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Before consuming wild plants, contact your doctor to make sure it is safe, and make positive identification in the field using a good source such as Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West also contains a glossary of medical terms, maps, and drawings as do all of Michael Moore’s books.)

#37

Common Name: Wild Rose
Latin Name: Rosa  ssp.
Family: Rosaceae (a very large family)
Native American Names: Tsiavi (Shoshone and Pauite), Pat sur malle (Washoe), Yano (Arapaho), Ska-pash-wee (Warm Springs, Ore. area, it means “Mean old lady she sticks you”
Range: All states have wild rose.
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROAC Rocky Mountain states + Alaska, most of Canada, N. and S. Dakota,  Kansas, Minnisota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, W. Virginia, Michigan, New York and into New England. (R. acicularis)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROAR3 Rocky Mountain states, Plains States to the Mississippi River (excluding Louisiana) States north of the Ohio River, plus New York and Massachusetts. (R. arkansana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROBL upper Plains states south to Missouri and Kansas, States north of the Ohio River, all of New England as far south as Viriginia, plus Mississippi (R. Blanda)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROCA3 far western states + Idaho and Utah, States west and north of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, Virginia and N. Carolina west to Arkansas, Missouri, and Kansas, most of New England + Alabama (R. canina)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROCA4 all states east of the Mississippi River and bordering the River + Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas (R. carolina)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROEG all states except Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, N and S Dakota, Louisana, Florida, Alaska, Hawaii ( R. eglanteria)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROLA southern states from Virginia to Texas + Hawaii (R. laevigata)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROMI Washington and Oregon, Texas, MIssouri, all states north of the Ohio (excluding Michigan) most of New England, Virginia to Kentucky (excluding W. Virginia) – S. Carolina to Tennessee (R. micrantha)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROMU western coast states, everything east of New Mexico, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnisota (R. multiflora)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RONU all states west of the Rocky Mountains (excluding Arizona) (R. nutkana
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROPI2 Pacific coast + Idaho (R. pisocarpa)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROVI2 all of New England as far south as N. Carolina + Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama (R. virginiana)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROWO all states west of the Mississippi (excluding Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, + Wisconsin, all of Canada including Alaska. (R. woodsii)
(Please look for photos of species that grow in your area, do a search on google of both the first and last latin name)
37(a)
Common Name: Prickly Rose (Rosa acicularis)
Appearance and Habitat: Thickets and rocky often acid slopes in Northern N. America.  It is hardy to zone 2.  It is in flower from May to June. (1) A deciduous shrub up to 4 ft. tall with densely prickly stems & pink, 5-petaled flowers. Foliage is pinnately compound and somewhat pubescent. Flowers, usually solitary but sometimes in small clusters, are followed by smooth rosehips. (2)
Warnings: There is a layer of hairs around the seeds just beneath the flesh of the fruit.  These hairs can cause irritation to the mouth and disgestive tract if ingested.  (3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. It can also be used in syrups and purees or be dried and used in teas and soups. The fruit contains about 2 – 3% (dry weight) vitamin C, and up to as much as 7% in some varieties. The ripe fruit has a rich sweet flavour, the taste is best after the fruit has been frosted. The fruit is about 25mm in diameter, but there is only a thin layer of flesh surrounding the many seeds. Some care has to be taken when eating this fruit, see the notes above on known hazards. A tea is made from the leaves, it is rich in vitamin C. Young shoots – peeled and eaten in spring. Petals – raw. Remove the bitter white base. The seed is a good source of vitamin E, it can be ground and mixed with powder or added to other foods as a supplement. Be sure to remove the seed hairs. (4)
Medicinal Uses: The plant is rich in tannins and is used as an astringent. A decoction of the root is used as a cough remedy. An infusion of the roots is used as a wash for sore eyes. An infusion of the leaves and bark has been used as eye drops in the treatment of snow blindness. A decoction of the stems and branches has been used as a blood tonic and as a treatment for stomach complaints, colds and fevers. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been used to alleviate the pain of bee stings. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. (5)
Foot Notes: (1, 3, 4, 5)
Foot Notes: (2)
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37(b)
Common Name : Prairie Rose (Rosa arkansana)
Appearance and Habitat: Dry thickets, rocky slopes, sands etc. in Eastern and Central N. America.  A deciduous shrub.  It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower from Jun to July. (1) Small clusters of white to deep pink flowers on densely prickly stems of new growth or on short, lateral branches of older stems.  The flower buds of this species are a deeper pink than the open flowers. The colorful fruit remains on the plant into the fall and winter. (2)  
Warnings: (Same as above) (3)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A famine food, it is only used when all else fails. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter, but there is only a thin layer of flesh surrounding the many seeds. Some care has to be taken when eating this fruit, see the notes above on known hazards. The seed is a good source of vitamin E, it can be ground and mixed with flour or added to other foods as a supplement. (4)
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the fruit has been used as a wash for inflamed eyes. A poultice of the charred, crushed hypertrophied stem growths has been used as a treatment for burns. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. (5)
Foot Notes: (1, 3, 4, 5)
Foot Notes: (2)
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# 37(c)
Common Name: Labrador Rose (Rosa blanda)
Appearance and Habitat: Dry to moist, calcareous to neutral rocky slopes, shores etc. in Eastern and Central N. America – New Foundlad to Vermont, New Jersey, and Missouri.  A deciduous shrub growing to 2 m (6ft 7in).  It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower from May to June.
Warnings: (Same as above, I’ll leave this part off  in the future but show you later how to get rid of the hairs.  It is common to all wild roses. )
Edible Parts: Fruit – raw or cooked. It is used in making jams and can also be dried to make a tea. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter, but there is only a thin layer of flesh surrounding the many seeds. Some care has to be taken when eating this fruit, see the notes above on known hazards. Flowers – raw or cooked. They can be processed into rose water, or used in cakes, sweets, desserts etc. The seed is a good source of vitamin E, it can be ground and mixed with flour or added to other foods as a supplement.
Medicinal Uses: A decoction of the fruit has been used in the treatment of itching piles and any other itches. The skin of the fruit has been used in the treatment of stomach problems and indigestion. The dried powdered flowers have been used in the treatment of heartburn. An infusion of the root has been used as a wash for inflamed eyes. The infusion has also been used as an analgesic to treat headaches and lumbago. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.
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# 37(d)
Common Name: Dog Rose (Rosa canina)
Appearance and Habitat: Hedges, scrub, woods, roadsides banks etc. in Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to N. Africa and southwestern Asia.  A deciduous shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Oct to December. (But we know it grows here as well according to usda.)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. It can be used in making delicious jams, syrups etc. The syrup is used as a nutritional supplement, especially for babies. The fruit can also be dried and used as a tea. Frost softens and sweetens the flesh. The fruit is up to 30mm in diameter, but there is only a thin layer of flesh surrounding the many seeds. Some care has to be taken when eating this fruit, see the notes above on known hazards. The seed is a good source of vitamin E, it can be ground and mixed with flour or added to other foods as a supplement. Be sure to remove the seed hairs. The dried leaves are used as a tea substitute. A coffee substitute according to another report. Petals – raw or cooked. The base of the petal may be bitter so is best removed. Eaten as a vegetable in China. The petals are also used to make an unusual scented jam
Medicinal Uses: The petals, hips and galls are astringent, carminative, diuretic, laxative, ophthalmic and tonic. The hips are taken internally in the treatment of colds, influenza, minor infectious diseases, scurvy, diarrhoea and gastritis. A syrup made from the hips is used as a pleasant flavouring in medicines and is added to cough mixtures. A distilled water made from the plant is slightly astringent and is used as a lotion for delicate skins. The seeds have been used as a vermifuge. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies – the keywords for prescribing it are ‘Resignation’ and ‘Apathy’. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.
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(By now you should be catching on of the importance of the Wild Rose, especially in a survival situation, so I’ll skip over several, but give you links)
Common Name: Pasture Rose (Rosa carolina)
 
