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Before consuming wild plants, contact your doctor to make sure it is safe, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Michael Moore’s books contain an excellent glossary of medical terms, as well as maps. )
# 47
Common Name: Coneflower, Black-eyed Susan, Lance-leaf Coneflower, Golden Glow, Dormil’on
Latin Name: Rudbeckia laciniata, R. hirta
Family: Compositae
(Seed companies sell the seed. )
(First is Plants For A Future, and Wild Flower Org.)
47 (a)
Common Name: Cone Flower, Cut Leaf Coneflower, Green Headed Coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata)
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RULA3 all states except Oregon, California, Nevada, Alaska, Hawaii
Appearance and Habitat: A sunflower-like perennial,  green-head coneflower’s branched, leafy stalk grows 3-12 ft. tall. The stemmed flowers are at the  apex of the stalk. Each flowers is 3-4 in. across, with cone-shaped, greenish-yellow centers and back-tilted golden rays. The center cones elongate and become brownish as the seeds ripen. Attractive leaves are pinnately dissected and emerge early in spring.  (1)  Stream banks and moist places in rich low ground.  North America – Quebec to Manitoba Colorado to Florida.   A PERENNIAL growing to 2.4 m (7ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The plant can tolerate strong winds, but not maritime exposure. (2)
Warnings: This plant is reputed to be poisonous to cattle, sheep and pigs. (3)
Edible Uses: Edible young stems. Cooked and eaten in the spring for ‘good health’. The young stems can be eaten like celery. The stems can also be dried for later use. (4)
Medicinal Uses: A tea made from the root (mixed with Caulophyllum thalictroides) is used in the treatment of indigestion. A poultice of the flowers (mixed with Agastache anisatum and Solidago sp.) is applied to burns. (5)
Foot Notes: (2, 3, 4, 5)
47 (b)
Common Name: Black Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RUHI2 all states except Arizona, Nevada, and Hawaii
Appearance and Habitat: This cheerful, widespread wildflower is considered an annual  to a short-lived perennial  across its range. Bright-yellow, 2-3 in. wide, daisy-like flowers with dark centers are its claim-to-fame. They occur singly atop 1-2 ft. stems. The stems and scattered,  oval leaves are covered with bristly  hairs. Coarse, rough-stemmed plant with daisy-like flower heads made up of showy golden-yellow ray flowers, with disk flowers forming a brown central cone. This native prairie biennial  forms a rosette of leaves the first year, followed by flowers the second year. It is covered with hairs that give it a slightly rough texture. The Green-headed Coneflower (R. laciniata) has yellow ray  flowers pointing downward, a greenish-yellow disk, and irregularly divided leaves. (1)   N. America, in disturbed soils in Texas.   A BIENNIAL/PERENNIAL growing to 2 m (6ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in).  It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.  The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. (2)
Warnings : (Same as above) (3)
Edible Uses: None Known (4)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of colds, dropsy and worms in children. A warm infusion of the root has been used as a wash on sores and snake bites. The ooze from the roots has been used as drops to treat earaches. (5) 
(Now for Michael Moore, this is an interesting plant as its medical use is similar to Echinacea, which is becoming rare in the wild.  Michael Moore covers both species. )
Appearance and Habitat: R. lacinata  is tall, 2 – 4 foot perennial that grows in rich soils in the mountains of Arizona, Wyoming, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado and grows north into Canada.  In the west it grows from 5,000 to 8,500 feet along streams and in wet places.  The leaves are cutleaf and palmate when basal, gradually becoming simpler towards the large yellow flowers.   In some areas the flowers are flecked with brown.  R. hirta is found in California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas and in other areas where it has gone wild.  R. hirta is 1- 3 feet tall and is densely hairy.  The leaves sometimes are freckled with purple spots.   The lower leaves are 2 to 4 inches long, oblong, becoming smaller and lanceolate towards the flowers.  The flowers are yellow with a dark brown cone.
Medical Uses: Collect the roots of R. laciniata and dry after splitting in cheese cloth pocket, hung in the shade.   For R. hirta collect the herb and dry in a paper sack.  Both plants are a simple diuretic with feeble cardiac stimulation.  The tincture has been used with great success as a substitute of Echinacea angustifolia.  Lance-leaf Coneflower stimulates secretions, respiration, skin, and kidneys.  Unlike Echinacea it helps to excrete the waste products it creates.  Both the tea and tincture can be relied upon to stimulate the urine by a volume of water but not the solids.  For the tincture use 1 part root to 2 parts alcohol at a rate of 30-40 drops up to 4 times a day of R. laciniata.  For the tea, use R. hirta, from the above ground plant and strain it through cloth to remove the hairs.  For a dosage of the tea, use a teaspoon of the dried plant and take 1 to 2 teaspoons of the tea up to 3 times a day.  Lance-leaf Coneflower should not be taken when pregnant and probably Black-Eyed Susan as well.
