicious tarts. The fruit can be dried for later use. A gooseberry, but with a smooth skin, it is about 10mm in diameter, though some forms can be up to 14mm in diameter. (3)
Medicinal Uses:  None (4)
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#72(g)
Common Name: Gooseberry Currant ( Ribes montigenum )
Appearance and Habitat: By streams, in wet forests, ravines etc. in the sub-alpine zone of Western North America.  A deciduous shrub growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter.
Medicinal Uses: None
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#72(h)
Common Name: Canadian Gooseberry, American Mountain Gooseberry (Ribes oxyacanthoides)
Appearance and Habitat: Bloom color yellow, green, brown on forest edge, rocky bluffs, and lakeshores. (1) Moist thickets, riverbanks, prairies and canyons in N. America – Alaska to Newfoundland, British Columbia, Michigan, North Dakota, and Montana.  A deciduous shrub growing to 1.5 m (5ft). It is hardy to zone 2. (2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A gooseberry with a sweet and pleasant flavour. It is used in jams and pies[3, 46, 55, 101]. The fruit can also be dried for later use. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter. Leaves – raw (3)
Medicinal Uses: A decoction of the stems, combined with the stems of wild blackcurrants (Ribes spp), has been used to treat sickness after childbirth

(4)
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#72(i)
Common Name: Red Currant ( Ribes triste )
Appearance and Habitat: Bloom color: red, green, purple, brown, found in woodlands riparian swamps, marshes, and bogs. (1) Bogs cool wet woods in N. Europe to Northern N. America – Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Michigan, and Oregon.  A deciduous shrub growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 2. (2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A rather tart flavour, it is usually cooked in pies, preserves etc. The fruit can also be dried for later use. The fruit is similar to the garden red currant and contains rather a lot of seeds. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter. (3)
Medicinal Uses: A decoction of the stems, without the bark, has been used as a wash for sore eyes. A decoction of the root and stem has been used in the treatment of gravel. A compound decoction of the stems has been used as an emmenagogue. (4)
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#72(j)
Common Name: Sticky Currant ( Ribes Viscosissimum )
Appearance and Habitat: Bloom color is white or pink. (1)  Shaded woods and rocky places in coastal mountains, 1500 to 3000 meters.  Western N. America- British Columbia to California.  A deciduous shrub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in).
It is hardy to zone 7. (2)

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. Highly esteemed. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter (3)
Medicinal Uses: None (4)

Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.