Common Name: Sweet Briar (Rosa eglanteria)
 
Common Name: Cherokee Rose (Rosa laevigata)
 
Common Name: ? (Rosa micrantha)
 
Common Name: Japanese Rose (Rosa mulitflora)
 
(Now for some in the west)
Common Name: Nootka Rose
Appearance and Habitat: Woods and open places at moderate elevations in North western N. America.  A deciuous shrub growing to  2.7 m (8ft 10in).  It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The taste is best after a frost. Juicy, pleasantly acid and a good source of vitamin C. The fruit can be dried, powdered and added to tea as a flavouring or used in its own right as a fruity-flavoured tea. The fruit is about 20mm in diameter, but there is only a thin layer of flesh surrounding the many seeds. Some care has to be taken when eating this fruit, see the notes above on known hazards. Petals – raw. The petals are pleasantly aromatic, but you need to remove the bitter white base. Young shoots – raw or cooked. Peeled and eaten in spring when they are still tender. The seed is a good source of vitamin E, it can be ground and mixed with flour or added to other foods as a supplement. Be sure to remove the seed hairs. The peeled stems are used to make a beverage. The leaves are used to make a tea.
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the roots and sprouts has been used as an eyewash for sore eyes. A decoction of the roots has been used by women after giving birth and also in the treatment of sore throats. A decoction of the bark has been taken to ease the labour pains of childbirth. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been used to alleviate the pain of bee stings. A decoction of the branches, combined with chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) and red willow (Salix bonplandiana), has been used in the treatment of various women’s complaints, diarrhoea and vomiting. The leaves have been placed in shoes as a protection from athletes foot. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.
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Common Name: Cluster Rose (Rosa pisocarpa)
 