Medicinal Plants Of the Mountain West  by Michael Moore, 1st Edition, pages 60-62 , publisher:  Museum of New Mexico Press ; copy right 1979 
# 48
Common Name: Papoose Root, Blue Cohosh
Latin Name: Caulophyllum thalictroides,
Family: Berberidaceae
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CATH2 Plain states to the East Coast, south to Georgia
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CAGI6  East Coast, north and south of the Ohio River
Appearance and Habitat: Rich moist soils in swamps, by streams, and in the woods.  Eastern N. America – New Brunswick to South Carolina, Arkansas, North Dakota and Manitoba. A perennial growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in September. (1) Spreading and bushy when mature, blue cohosh is a large, many-stemmed perennial, 1-3 ft. tall. Thrice-compound leaves with lobed leaflets are purplish in spring. Inconspicuous, purplish-brown to yellow-green flowers in a loosely branched cluster. Clusters of flowers are followed by conspicuous, bright-blue berries. The six stamens and central pistil of this early spring flower mature at different times, assuring cross-pollination. The petals bear fleshy nectar glands that are visited by early solitary bees. The ovary is eventually ruptured by the developing seeds within it; the seeds are thus exposed, an unusual condition among flowering plants. (2)
Warnings: The berries, roots and leaves of this plant may cause skin irritation if touched, and the raw berries may be poisonous to children if ingested. POISONOUS PARTS: Raw seeds, roots. Low toxicity if ingested. Symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea. Toxic Principle: Alkaloid and saponins. (3)  This plant should not be used during pregnancy prior to commencement of labour (4)
Edible Uses: The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. The seeds are about the size of large peas, but are not produced in abundance (5)
Medicinal Uses: Papoose root is a traditional herb of many North American Indian tribes and was used extensively by them to facilitate child birth. Modern herbalists still consider it to be a woman’s herb and it is commonly used to treat various gynaecological conditions. An acrid, bitter, warming herb, it stimulates the uterus, reduces inflammation, expels intestinal worms and has diuretic effects. The root is anthelmintic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, oxytocic and sedative. An infusion of the root in warm water is taken for about 2 weeks before the expected birth date in order to ease the birth. This infusion can also be used as an emmenagogue and a uterine stimulant. Papoose root should therefore be used with some caution by women who are in an earlier stage of pregnancy since it can induce a miscarriage or early delivery. The plant is also taken internally in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease, rheumatism and gout. It should not be prescribed for people with hypertension and heart diseases. The powdered root can have an irritant action on the mucous membranes, therefore any use of this plant is best under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The roots are normally harvested in the autumn, because they are at their richest at this time, and are dried for later use. The root is harvested in early spring as new growth is beginning and is used to make a homeopathic remedy. It is used especially in childbirth and in some forms of rheumatism (6)
Foot Notes: (2, 3)
# 49
Common Name: Golden Rod, Wreath Golden Rod,
Latin Name: Solidago nemoralis, S. canadensis,  S. missouriensis, S. odora, S. spectabilis
Family: Asteraceae


Common Name: Grey Goldenrod, Old Field Goldenrod  ( Solidago nemoralis)
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SONE British Columbia, Rocky Mountain States to the East Coast
Photos: http://www.google.com/search?q=photos+of+Solidago+nemoralis&hl=en&safe=off&sa=G&biw=1014&bih=588&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&ei=2EoGTsSRBoWcsQO30LjUDQ&ved=0CBkQsAQ
Appearance and Habitat: Dry open places in foothills valleus and plains in Western N. America – western Montana to central Idaho south to Colorado and Arizona.  A perennial  growing to 0.3 m (1ft). (1)  Slender-stemmed plant, 1 1/2 to 2 ft. tall. Thin, coarsly-toothed leaves. Flowers occur on the upper side of hairy stalks which arch out and downward creating a vase-shaped flower cluster. Clumps of slender, gray-downy stems produce terminal, one-sided, yellow plumes that gives the perennial a vase-shaped appearance. A small goldenrod, this plant seldom reaches 2 ft. in height.  Individual plants bloom at various times, thus extending the flowering season. (2)
Warnings: None(3)
Edible Uses: Seed. No more details are given but the seeds are very small and fiddly to harvest. (4)

Medicinal Uses: Antiseptic. An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used (5)
Common Name: Canada Goldenrod, Canadian Goldenrod  (Solidago canadensis)
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SOCA6 Most of N. America excluding the deep south.
Appearance and Habitat: Dry to damp thickets, roadsides, slopes and clearings, avoiding acid soils.  Found in N. America from Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Virginia. (wrong on areas found in)   It is a perennial growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 1 m.  (3ft 3in).  It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Aug to October, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. (1) Tall, leafy, finely hairy stem has tiny yellow flower heads on arching branches in a long or flat-topped cluster at top. Missouri Goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis) is similar but usually smaller, with smooth stems.  Blooms from Sept. to October and is 3 – 6 feet tall. (2)
Warnngs: None (3)
Edible Uses: Young leaves and flowering stems – cooked. Seed. Used as a thickener in soups. The seed is very small and is only used as a survival food when all else fails. A tea can be made from the flowers and/or the leaves. (4)
Medicinal Uses: Haemostatic, styptic. The root is applied as a poultice to burns. An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used as an antiseptic. The blossoms are analgesic, astringent and febrifuge. They have been chewed and the juice slowly swallowed to treat sore throats. A tea made from the flowers is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, body pains, fevers and snakebites. The plant contains quercitin, a compound that is reportedly useful in the treatment of haemorrhagic nephritis. This plant is said to have similar medicinal properties to S. virgaurea. These are:- Goldenrod is a safe and gentle remedy for a number of disorders. In particular, it is a valuable astringent remedy treating wounds and bleeding, whilst it is particularly useful in the treatment of urinary tract disorders, being used both for serious ailments such as nephritis and for more common problems such as cystitis. The plant contains saponins that are antifungal and act specifically against the Candida fungus which is the cause of vaginal and oral thrush. It also contains rutin which is used to treat capillary fragility, and phenolic glycosides which are anti-inflammatory. The leaves and flowering tops are anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aromatic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, mildly diuretic, febrifuge and stimulant. A good vulnerary herb, it has also proved of value when used internally in the treatment of urinary infections, chronic catarrh, skin diseases, influenza, whooping cough, bladder and kidney stones etc. Due to its mild action, goldenrod is used to treat gastro-enteritis in children. It makes an excellent mouthwash in the treatment of thrush. The plant is gathered in the summer and dried for later use. The seed is anticoagulant, astringent and carminative. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant. It is used in the treatment of kidney and bladder disorders, rheumatism and arthritis. (5)
Common Name: Prairie Goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis)
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SOMI2 All states west of the Mississippi River, excluding California and Louisiana; east of the Mississippi River, found in Wisconsin, Michigan, Illionios, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Maryland, New Jersey, Indiana.
Appearance and Habitat: Smooth, reddish stems, 1-2 ft. tall, occur singly or in clusters. Small, yellow flowers are arranged along the upper side of branches, usually forming a plume-shaped, nodding inflorescence. The earliest of the goldenrods to bloom. This is a low-growing goldenrod that usually forms loose colonies in dry soils. (1) Dry prairies, gravels and rocky slopes, in Western N. America.  A perennial  growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in).  It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. (2)
Warnings: None (3)
Edible Uses: Young leaves – raw or cooked. They can be added to salads or used as a potherb. A very good tea is made from the dried leaves and dried fully expanded flowers. (4)
Medicinal Uses: Antiseptic. An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used. (5)
Common Name: Anisescented Goldenrod (Solidago odora )
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SOOD west of the Mississippi River found in Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas; east of the Mississippi River and south of the Ohio River,  found in all states, plus Ohio, all New England states with the exception of Maine.
Appearance and Habitat: A smooth, tall, anise-scented plant bearing crowded, cylindrical clusters of yellow flower heads along one side of slightly arching branchesAnise-scented goldenrod is a 2-5 ft. perennial with a neat form and rich, anise scent. The yellow inforescence  is usually one-sided, with the base wider than the tip. The crushed leaves of Sweet Goldenrod give off an anise scent that readily identifies this widespread species. A tea can be brewed from its leaves and dried flowers. (1)  Dry sterile soil or thin woodlands.  Woods and roadsides in Texas.  Eastern N. America – New Hampshire to Florida, west to Texas and Oklahoma.  It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jul to August. (2)
Warnings: None (3)
Edible Uses: Leaves – cooked. Seed. No more details are given but the seed is very small and fiddly to harvest. An aromatic, anise-flavoured tea is made from the dried leaves and dried fully expanded flowers. The blossoms are used as a flavouring. (4)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the dried powdered herb is antiseptic. The leaves make a very pleasant-tasting tea that is mildly astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge and stimulant. It is useful in the treatment of coughs and colds, dysentery and ulceration of the intestines. The essential oil has been used as a diuretic for infants, as a local application for headaches and for the treatment of flatulence and vomiting. The flowers are aperient, astringent and tonic. An infusion is beneficial in the treatment of gravel, urinary obstruction and simple dropsy. The root can be chewed as a treatment for sore mouths. (5)
Common Name: Nevada Goldenrod (Solidago spectabilis)
Range:http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SOSP3 Great Basin states of Idaho, Oregon, Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona.