Common Name: Virgina Rose (Rosa viginiana)
Common Name: Western Wild Rose (Rosa woodsii)
Appearance and Habitat: Moist soils of draws, hillsides, along streams, and in open valleys.  It often forms thickets in open positions.  Central and Western N. America – Minnesota to Missouri, Northwestern Territory, New Mexico and Colorado.  A deciduous shrub growing to 2 m (6ft 7in).  It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. (1) The Wood rose is a much-branched, deciduous shrub up to 5 ft. tall, often growing in dense thickets. Stems are red and prickled on their lower portions, though not as well-armed as other wild roses. Leaves are pinnately-compoud with five to nine leaflets. Pink, five-petaled flowers, 2 in. across, are followed by many orange-red hips. (2)
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. They are used in making jams, jellies etc. The taste and texture are best after a frost. The fruit can also be dried and used to make a pleasant tasting fruity-flavoured tea. The fruit is up to 15mm in diameter, but there is only a thin layer of flesh surrounding the many seeds. Some care has to be taken when eating this fruit, see the notes above on known hazards. Young shoots – raw. Harvested whilst still tender in the spring, they are best peeled. Petals – raw. Remove the bitter white base. The seed is a good source of vitamin E, it can be ground into a powder and mixed with flour or added to other foods as a supplement. Be sure to remove the seed hairs. The bark, young shoots, leaves and fruit have all been used to make tea-like beverages. (3)
Medicinal Uses: The seeds have been used as a poultice to produce a drawing effect for treating muscular pains. An infusion of the leaves has been used as a spring tonic. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been used to allay the pain of bee stings. The leaves have been placed in the shoes as a protection from athletes foot. The roots are blood tonic and diuretic. A decoction of the roots has been used by adults and children in the treatment of diarrhoea and intestinal influenza. A decoction of the root or inner bark has been used in the treatment of colds. An infusion of the fruits has been used in the treatment of coughs. Various parts of the plant have been used to make poultices to apply to burns, sores, cuts, swellings and wounds. A decoction of the branches, combined with chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) and red willow (Salix bonplandiana), has been used in the treatment of various women’s complaints, diarrhoea and vomiting. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. (4)
Foot Notes: (1, 3, 4,)
Foot Notes: (2)
 
Addition Information on Native American Names provided by
Indian Uses of Native Plants by Edith Murphey, pages 17, 22, 38, 43, Publisher: Meyerbooks Copy right 1990; ISBN 0-916638-15-4  (Native Americans used the rose hips for food, the roots for tea as a beverage as well as for medicine when a cold was coming on.  They cooked the seeds and ate them for muscular pains. )
Processing and Collecting the Fruit:I usually collect the hips in the fall after they turn red.  I collect about a plastic grocery bag full. When I get home I put them on baking sheets, no more than 2 inches deep.  I then place them in a room to dry that doesn’t get direct sun but is warm (direct sun affects vitamins).  In about a week, or when they are almost dry, I put them through a blender just to break them up.  I return them to the baking sheets.  When they are dry I put them back into the blender, but this time to grind them up. The hairs will come to the top of the blender in clumps.  Remove the hairs.   Next I put them through a tea strainer to separate the seed from the flesh of the hips.  You can probably remove more hairs in the tea strainer.  Next I put them in a plastic container with lid and gently shake them back and forth.  This removes more hair, and in fact I continue shaking them until the hair no longer clumps at the top of the plastic container.   Now it is just a matter of how you want to use the hips.  They smell sweet, and are sweet in tea or  in baked goods. I usually put them in vitamin gel caps to take internally at the first sign of a cold, their properties have already been explained.
Save the seed and put them through a grinder, as they are full of vitamin E.
Here is a good reference article http://www.naturesherbal.com/Wild_Rose.htm
I have eaten a pie with a filling made from rose hips, it was similar to pumpkin in taste and color.  I don’t have a recipe for pie, but here are some other recipes. http://www.kiowacd.org/Tips_Links/wild_rose_recipes.htm
 

  Reproduced, in part, (as well as previous postings under this title) in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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