Appearance and Habitat: Alkaline meadows or bogs to 2200 meters in Southwestern N. America.  A perennial growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Jul to August.
Warnings: None
Edible Uses: Seed. No more details are given.
Medicinal Uses: The leaves and flowering stems are antiseptic. An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solidago+spectabilis
# 50
Common Name: Blue Giant Hyssop, Nettleleaf Giant Hyssop, Bill Williams Moutain Giant Hyssop
Latin Name: Agastache foeniculum, A. urticifolia, A. neomexicana
Family: Lamiaceae (Mint family)
50 (a)
Common Name: Blue Giant Hyssop, Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) 
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=AGFO Washington State north into Canada, south to Colorado, Kentucky and north into New England
Appearance and Habitat: Dry thickets, fields, and waste ground on prairies and plains.  Western N. America – Ontario to Washington, south to Colorado.  A perennial growing to 0.9 m (3ft) by 0.4 m (1ft 4in).  It is hardy to zone 8 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in August. (1) A 2-4 ft. perennial with dense, terminal spikes of small, tubular, bright blue flowers. Leaves are opposite, oval, toothed and whitish beneath give off the scent of anise when bruised. The sturdy, erect blue giant-hyssop is of the most ornamental native mints. (2)
Warnings: None (3)  
Edible Uses: Leaves and flowers – raw or cooked. They are used as a flavouring in raw or cooked dishes. Excellent raw, they have a sweet aniseed flavour and are one of our favourite flavourings in salad. They make a delicious addition to the salad bowl and can also be used to flavour cooked foods, especially acid fruits.The only drawback to the leaves is that they tend to have a drying effect in the mouth and so cannot be eaten in quantity. A pleasant tasting tea is made from the leaves (4)
Medicinal Uses: The leaves are cardiac and diaphoretic. An infusion of the leaves is used in the treatment of colds, fevers, weak heart etc. When left to go cold, the infusion is used to treat pains in the chest (such as when the lungs are sore from too much coughing). A poultice of leaves and stems can be used to treat burns (5)
50 (b)
Common Name: Giant Hyssop,  Nettleleaf Giant Hyssop (Agastache urticifolia)
Range: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=AGURU north western America. south to Nevada, California, Utah, and Colorado
Appearance and Habitat: Numerous leafy, 4-sided stems with opposite  leaves and, near top, pale pink to lavender, bilaterally symmetrical flowers in dense circles crowded into tight spikes. (1) Moist soils of open hillsides, canyons and mountain valleys, from the foothills to about 2,500 meters.  Western N. America – Montana to British Columbia, south to California and Colorado.  A perennial growing  to 1.2 m (4ft). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower in August, and the seeds ripen in September. (2)
Warnings: None (3)
Edible Uses: Leaves. No further details are given, but they are most likely to be used as an aromatic flavouring in salads and cooked foods. Seed – raw or cooked. The seed is very small and fiddly to use. The dried flowers and leaves are used to make a herbal tea (4)
Medicinal Uses: The leaves are analgesic and antirheumatic. A decoction is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, measles, stomach pains and colds. Externally, a poultice of the mashed leaves is applied to swellings. (5)
50 (c)
Common Name: New Mexico Giant Hyssop, Bill Williams Moutain Giant Hyssop (Agastache neomexicana )
Appearance and Habitat: South-western N. America. A perennial  growing to 1.2 m (4ft). It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower in August, and the seeds ripen in September.
Warnings: None
Edible Uses: The highly aromatic young leaves are used as a flavouring in cooked dishes. The young leaves are used to make a herbal tea.
Medicinal Uses: The dried and pulverized root has been used as a dusting powder for sores and cankers. The plant has been used in the treatment of fevers and bad coughs. 
All Notes: http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Agastache+neomexicana 
Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.